Murphy Library University of Wisconsin-La Crosse
Skip to Main Content
           
           

Recollections, 1909-1973:
Campus School, University of Wisconsin La Crosse
/ Susan T. Hessel


Special Collections University Publications  WU76.E5 H4 1992

 
 
  Display Full-Text   About  

 

To search the text of this document use your web browser's Find feature located under the Edit menu.



The University of Wisconsin System

VICE PRESIDENT FOR GENERAL SERVICES / 1762 Van Hise Hall / Madison, Wisconsin 53706 -

Return correspondence
should be addressed to:
P. 0. Box 8010
Madison, Wisconsin 53708












Re: Environmental Impact Statement
North Campus Development
UW-La Crosse

Enclosed is the Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the above
referenced project. The EIS was prepared in compliance with the Guidelines
for State Agencies under the Wisconsin Environmental Policy Act (WEPA) and
Executive Order 26, February 1976. Additional EIS copies are available for
public inspection as indicated in the attached announcement sheet.

A Preliminary Environmental Report (PER) was circulated December 1, 1977.
The Final EIS addresses PER review and comment, and both documents intend
to provide decision-makers and the public with relevant information and
reasonable alternatives which would avoid or minimize adverse impacts or
enhance the quality of the human environment. The EIS is more than a dis-
closure document. It is to be used by state and federal officials in
conjunction with other relevant material to plan actions and make decisions.

I would appreciate your review of this report. All written comments must
be dated and signed. Comments received prior to or at the public hearing,
which is scheduled for September 11, 1978, will be considered in the
agency's decision letter.

Cordially,


Donald Gerhard
Director, Environmental Affairs

DG:sd
Enclosure


Universities: Eau Claire, Green Bay, LaCrosse, Madison, Milwaukee, Oshkosh, Parkside, Platteville, River Falls, Stevens Point, Stout, Superior, Whitewater.
University Centers: Baraboo/Sauk County, Barron County, Fond du Lac, Fox Valley, Manitowoc County, Marathon County, Marinette County,
Marshfield/Wood County, Medford, Richland, Rock County, Sheboygan County, Washington County, Waukesha County. Extension: Statewide.



AVAILABILITY OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT
FOR
NORTH CAMPUS DEVELOPMENT
AT THE
UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN-LA CROSSE, LA CROSSE, WISCONSIN

The University of Wisconsin-La Crosse herewith publicly announces its inten-
tion to develop an Outdoor Physical Education and Environmental Interpretive
Facility on approximately twenty-nine acres of university-owned land. The
site is north of the main campus within the City of La Crosse. It is in the
La Crosse River marsh area but physically separated from the overall marsh
by the roadways of Lang Drive and Gorder Road.

The University of Wisconsin-La Crosse has prepared an Environmental Impact
Statement on the proposed project. This report represents and summarizes
the environmental information currently available to the University. It in-
cludes the comments received from other state agencies, local government,
and private individuals. Excerpts from public hearing testimony will be
considered in the written decision.

Availability

Copies of the Environmental Impact Statement are available for public review
at Murphy Library, University of Wisconsin-La Crosse, and at the La Crosse
Public Library, 8th and Main Streets.

In addition, copies have been sent to:

1. La Crosse County Board, County Courthouse
2. La Crosse County Highway Commissioner, County Courthouse
3. Mayor's Office, La Crosse City Hall /
4. City Attorney, La Crosse City Hall
5. Public Works Department, La Crosse City Hall
6. Parks and Recreation Department, La Crosse City Hall
7. Planning Department, La Crosse City Hall
8. City Traffic Engineer, La Crosse City Hall
9. Inspection Department, La Crosse City Hall
10. Engineering Department, La Crosse City Hall
11. Chairperson, University Affairs Committee, City of La Crosse
12. La Crosse Tribune
13. Coulee Gazette
14. State, regional, and federal agencies assumed to have an interest in
the project.

Review Procedure

Written comments on the Environmental Impact Statement should be addressed
to Mr. Donald Gerhard, University of Wisconsin, System Administration, 1930
Monroe Street, P. O. Box 8010, Madison, Wisconsin 53708.

All written comments must be dated and signed.

Comments will also be accepted at the public hearing to be held on Monday,
September 11, 1978, at 7:30 p.m. in the Annett Recital Hall, Fine Arts Build-


ing, 16th and Vine Streets, University of Wisconsin-La Crosse, La Crosse,
Wisconsin.



EIS

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT

FOR

NORTH CAMPUS DEVELOPMENT
AT


THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN-LA CROSSE

Submitted pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969
Public Law 81 1 90
and
The Wisconsin Environmental Policy Act
Chapter 1.11(2) (c) Wis. Statutes


The University of Wisconsin - La Crosse


La Crosse, Wisconsin 54601






TABLE OF CONTENTS


PAGE NO.
PREFACEi
SUMMARY STATEMENT iii
LOCATION MAPS:
LA CROSSE COUNTY MAP
REGIONAL MAP - LA CROSSE AREA
TOPOGRAPHIC MAP

I. DESCRIPTION OF THE PROPOSED ACTION 1-70
A. General Description 1
B. General Location 3
C. Historical Perspectives 5
1. History of the City of La Crosse and of the La Crosse
River Marsh 5
2. History of the University of Wisconsin-La Crosse 17
Purpose, Mission, and Programs 17
Institutional Development 19
Academic Needs 26
Campus Plans 31
Previous Events and Actions 34
D. Description of the Existing Environment 37
1. Physical and Chemical Environment 37
Environmental Setting of the Project Site 37
Topography 38
Geology and Soil 39
Hydrology 41
Flooding 43
Water Quality 45
Noise Level 46
Air Quality 47
2. Biological Environment 48
Vascular Plant Life in the Marsh 48
Vascular Plant Life in the Project Site 50
Animals Observed in the Marsh 50
Fish Spawning 52
Birds Observed in the La Crosse River Marsh 54
Birds Observed in the Proposed Site 55
Invertebrates 56
Insects of the Marsh 57
3. Economic, Social and Cultural Environment 59
Tax Base 59
Zoning 59
Fire Conditions 59
Aesthetics 60
Historical and Archaeological Sites 61
Recreational Use 61
Academic Use 62
E. Description of the Proposal 63
1. Location and Accessibility 63
2. Aesthetic Concerns 63
3. Natural Topography 64
4. Fill Material 65
5. Topography of the Land Fill 66






PAGE NO.


6. Landscape Plans 67
7. Vegetation Preservation 67
F. Maps and Graphics 69
1. La Crosse River Watershed
2. Aerial Photo of UW-La Crosse and Adjacent Marsh
3. Aerial Photo of City and La Crosse River Marsh
4. Aerial Photo of Marsh Flooding During 1978
5. Contour Map of Project Area
6. Vegetation Map
7. Campus Master Plan/Alternate
8. Site Model
9. North Campus Proposed Development Plan
10. Elevations of Proposed Project Area
11. Cross Sections of Proposed Project Area
12. Exercise Fitness Trail
13. (a) & (b) Two Proposed Alternative "I" Field Development Areas
14. Existing Park and Recreation Facilities
15. Noise Level Chart
16. Design Noise Level/Land Use Relationship Chart
17. Vascular Plant Flora List
18. Map of Areas in Harris Study
19. List of Birds Observed in Area Two
20. List of La Crosse River Marsh Fires (1972-1977)
21. Photo: Marsh Fire April 9, 1977
22. Suggested List of Vascular Plant Species for North Campus
Development
23. Vegetation Preservation Photo and Map Location
24. List of Wildlife Species Observed in La Crosse River Marsh


II. PROBABLE IMPACT OF THE PROPOSED ACTION
ON THE ENVIRONMENT
A. Physical Impact
1. Topography
2. Drainage
3. Soil
4. Flooding
5, Water Quality
6. Noise Level
7. Air Quality
8. Aesthetics
B. Biological Impact
1. Plant Life
2. Animal Life
3. Birds
4. Insects and Invertebrates
C. Socio-Economic Impact
1. Academic Support for the University
2. Recreational Facility Available to the Community
3. Neighborhood Preservation
4. Create Jobs
5. Flood Control
6. Effect on City Well Water
7. Cost/Benefit Analysis


71-88
71
71
71
71
72
72
73
75
75
76
76
77
77
77
78
78
78
82
83
83
86
86






PAGE NO.

Ill. PROBABLE ADVERSE ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS WHICH
CANNOT BE AVOIDED 89-90
A. Loss of Lowland Wildlife Habitat 89
B. Mitigating Steps 89

IV. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LOCAL SHORT-TERM USES OF
THE ENVIRONMENT AND THE MAINTENANCE AND ENHANCE-
MENT OF LONG-TERM PRODUCTIVITY 91-92
A. Filling Marsh Land Versus Preservation of Existing Site 91

V. IRREVERSIBLE OR IRRETRIEVABLE COMMITMENT OF
RESOURCES IF THE PROPOSED ACTION IS IMPLEMENTED 93-94
A. Loss of Wildlife Habitat 93
B. Loss of Flood Water Storage 93
C. Resources Used to Develop the Project 93

VI. ALTERNATIVES TO THE PROPOSED ACTION 95-104
A. No Action 95
B. Propose Another Project (Site Restoration) 95
C. Change Land Use (Without Fill) 97
D. Use Entire Site (Lake Proposal) 97
E. Elevate 29 Acres Above 100 Year Flood (18 Acres
Undisturbed) 98
F. Between C.B. & Q. RR & S.T.H. 16 98
G. Northeast of Vlyrick Park 99
H. City Country Club Golf Course 99
I. Contiguous Neighborhood Expansion 99
J. All Remote Sites 100
K. Assessment Criteria 101


APPENDICES:

APPENDIX A - COORDINATION CORRESPONDENCE
APPENDIX B - GEOLOGY AND SOIL
APPENDIX C - FLOOD DATA
APPENDIX D - FISH AND WILDLIFE
APPENDIX E - TRANSPORTATION DATA
APPENDIX F - BACKGROUND INFORMATION ON ALTERNATE SITES
APPENDIX G - RESPONSES TO PRELIMINARY ENN'IRONMENTAL REPORT (PER)








PREFACE


The Preliminary Environmental Report (PER) was made available to the public
December 1, 1977. The major objection from the Department of Natural Re-
sources, the Department of Interior, and the Environmental Protection Agency
centered on the level of required objectivity. The Environmental Impact
Statement (EIS) provides additional documentation and addresses specific
comments as requested by these agencies and the Corps of Engineers. Addi-
tional alternatives are also presented in response to requests from the EPA
and the Corps.

The adjacent proposed Lang Drive project is presently in its final EIS de-
velopment stage pending Corps approval. A project decision on the part of
the City, the Department of Natural Resources, and the Department of Trans-
portation not to create a lake in the La Crosse River Marsh resulted in revi-
sion of earlier plans for the north campus development project. Recent
consideration of the possibility of using stockpiled dredge-spoil on the Lang
Drive project, if available to the City, and the suggested change in the
placement, number, and size of culverts under Lang Drive, will have economic
and environmental consequences requiring close cooperation between this
project and the north campus plan.

Due to the City's need to preserve housing area and the University's need
for outdoor teaching areas within close proximity of its existing facilities, the
University of Wisconsin-La Crosse has requested development of a limited
portion of its north campus property. The University understands, appre-
ciates, and shares a common interest with the public in the ultimate best use
of the area.

































































ii









SUMMARY STATEMENT


Project Action

(xx) Distribution of the Preliminary ( ) Administration Action
Environmental Report

(xx) Environmental Impact Statement ( ) Legislative Action

1. Description of the Proposed Action


The University of Wisconsin-La Crosse is proposing the development of an

outdoor physical education and environmental interpretive facility on a + 29

acre parcel of university land. The project would involve placing 150,000

cubic yards of land fill on the + 29 acre site and construction of four instruc-

tional playing fields, two baseball fields, a track and field facility, a fitness

trail, two golf greens, a parking lot, and bleachers for one of the baseball

fields. The project would be landscaped and designed to fit into the sur-

rounding natural environment so that it can be integrated as an environmental

observation area as well.


2. Description of the Proposed Environment


The site to be filled is part of a two thousand acre marsh. The site is

physically separated from the overall marsh by two roadways, Lang Drive and

Gorder Road, which connect at perpendicular angles to one another. During

some years, flood waters from the La Crosse and Mississippi Rivers flow into

the site through culverts in the roadbeds. Standing water may also be the

result of water seepage from a high water table especially during spring

months. Past conditions would indicate that the area is relatively free of


iii







standing water during the summer except for a few low areas outside of the

proposed fill area. The project site supports wildlife.


The total acreage of the La Crosse River marsh before settlement is not

known. Areas of the original marsh land which have been filled include

businesses, industries, and residential homes east of George Street between

the La Crosse River and the railroad tracks. Lang Drive, Gorder Road, the

Northern States Power substation, the University's Maintenance and Stores

facility, and waterpumping causeways are other developments in the marsh.


3. Probable Impact of the Proposed Action on the Environment


The positive impacts are: (I) the development of a facility which will support

the UW-La Crosse special mission in physical education, (2) the creation of a

recreational and educational facility from which the community can benefit, (3)

the preservation of the residential neighborhoods adjacent to the main cam-

pus, and (4) the creation of jobs as a secondary effect of implementation of

the project.


The negative impacts are: (I) the loss of + 29 acres of marsh vegetation, (2)

the loss of + 29 acres of wildlife habitat, and (3) the loss of + 29 acres for

flood water storage (150,000 cubic yards of storage capacity).


This project will not cause the displacement of any families or businesses.


iv







4. Alternatives to the Proposed Action


Ten alternatives to the proposed action were evaluated, four of which would

preserve all or a portion of the marsh vegetation and wildlife as well as

preserving the flood water storage. Three of these alternatives, however,

would not enable the University to achieve its objective of providing a needed

facility for its academic programs. The fourth approach, that of using near-

by residential neighborhoods for the project, would save the marsh land and

provide the necessary facility but at a high monetary cost and at a great

sacrifice to the people whose homes, rental apartments, and businesses would

have to be relocated. The alternative of utilizing the site for different pur-

poses would still destroy the marsh vegetation but would save the flood water

storage space. Another possibility considered is that of improving the func-

tion of the project by using more fill. This would further decrease the space

available for flood water storage.


5. Availability of Information


(1) Environmental Impact Statement Procedures

The Wisconsin Environmental Policy Act (WEPA), Section I.11, Wisconsin

Statutes, became effective on April 29, 1972. This law requires that all

state agencies prepare an environmental impact statement for every

recommendation or report on proposals for legislation and other major

actions significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, and

that a public hearing be held on those proposals other than for legisla-

tion. The University of Wisconsin, therefore, is required to prepare


v







environmental impact statements for university proposals determined to

be actions significantly affecting the quality of the human environment.


The Governor's Executive Order Number 26 established guidelines to be

used by state agencies in implementing WEPA. The guidelines require

that the agency prepare a Preliminary Environmental Report, develop an

Environmental Impact Statement, and hold a public hearing. Under these

guidelines, the Preliminary Environmental Report (PER) is circulated for

a forty-five day review period to federal, state, and local agencies with

expertise or concerns related to the project. It is also made available to

the public. Comments and questions submitted on the PER are used to

develop an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). The EIS is circulated

to the commenting agencies and to the public for a thirty-day review

period. A hearing is then held to receive the views of the public on the

environmental impact statement. Following the public hearing, the UW-

System formulates a conclusion on the proposed action and its decision is

circulated to commenting agencies and to the public.


Both the PER and the EIS are full-disclosure documents which provide a

complete description of the proposed project, of the existing environ-

ment, and an analysis of the anticipated environmental effects.


The review schedule for the proposed north campus field development,

La Crosse, Wisconsin, is as follows:


Date PER released: December I, 1977
Review Deadline on PER: January 16, 1978
Date EIS released: August 7, 1978
Review Deadline on EIS: September 8, 1978
Hearing Date:


vi








Comments should be addressed to:


Mr. Donald Gerhard
University of Wisconsin System -
System Administration
1930 Monroe Street
P. O. Box 8010
Madison, Wisconsin 53708

Phone: (608) 263-4404

(2) Copies of the draft were made available to the following agencies:

Number
Agencies of Copies

A. Federal Agencies
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Minnesota-Wisconsin District Office 3
Region V Administrator 5
U.S. Department of the Interior
Office of Land Use and Water Planning 2
Office of Environmental Project Review 20
Bureau of Outdoor Recreation I
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 3
U.S. Geological Survey I
Bureau of Indian Affairs I
Regional Director 3
National Park Service I
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, St. Paul District I
U.S. Department of Agriculture
Forest Service
Area Director I
Eastern Region I
Soil Conservation Service
Regional Technical Service Center 2
State Conservationist 4
U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare
Environmental Office Region V 2
Director of Environmental Affairs 2
U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development
Region V Administrator 3
Area Director 2
U.S. Department of Commerce
Water Resources Management Division 2
Deputy Assistant Secretary of Environmental Affairs 8
District Office
U.S. Department of Transportation
Federal Highway Administration 2
U.S. Coast Guard - Second District
Regional Federal Highway Administration 2
Federal Energy Administration
B. State Agencies
Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources 4


vii








Number
Agencies of Copies

B. State Agencies-continued
Wisconsin Department of Business Development
Wisconsin Department of Transportation 2
Wisconsin Department of Agriculture
Wisconsin State Historical Society 6
Wisconsin Department of Administration
Bureau of State Planning
Bureau of Facilities Management
Wisconsin Public Service Commission
Wisconsin Department of Local Affairs and Development
Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey
Wisconsin Scientific Areas Preservation Council
Wisconsin Natural Beauty Council
University of Wisconsin
System Administration 6
University of Wisconsin-La Crosse 12
Governor's Office I
Legislative Reference Library 2
Public Intervenor
Western Wisconsin Technical Institute
C. Regional Agencies
Mississippi River Regional Planning Commission
D. Local Agencies
La Crosse County Board
La Crosse County Highway Department
City of La Crosse Mayor's Office
City of La Crosse Public Works Department I
City of La Crosse Parks Department
City of La Crosse Public Library
City of La Crosse Planning Department I
City of La Crosse Traffic Engineer
City of La Crosse Inspection Department
City of La Crosse Engineering Department
Sales Cash Orders 25
Northern Natural Gas Company
Northern States Power Company
La Crosse Telephone Corporation I
Chicago and Northwestern Transportation Company
University Affairs Committee, c/o John Shubert, Chairperson 9
River and Bluffs Bicentennial Intracity Trail
Citizens Committee for Environmental Education
Izaak Walton League, Great River Chapter
Audubon Society of La Crosse
Sierra Club, Coulee Region Group
Coalition for Regional Environmental Educational Development


viii
















1) 6S0 0 1 /.oo00o 000 !.ooo 0500 ,000 o
/! ---' - 4 TREMPEALEAU CO.-JACKSON CO.JACKSON CO. +
4R-8-W R-87-W R-6W MONROE CO.
/ <4L | R-5-I
Town of Gale _ . Town of North Bend Town of Melrose Town of Little Falls


































Civ TowBoundory_ _____/ Town of BergenTown of HaburgTown of Coon LiFalls


































Corporofe Limits_____E: T : ED-' : *^*^** -^^ii:^:






Unincorp. Villoge____-.__:------- M ILES OF H-HWA --A CROSSE
MILESOF HGHWA ^ -^ ---- Bnerr Oak a






Hospitol_______ _______LOCA........... 565 STATEOFF E
GIT-18EON AS ARMINGT.'a CAMnPBELLBaT-18- aso











































































Ronger Stotion -:___ATOTAL FOR COUNTY...........1005 \ [ BARRE -1-E 1 | MIL E 5
Public Cmp Picnic Grds.- o---i













Sote PorkPCIVIL TOWNS )SHELBYGREENWASHING-JAN. 1976
townt FIELDTON CompiledU.S.G.S. Quadrangles
T-66







































State.. o :-- d ry
l ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~Tc ofHrfroTw fCo
Bituminos ----- ---:

SomeASKA iorSo E,




















/C iour n Beus t.
P'brHuT Ror F ...d- a--
FireGLane - - - - - -o pt BF I
Hopltan D. LOASOtare F-....to ...r.. R-7-Wo








Rigerp Staort io. .L FOB750'arw.000 .
Publro Camp0 VERNOPrcrcBr CIVIL TOWNSS.HELBY00SMEEM. JAN. 5976'.nNo

State Pogkwa r N Com--r- F.L.TO. C.le. _
BtCounty Hw rpe.et t....tr....5

MILES OF H IGHWAY

'GameFor m------------------ - 1__ LLANDFARMINGTO!




OFCOUNTY ...........................

TOTALORCONTY............ 1005BARRESCALEMILES

Slate Pork ---FIL__Di'h ON1
Witho u Campsite....FIEL Compiled from U.S.G.S. Quadrangles
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ Jspi;J


County PorkWith Faciites.- -Land Area............4 B.asedonAerial Photographs
Population................. 79.98.
COUNTYMAP
Without Facilities____I Counly Seat.........i.... LC C osseM P
With Facilities _____-
Wayside __ _he
Without Facilities _____
*Surface types onrtown roods not shown.+Grid based on Wisconsin coordinate system, soulh-central zones.LA CROSSE 32-5
A CRSE3-


Ii


1 .. 0-laaae~mas ~ ~ L PBlrBL ~ ~ _L- ~ .;_


_ _


- pbPWC-- a CLnpe--LSr C al c--r.  -r- -- -- -- .g


N


-






















MISSISSIP
REGIONAL
n~~~~A


VK v~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

LA CROSSE
COUNTY











o ~ ~~~~~~~~o


LA CROSSE

i~sg -II WIISCONSIN




IL-




~. .T~t~ ,PROJECT\









TT SBT

w LAt~9/8

~~~~~~~~~~~~~I~ ~~~~~~~~A-











T.IA








i ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~-
iCROS! EZS

'RICT uw~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~CUIIPCU


VISCONSIN


CROSSE COUNTY


CAMPUS PLANNING

UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN-LA CROSSE

LA CROSSE WISCONSIN


NORTH
NORTH


E/m.


UNIVERSITY OF
WISCONSIN* LA

DOWNTOWN
BUSINESS DIST


-m MAIN ROADS


REGIONAL MAP * LACROSSE AREA


::

u

P



i
c
cl

J
r
ii
10Lr31 AC
-"'




_is





3 JB
C
-T. I
o,, ,
I
.,
,
w
w
 a
. i
i
P-a o
::-:e

r ::

o
zas:.3:-2'
i:::::i:::i':-l:::::::
'-"':
c
:i: ':";:':':':-: :-:::::: *o
---:-:;:-::-. ...;.-


- - -= j I

II


31


I






















































































































' INI-
moma


i "^\ |B

- - f; a
-1'' AA h


\ NA~


:44:,-1. %,-,


H.. ,F ILA CRFSUP41' 1,N 7 IB. P1ANGLE:GEOL001CALSURVEY '

11:fr ij.i'jA -3.w iti...1...........

r \r-~~~~~t~~n 1,IPE .\?u't) PI~~~. 11.-.."i 11 :r7i.-
-- -7 -77'777=f`........ -i`"-'-_ -'-,. :1::-
?ib ~--:IQ- : ,,:
_ ,I 7. ,. ,
,. :j: i :f":I:.. 8 ,-,,
?;~~~~~~~~ 1 .~~~.~-1~ ,:
.MI . II...I...

, ~9: ;i; 703... 1.~i :- m5~ WAIAl.jjqj : T,#.I.. ;\ I.a .
c, dC --i ,I,-G -
I ~ ~ ~ tT., ,": ~~~~~~~~~~~~ %-.~~~pnte
i 1!C1,I :i ,:i!:rl. ,0i'.
.:11 P 111is s i s ill."..,.... ~ ,;.::-;:... , ...i_,~1.
\ ,Wi i'I: i:~ ;.. ,-..,(-
Azo ,~ ~ ~~,~~,1. - ~ ~ :1 I -1 4 - I A .~~~~~_ ~~ ~ W ,~~ k. II..-Y_--~ ~ ~ ~~~-~ ~.... --- ... 1.i -
IS~i' AmsIn ,,:.... 1i: -- ,- )
~--^-I- -I~ ., iiit:Z
: ~:..........._.i.ar, *.% ,I:ii: ~.;
\ __ _:~..~._a...._ __ _ "~_," :.:,~.~... ~~:_ ;~_ - -..I1. ~ f : ,.....I..-..
~:I...;..~l-~.~ -~~ ,~~. - - ~ ~ : -::, ~ ~ I..-._.~:::,1I -.-,i_ ,
~~.,u..;4,i ,Z,,.1.
k:C.~.1.1.IF1. -1I, r :z _.. - _-i..-, ,:u.
.II.- `-I I I.,.: eI- II 1.- 1 -
~~.X,I II 1-1 ;-3."/7ik<.,..1n .
..I I -.'1:!- ...f.-.i,
~::~;-- ~-~E_-7-I, T.,,: r i : :, ,;::ia i: h~ d % : ',
I.. -, I\ie6"]:iI. j: %..i.;II... .
.~~.. I1, .:6'~~: 4
..II.:..~tI I : ,fi~I:::W PBELL.il, 11s~ r~
". ~~~. ~ ~ 1 I.0I.I 1; 1 ii i iilll fB..!_; , VCi:I 1i1,..
I II1 i :.~.,! I L_ _.- ,..- Ix~:!-. %._ _i a,if rG-a
:~ ,,:'.. .... - ..
~)i r.i . - , o w"7 ,
:'7I Z, I.,~t.":1..
,Ii- .. -.. .l d
IN \.I /. i.: \1i_1- ,.. "'.
.~~'I - -.-;-i-.,- -- :i,ci/.
~l.. ,,I -, \.I :.-ir. Ittt:
~I-, -.... , I..1:::~::jl1--,::;:: .
I.,=.., \ -~:2 ,.. -i--iI % 16
. , ,;, , r'8 i
, I :I., '.(_.p 1
';xv., ...~ii.... .(.., i -.-.../t;;. . r_ ; I I
i..I--, r\......I...I~t
.Si'i:: ... :."..., .'~. I ?I7 %, j i
- ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ .-~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ X ; .. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~;.; . .i - ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~.~~~z
1..i ~ ~ .... ----: ::~-IiI::,.~-- :~.. ,%rCI


* aige"-; -- i------.......... i.... jI......... . \j - -. --- --j --- *-*., !' C.i --..

^Ilii,-: W - :S f -v 'is At: : ';-^35 3:


.: fi


14. "I
_s J.
m Y i


A/ iI
-~ Cy:


Si { ^{
.-:-0 **.:







.. >; * :-

v --t. *



I,.
(@ E^i .x;r
. .^/^

e f.....And,





'^ ..;'-'

,*: -e,,_P

.., '^ \;v.


'^tf.t


I.-.-I


^W


J


0. ,,-, -
dI k
-i%-1..  K....I11 'z i ,1-1 `-'-.H-',-
H 1:
-I.....zI _


V ' ,


2000 ACRE LA CROSSE RIVER MARSH I


- ~~iii i i0 0, ', ' K ^.,'>.20 A ':' ''a
itXf II s stiIXq
* * 0., fi '''v tffl^ V- -- ,,9-N-J-j-.r----l5 %' " U. rE^r00 lS S iLS- l1 v; ..t I X l, XT

^S1 I tA ' i1) F I S iIt. ' 6 i TOPOGRAPHMAP
e i v --5-^]t **wII ::W-1S.) W LI 1 A N 1) rI S HR E' F U GE I








I. DESCRIPTION OF THE PROPOSED ACTION


A. General Description


The intent of the proposed action is to develop outdoor field facilities for

the University of Wisconsin-La Crosse. Approximately 150,000 cubic

yards of fill would be placed on + 29 acres of wetlands raising the

existing contour three to four feet. The facility would provide four

physical education fields, two baseball fields, a track and field facility,

two golf greens, a nature/fitness trail, bleachers for one of the baseball

fields, and off-street parking. Landscape grading designed to blend

with the environment, turf development of the fields, and future plant-

ings of native species would provide an interpretive environmental facili-

ty which could also serve as an observation area of the surrounding

wetlands.


1






B. General Location


The proposed site is located in La Crosse County and within the city

limits of La Crosse, Wisconsin. The site is one-half mile north of the

main campus of the University of Wisconsin-La Crosse.


The project location is within the La Crosse River flood plain and Myrick

Marsh. The land on which the site is proposed is not contiguous with

the larger marsh to the north. Lang Drive (S.T.H. 35) to the west and

Gorder Road to the north connect at perpendicular angles to restrict and

dike flood waters coming into the proposed site. South of the site are

undisturbed buffer areas, a hillside, and Oak Grove Cemetery. The

proposed site's east boundary is adjacent to the University's Maintenance

and Stores facility. The north edge borders on a thirty-foot strip of

city land extending along the Gorder Road right-of-way.


The project site will be located south of and parallel to Gorder Road.

The site will connect with the University's Maintenance and Stores facili-

ty to the east and will stop short of the right-of-way of Lang Drive to

the west. Approximately eighteen acres of undisturbed marsh will be

preserved between the project site and the hillside to the south.


3







C. Historical Perspective


1. History of the City of La Crosse and of the La Crosse River Marsh


The growth and development of La Crosse from trading post to

industrial city has been expertly detailed in the Lang Drive Project

EIS recently published by the Wisconsin Department of Transporta-

tion (DOT). Those remarks are reproduced here in their entirety.

In addition, the extensive historical treatment of the La Crosse

River Marsh which appears in the DOT document is also cited here.

The City of La Crosse was settled in 1841 by Nathan
Myrick, originally from Westport, New York, who built a
cabin trading post on Barron's Island. The island was
selected because it had the much needed resource for
building: trees. The site of the present City of La
Crosse was at that time a treeless plain that extended
from the east bank of the Mississippi River to the foot of
the bluffs to the east. Easy access to the river and the
medium of transportation that it offered was necessary to
Myrick for his trading operations with the local Indians.

Within less than a year, Myrick moved his operation to
the mainland and eventually laid claim to most of the land
that is currently La Crosse's downtown business section.

The fur-trading base of early La Crosse's economy did
not last. The Indians with whom Myrick and others did
business were moved farther west as the government
bought up their lands through treaties, and the annuities
that the Indians received as compensation for their lands
introduced them to an easier way of life so that they no
longer had to hunt and trap fur bearing animals to make
a living. With government money coming in at regular
intervals, they were able to forego the rigors of survival
for the "good life"--to the demise of fur trade.

During the 1850's, the beginning of the lumber industry
occurred, accompanied by an influx of settlers. The
lumber industry was flourishing long before there was
any attempt to develop the area agriculturally. By 1953,
there were several sawmills in operation, supplied by the
pineries of the Black River, and in 1856 the Village of La
Crosse was incorporated as a city with a council and
mayor form of government.


5






For the next fifty years, La Crosse was a lumber town--
home of numerous mills and the headquarters of the
largest fleet of raft towboats on the Mississippi River.
The lumber industry became the largest single industry of
the city and for many years depended upon river trans-
portation to bring in freight and new settlers. By 1856,
the steamboat traffic averaged over two hundred boats a
month landing at La Crosse.

Road building commenced in 1845 when a wagon trail was
hewn through the woods along the bluffs from Prairie du
Chien to La Crosse. Later on, during the 1850's, La
Crosse became a gateway city--a focal point for stage-
coach routes and wagon roads. These roads followed the
coulees (steep-walled valleys or ravines) to the Black
River valley, the Fox-Wisconsin River portage, Baraboo,
and the Root River valley in Minnesota.

In 1858, the La Crosse and Milwaukee Railroad (now the
Chicago, Milwaukee, and St. Paul Railroad) entered the
city, and by 1872 had completed their tracks to St. Paul,
Minnesota. Earlier, in 1866, the Chicago, Burlington and
Quincy tracks reached Prescott through La Crosse. The
Green Bay & Western Railroad also entering the city
during this period. By 1900, four railroads (including
the Chicago Northwestern) served the city, making it the
largest railroad center between Chicago and the Twin
Cities of Minnesota, Minneapolis and St. Paul.

Many immigrants added their numbers to the growing
city, of whom the Germans and Scandinavians made up
the largest ethnic groups. Smaller groups of Poles and
Bohemians arrived later in the century. In 1900, the
percentage of foreign-born settlers was twenty-five per-
cent of a total population of 29,000.

At the beginning of the century, the people of La Crosse
witnessed the sudden end of their single largest industry
--lumbering--because of the exhaustion of pineries.
Fortunately, for at least twenty years before the end of
the century, small diversified manufacturing plants had
been locating in the city, and these plants saved the city
from economic disaster and a loss of population. Among
the leading industries were the mnanufacturers of beer,
agricultural implements, rubber goods, and ironwork, and
the milling of feed grains into flour. After World War I,
the city experienced the growth of several large manufac-
turing plants, the leaders of which were producers of
automotive accessories and rubber footwear. Later on
during the thirties, the manufacture of heating and
cooling equipment and agricultural implements added to
the ranks of major industries in the city.

La Crosse developed slowly during the Great Depression
of the 30's, as did all cities in the nation. Later on in


6





the 40's, stimulated by war contracts, employment and
production soared to new heights. The adjustment to the
following peace economy was made with little difficulty,
and by 1947 employment and production were at new
levels. Building and industrial expansion, however, were
limited by the lack of suitable sites.

The 1940's was a decade of high civic activity for La
Crosse. Following the end of World War 11 hostilities, the
people became engaged in securing a place in the new
world for their city. They did this by adding to the city
structure such facilities as an airport, civic center, and
off-street parking lots, to name a few--the latter design-
ed to alleviate the crowded condition in the commercial
section caused by the increasing automobile population of
the area.

By 1950, the City of La Crosse had grown to a population
of almost 50,000 and, while this growth was not consider-
ed to be spectacular, its physical expansion went from
about Sixteenth Street to the toe of the bluffs that paral-
lel the Mississippi River. Good commercial and industrial
sites were becoming scarce, and family dwellings were
built in the coulees. By 1960, the City of La Crosse, to-
gether with the surrounding and neighboring communities
of the City of Onalaska, Holmen, the Town of Medary and
portions of the Towns of Campbell, Holland, Onalaska and
Shelby, had risen to a population of 62,400. The census
of 1970 placed the population of this growing complex at
69,500. Together with this, between the years of 1940
and 1973, motor vehicle registrations have also risen from
14,460 to 38,053. These neighboring communities are
included because they have, in effect, become the over-
flow areas for the City of La Crosse and contribute to La
Crosse's social and economic well-being, as well as to its
traffic and transportation problems. The City of La
Crosse and these surrounding areas comprise the only
urban area in the county and in 1960 alone accounted for
more than eighty-five percent of the county's total popu-
lation. Almost ninety percent of the 1950-1960 county
population growth occurred in these areas. The fastest
growing communities then were the Towns of Shelby and
Onalaska. Today the population growth has progressed
farther north into the Village of Holmen. The City of La
Crosse itself has experienced a low rate of growth be-
cause of a lack of developable land and suburbanization to
surrounding communities.




1 Wisconsin Department of Transportation, Division of Highways, District #5,
Final Environmental Inpact Statement for Project M4202, pp. 12-15.


7






The La Crosse River Marsh "probably originally consisted of the


seasonally flooded basins, fresh meadows, shallow fresh meadows,

and a few deep fresh marshes."2 Over the years, its size has

changed as the City of La Crosse grew.

The City of La Crosse grew in early years without a
plan. There were no building codes, zoning laws, street
planning, nor a plan for the location of public buildings,
and it was not until the latter part of 1919 that a need
for a city plan was publicly expressed. Editorials by the
local newspaper espoused the need for such a plan, but it
was not until after World War I that any individuals or
groups actively supported the subject. Ultimately, the
City retained the services of a noted city planner from
Cambridge, Massachusetts, to prepare such a plan. The
need for one was very apparent in that La Crosse had
progressed from a town of lumber mills to a prosperous,
industrialized city.

The aforementioned planner produced a plan that included
forty large maps, charts, diagrams and various recommen-
dations that were presented to the mayor and city offi-
cials. The plan was ultimately defeated for two reasons
put forth by the opposition. First, the plan was compre-
hensive and would have required large outlays of money
that people felt should be spent for things other than
correcting the errors and mistakes that have been made
by earlier residents and settlers. Secondly, the plan was
politically motivated, setting the north side in opposition
to the south side.

The "Nolen Plan," as it came to be known, was dropped,
and with it any comprehensive city plan, for more than
twenty-five years.

Although the Wisconsin State Legislature passed a law in
1909 authorizing cities to create city planning commis-
sions, ten years passed before any city in the state took
advantage of the law to create such a commission--the
first being the City of Appleton. During the next ten
years, more than thirty cities in the state created city
planning commissions. The La Crosse City Council esta-
blished one in 1929, composed of the mayor, city engi-
neer, the president of the park board, an alderman, and
three other local citizens.



2 S.H. Sohmer, Contributions from the Herbarium. V., January 1, 1973.


8






In 1855, a causeway was built by a privately-funded
corporation known as the La Crosse and Onalaska Plank
Road and Bridge Company, whose sole purpose was to
build a solid road across the marsh that separated the
two sections of the city--the north and south sides--and
thereby reduce the trip by two and a half miles of travel
over the previous customary route. The company was to
be reimbursed for its expense by the collection of tolls at
a toll house that was in operation for some years at the
south end of the road.

The causeway--a plank road--was like every other board-
walk except that it was twenty feet wide. It was laid
across the marsh between the north and south settlements
of the prairie la crosse elevated in the lower spots about
five feet above the low-water mark. Wooden bridges
graced both ends, for in those days the La Crosse River
wandered from the main stream across the north end of
the marsh. The toll gate was located on the bank of the
La Crosse River.

Even though it was a wretched highway from its very
beginning, it was a busy one. It led to the prosperous
lumbering communities of North La Crosse and Onalaska,
and its twenty-foot width was thronged winter and
summer with the sleighs and wagons of lumbermen. It
was then the only direct communication between La
Crosse, the point of entry to the pineries, and all of the
back country that is now traversed in every direction by
hard-surfaced highways.

Four years after it went into operation, the proprietors of
the tollway removed the toll and washed their hands of
the whole affair. From that time on, it became a sadly
neglected thoroughfare--rutted, potholed, and always
flooded during periods of high water, so much so that the
water was often over the tops of the wagon wheels and
into the bodies of the wagons and buggies that dared to
venture across it. It was described to have been more of
a ford than a road.

It was not until 1865 that the City of La Crosse finally
took it over, and because of its stra egic location and the
heavy amount of traffic it accommodated, the improvement
of it became imperative. From time to time, it was raised
and graded and eventually was widened to one hundred
feet and paved with limestone macadam. However, it was
still too low and was completely submerged during the
flood of 1880 that cut off all road communications with
North La Crosse.

As years went by, traffic between the north and south
sides increased and a narrow wagon bridge was con-
structed over the La Crosse River to the west. This was
a trestle bridge that was constructed by the La Crosse


9





City Railway Company. Horse-drawn and, later, electric
cars crossed this bridge.

In 1922, the Common Council of the City voted to con-
struct the present concrete bridge, which was completed
in 1927, on what is now the causeway known as Copeland
Avenue. The termini of the causeway are the junction of
Rose Street and Copeland Avenue on the north and the
junction of 3rd and 4th Streets on the south. Today it is
a thriving business district with a variety of commercial
establishments that range from service stations and oil
companies to pizza parlors and a ready-mix concrete
plant. Recently, another section on the west side of the
causeway was dredge-filled and is the site of the modern
condominium-type apartment buildings and business
offices.

The La Crosse or Myrick Marsh, as it later came to be
known after the City's founding father, Nathan Myrick,
was again bridged somewhat to the east of the first
causeway in 1932 after a ten-year struggle on the part of
some of the more farsighted city officials. It was later
named Lang Drive, the highway being proposed for im-
provement, in honor of the city alderman, C. F. Lang,
who was the most ardent supporter of the second cause-
way.

Like all public improvements involving a substantial
amount of money, Lang Drive was in the making for a
period of ten years or more and involved much discussion
both on the part of the Common Council and the County
Board. At the time it was proposed, in 1924, the first
causeway was simply not adequate to meet the ever-
increasing demands of the traffic that was spawned by a
growing city. It was still narr ,w and riddled with holes
and generally unacceptable as a very important transpor-
tation link between the north and south sections of the
city.

The second causeway generated a great deal of opposition
from all sectors of the city when first proposed because
of the cost of the fill and bridging of the La Crosse
River and Northwestern Railroad tracks. The main theme
of the opposition was that the olu 2r existing causeway
was sufficient to accommodate the traffic needs and could
be made better by improving the pavement and construct-
ing a new bridge over the river. The subject of a
second causeway stayed embroiled in controversy, follow-
ed by a ten-year period of inactivity.

In the meantime, the La Crosse Rubber Mills, which is
located on what was proposed to be the north terminus of
the controversial second causeway--St. Andrew Street--
enlarged its plant facilities and its work force. Many of
their workers were southsiders commuting to work across


10






the old causeway. This imposed an added traffic strain
on the route to the plant and home again, as well as the
time-consuming and car-destructing aspect of the trip
itself over the deteriorated and antiquated connecting
facility.

In August of 1929, the mayor announced that the second
causeway would be part of the improvement program for
the following year, 1930. However, the issue again
became bogged down in controversies as to what exact
route the new causeway would follow. Several locations
and termini were proposed, the original concept being
between West Avenue extended and St. Andrew Street.
Other suggested locations were: the old right-of-way of
the Green Bay and Western's railroad line that had been
abandoned, one that would proceed northwesterly from
Myrick Park, one from 12th Street north to St. Andrew
Street, one from the north end of West Avenue to St.
Cloud Street, and still another along the east side of the
Northwestern Railroad tracks terminating with St. Andrew
Street on the north end near the Rubber Mills plant.

In January, 1930, the City Plan Commission recommended
to the Council that the second causeway be built between
West Avenue and St. Andrew Street in direct line with
George Street. It further recommended the acquisition of
the necessary land and buildings, one of which was a
brewery, for right-of-way purposes, either by outright
purchase or through condemnation procedure. The brew-
ing company's demand for compensation was deemed to be
too high, and again the project returned to a state of
dormancy until several months later when the Council
authorized the Board of Public Works to obtain bids for
the construction of a trestle bridge over the La Crosse
River and for constructing the necessary fill up to that
point.

Bids were received and approved, payment for which was
to be made from funds set aside earlier for the project by
La Crosse County, the project having first been proposed
as a county project. However, the project still did not
get underway as the controversy over location of the
proposed facility continued. At one point, it was about
to be submitted to a referendum in the spring election,
but this was deferred. As the year 1931 started, the
proposed project was still awaiting positive action, and
again the County Board, into whose lap the project had
been thrown by the City Council, battied over the issues.
Several years had gone by since the proposal of a second
causeway had first been made, and no positive action had
been taken.

By this time, La Crosse, as well as the rest of the na-
tion, was suffering the effects of the deepening depres-
sion, and the ranks of the unemployed were becoming


11





greater every day. With this in mind, one of the alder-
men on the City Council introduced a resolution whereby
the city and county would be authorized to proceed with
the construction of the proposed project without a formal
contract of any kind, making use of the many unemployed
men in the area and, in effect, solving the problem of
getting the causeway built and providing income, if only
temporary, to the unemployed of the city. This resolu-
tion was approved, authorizing the construction of the fill
with county and city supervision of the fill with the labor
force made up of local unemployed men, while the con-
struction of the trestle bridge was let to private contract.
The site finally connected 12th Street to St. Andrew
Street. (Later, in 1958-59, the south connection was
modified to align with West Avenue, its present
terminus.)

The second causeway--Lang Drive--was completed in 1932
at a total cost of $50,000 after many years of heated
controversy and indecisiveness. Since then, it has
served the useful purpose for which it was intended--
reducing the traffic load of the old causeway...

Over the ensuing years, the City of La Crosse--while
enjoying what is perhaps an unexcelled environmental
setting--has been strained to the limits of its ability to
provide the amount of land that is necessary to the
sustenance of economic and social growth. Because of
this, the Myrick Marsh has been proposed for various
developmental projects 3for many years by many different
people and interests...

The next documented marsh improvement program of significance

evolved in 1938. The project was spearheaded by Dr. Frank

Hoeschler and included approximately 680 acres of marshland in the

La Crosse River Marsh. Hoeschler's plan was to cover a majority of

the acreage with earthen fill to raise the land surface seven or

eight feet. He also felt the La Crosse River should be relocated to

reduce the possibility of flooding in the reclaimed area. The work

would have required five and one-half million cubic yards of

dredged fill, at a cost of ten cents a cubic yard. The completed



Wisconsin Department of Transportation, pp. 16-22.


12





project would have had two lakes, 1,777 residential and industrial

lots, curbs, paving, parks, sewers, water mains, and bridges.

Total cost was estimated at $1,299,230. The plan was not imple-

mented when the people of La Crosse rejected the proposal in two

referendum elections held that year.


Eight years later, the City of La Crosse hired an engineering firm

to try to determine the practicability of filling the marshland area.

The Chicago firm of Alvord, Burdick, and Howson, studied the

marsh for several months. In 1946 they presented La Crosse city

officials with two development plans for the marsh area. The plans

called for extensive improvement of the La Crosse River channel.

The consultant's suggestion was to widen the La Crosse River

channel, fill the land, and carry flood water to the Black River in

a newly-created diversion channel. The plan called for the con-

struction of bridges and the development of the filled land into

residential and commercial sites. When the plans were presented to

the La Crosse city common council, they were rejected. 4


A year later, Max Bemel revived the idea of marsh area develop-

ment. He initiated the filling process himself in the areas on each

side of Copeland Avenue and completed his work in the fall of 1947.

The results of his work are visible today. Filling stations, lumber

yards, and supermarkets now exist in the causeway area [busi-

nesses have changed], which originally started with Bemel's pro-

ject.5


La Crosse Tribune, January 8, 1978.

River Studies Center Newsletter, Vol. 5, No. 4, page 3.
13





Another public plan met rejection as city fathers voted down a

Wisconsin Planning Commission proposal for development in 1950.

The plan would have dredged the La Crosse River valley creating

lagoons for recreation while using the filled land for development.


In 1958, the La Crosse city engineer proposed a development plan

that was comprehensive in scope. In addition to providing for an

enlargement of the City's trans-marsh street and highway facilities,

it would have created 181 building lots that would have covered

slightly over thirty-three acres of the project's grand total of

forty-seven acres. The other fourteen acres would have been

devoted to streets, playgrounds, and a small area for a sewage lift

station to serve this subdivision. Land fill material would have

been obtained by dredging a lake in the north half of the area

bounded by Red Cloud Park, Lang Drive, Gorder Road, and East

Avenue extended across the marsh. It provided for another lake

on the east side of extended East Avenue; both lakes would have

been enlargements of the La Crosse River.6


Reconstruction of Lang Drive across the marsh to a connection with

George Street, and an ultimate further connection with U.S.H. 53

just south of the then-being-planned Interstate-90 and U.S.H. 53

interchange, was also proposed. In 1962, this facility was further

enhanced by connecting Lang Drive with George Street (Lang

Drive-George Street extension). While this road provides a direct


14


6 La Crosse Tribune, April 20, 1958.


_






and continuous route from the south side of the city to the north

side and beyond, it bears three names: West Avenue, Lang Drive,

and George Street. This route is also designated at S.T.H 35, the

highway that is known nationally as "The Great River Road".


In addition to the two causeways and the East Avenue extension, a

fourth connection between the north and south sides was proposed

in the city engineer's 1958 plan. It called for the extension of

Seventh Street from La Crosse Street, across the marsh east of the

Copeland Avenue Causeway, to a connection with Monitor Street. A

short distance after leaving La Crosse Street, a proposed "North-

east Expressway" would have curved eastward across the marsh to

what is now Gorder Road and ultimately to a connection with U.S.

Highway 16.


Due to economic considerations that were to a great extent the

result of a general recession in the national economy, the overall

proposal was reduced to building Only the Lang Drive - George

Street extension.


Concerned with flood hazards and with increasing traffic problems,

the community again considered a plan "s r developing the marsh in

1965. Advanced by the Army Corps of Engineers and the Wisconsin

Division of Highways, the plan also suggested relocating the river

channel and filling the wetlands to make industrial and residential

areas. The land use plan presented at that time has since been

studied, revised, advocated, and disputed, but has been neither

implemented nor rejected completely.


15






In 1970 community leaders decided upon a joint planning effort for

all land use and transportation planning until 1995. A La Crosse

Area Planning Committee was formed and was composed of super-

visors from the four adjoining towns, the mayors of La Crosse and

Onalaska, and the chairman of the County Board, with the mayor of

La Crescent serving as a non-voting member.


16









2. History of the University of Wisconsin-La Crosse


PURPOSE, MISSION, AND PROGRAMS


The Wisconsin Statutes, Chapters 36.01 and 36.02, outline the

statement of purpose and mission of the University of Wisconsin

System. Among the statements of purpose are these:

"The legislature finds it in the public interest to provide
a system of higher education which . . . fosters diversity
of educational opportunity; which promotes service to the
public; which makes efficient use of human and physical
resources."

It is efficient to have the various universities through the state

emphasize different academic disciplines. In this way, one institu-

tion can develop programs for particular academic pursuits while

another uses its resources for a different emphasis. Prospective

students can then decide which university to attend depending upon

their choice of study and vocation.


The University of Wisconsin-La Crosse fulfills a unique educational

opportunity among the thirteen universities within the system by

placing an emphasis upon the programs of its School of Health,

Physical Education and Recreation (HPF?). Its physical education

program is the largest in the UW-System. This emphasis represents

a special service to the public which becomes a reality through

those who graduate from this institution and go on to meaningful

employment in their chosen professions.


17






The approved mission statement for the University of Wisconsin-

La Crosse states:

The primary mission of the University of Wisconsin-
La Crosse is teacher education at the undergraduate
level. This mission includes a broad program in the
liberal arts and sciences at the undergraduate level as
well as a special thrust in physical education and recrea-
tion. At the graduate level, La Crosse has a mission-
related strength in physical education and recreation.


A university mission which includes a special thrust in physical

education and recreation assumes a need for extensive outdoor

facilities by the nature of the large movement activities inherent in

the program.


The University of Wisconsin-La Crosse has acquired and maintained

a national reputation in physical education over the years. This

reputation, plus a fine staff, attracts a large number of students

who desire to prepare themselves for a career in physical educa-

tion. There are presently 1,848 students enrolled in the School of

Health, Physical Education and Recreation. This represents rough-

ly one-fourth of the total university enrollment. Physical education

has by far the greatest enrollment of any major offered at the

University of Wisconsin-La Crosse (1,109 majors). UW-La Crosse

has the fifth largest physical education program in the United

States and the largest in the UW-System.


The strong reputation enjoyed by the La Crosse programs in recrea-

tion and physical education in the professional arena defies enroll-

ment comparisons with most other campus disciplines. Students are

attracted to these programs from thirty-six states. They should


18






continue to draw students from throughout the country because of

the outstanding faculty and recent program additions. Programs in

marks administration, therapeutic recreation, athletic training, and

Master of Science degrees in recreation and adult fitness-cardiac

rehabilitaton have been added to the curriculum or will be imple-

mented by the fall semester of 1978.


INSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENT


The political and business leaders of the La Crosse community had

discussed the establishment of a normal school at La Crosse as early

as 1857. In 1892, in 1893, and again in 1894, the legislature and

the board of normal school regents were strongly urged to authorize

such a school. In 1905, a bill introduced by State Senator Thomas

Morris passed the legislature and directed the board of regents to

locate a state normal school in the City of La Crosse. An appro-

priation of $10,000 provided for the purchase and improvement of a

site.7


The La Crosse city council, following the pattern of other munici-

palities, contributed an additional $15,000 to purchase the necessary

land which included two city blocks. This appropriation was not

made without opposition. Opponents threatened to obtain an

injunction to stop it; and newspaper items admonished citizens to





Journal of Proceedings of the Forty-Seventh Sessions of Wisconsin Legis-
lature, Volune I, 1905 (Madison, 1905), page 127.


19






"watch your alderman!" There was continuing opposition to the

proposal from business schools operating in the city. But this time

the supporters of the school had planned carefully and they ob-

tained a sandy tract emcompassing two blocks in the southeast part

of the city.


On a portion of this sandy land the "Old Main" building was erected

in 1908 and, for the first eleven years of the school's history, it

housed all indoor educational activities. Three stories high and

about two hundred feet square, the red brick building stood nearly

alone on the sand flats in the southeastern part of the city. It was

incomplete but usable when the first students entered on September

7, 1909. Old Main contained all classrooms, gymnasia, the "training"

school, offices for both faculty and administration, kitchen and

lunchroom, heating plant, and library. The first faculty and

student body then set out to beautify the grounds by landscaping

and planting them.8


In the minds of the community which now took great pride in its

normal school this building was long overdue. Its construction was

a tribute to the persistence of prominent city leaders and the

political acumen of Thomas Morris. Early in 1905, the directors of

the Board of Trade and the Board's special normal school committee

met with Morris to arrange lobbying for the bill the Senator had



8 George R. Gilkey, "La Crosse, a Half-Century of Higher Education in Wis-
consin's Coulee Region," History of the Wisconsin State Universities.


20






presented. Assemblyman J.J. Durland assured the Board of his

support of the bill and promised to aid the city council's normal

school committee at its appearance before the legislature. Ulti-

mately, the community designated three groups to plead its case:

the school committees of the Board of Trade and city council and

the delegates of the Manufacturers' and Jobbers' Union. The

Chamber of Commerce, which became the successor of the Board of

Trade in 1916, further interested itself in the school by seeking
9
ways to encourage additional students to come to La Crosse.


The drive for the school was patently economic in nature, but there

were other concerns as well. John E. McConnell spoke of the lack

of adequate teaching for the 80,000 children in areas adjacent to La

Crosse. Others, such as former Platteville President Albert Hardy,

proclaimed the value of the proposed school to Wisconsin's total

educational system. Mayor Torrance praised La Crosse as the

"second city in the state," and emphasized the urgent need for a

school. Support also came from Jackson, Trempealeau, and Juneau

county assemblymen together with aid from Superior's representa-

tives who had won a similar battle a decade earlier. As the bill for

the school passed through legislative channels, the protagonists fol-

lowed its step-by-step progress. In a fit of journalistic pique, a

special correspondent for the La Crosse Tribune despaired of suc-

cess. Under bold headlines reading "No New Normal School To Be

Provided This Year," he expressed the fear that the needs of the



9 La Crosse Tribune February 9, 11, & 17, 1905.


21







Milwaukee and Platteville normal schools and of the University pre-

sented new obstacles to the La Crosse proposal. But this time

proponents of the school had laid the ground-work carefully; and
10
the victory was duly noted in an exuberant press.


In 1927 the normal school received authority to grant baccalaureate

degrees in education and was named a State Teachers College. With

the addition of liberal arts programs in 1950 it became a Wisconsin

State College; in 1964 it was named Wisconsin State College -

La Crosse; and in 1971 it became the University of Wisconsin -

La Crosse.


Physical culture, athletics, and physical education have always been

associated with La Crosse. The earliest European visitors to prairie

la crosse found local Indians playing a ball game with sticks shaped

like the crosiers carried by French bishops and abbots; hence, the

name: La Crosse. Physical training, and later athletics, also

played a major role in the lives of the normal school students. At

first physical training, like speech, was not a regular part of the

curriculum. However, from opening day until the time it became a

definite and required part of the curriculum, some form of calis-

thenics was required of every student.11





10 La Crosse Tribune March 22, 23, 24, & 28, 1905.

11 William Harold Herrmann, The Rise of the Public Normal School System in
Wisconsin (Madison: The Board of Regents of State Universities, 1971),
page 388.


22







Fassett A. Cotton was appointed the first principal (president) of

the La Crosse State Normal School in February, 1909, and formally

assumed the duties on March 10, 1909. Writing and speaking often

on the subject of education, Cotton was an intense, vigorous, and

dedicated person. He stressed that education must be fer all the

people in a democracy and should educate the whole person. The

traditional approach to education had been to train some of the

people partly. In his opinion this was not education for democracy

where every person should be developed both physically and men-

tally. Writing "Complete Education for the Masses," he said:

There never was a time when the demand was so strong
for the education and training of the entire individual as
it is today. There is no less demand for culture and
scholarship in the broadest meaning of the terms, but
there is more demand for education that will meet the
practical needs of life . . . It is not a demand for direct
teaching of trades so much as it is 12call for the utiliza-
tion of common everyday experience."

Cotton's concept of physical education became the philosophy of the

program established at La Crosse as its special field in the training

of teachers. He viewed physical education not as athletic competi-

tion but as individual development. He further stated:

. . a distinction should be drawn between physical
education and athletics. Athletics have assumed a place
in the school world that is simply out of all proportion to
their merits . . . Every high school should be equipped
with a good gymnasium, and the boys and girls should
have constant systematic training in physical education.
This training should be supplemented with play. Games
that will bring into play the entire student body should
be encouraged. Interclass games can be healthful and
helpful sports and cat3 be kept subordinate to the real
purpose of school life.



12 Mary W. Wayman, The Work and Influence of Fassett Allen Cotton in Education
(unpublished Master's Thesis, Ball State Teachers College, Muncie, Indiana,
1945), page 23.


13 Wayman, page 27.
23






To meet the demand for physical education teachers, the normal

board established a school of physical education in the state normal

school at La Crosse. The regents authorized the resident regent

and the president of La Crosse Normal to introduce two- and three-

year courses open to high school graduates and a one-year course

open only to college graduates.14 This special department opened

September 2, 1913 with an enrollment of six men and four women.

Three of these students graduated from the two-year course and

received good positions. The remaining seven returned to school

and were graduated from the three-year course in June, 1916. All

accepted positions as directors of physical education in high

schools, normal schools, and colleges. Later, as the school became

better known, enrollment increased rapidly.15


The physical education curriculum grew very rapidly over the years

until it became virtually synonymous with the school itself. In

1926, a comprehensive resolution relating to four-year courses was

adopted by the board of regents of n<ormal schools:

Resolved, that for the purpose of putting into effect
Sections 37.11(5) of the statutes the following provisions
are hereby established:

II. Four-year courses leading to the degree of bachelor
of education in special departments are hereby authorized
and approved at state normal schools as follows, effective
September 1, 1926:
(a) In Art and Music at Milwaukee
(b) In Agriculture at Platteville and River Falls
(c) In Industrial Education at Platteville
(d) In Industrial and Vocational Education at Oshkosh
(e) In Home Economics at Stevens Point
(f) In Physical Education at La Crosse
(g) In Rural Education at Stevens Point
(h) In Education of Exceptional Children at Oshkosh

14 Board of Regents of Normal Schools, Proceedings, July 15-18, 1913, 15.


15 La Crosse State Normal School, School of Physical Education, 1919-1920, 11.
24









III. Four-Year courses leading to the degree of bachelor
of education in secondary education are hereby authorizecl6
in all state normal schools, effective September 1, 1927...

A joint physical education major and recreation minor was establish-

ed in 1945; and a minor in health education was first offered in

1952. This instructional area, presently designated the School of

Health, Physical Education and Recreation, has taken pride in its

philosophy which emphasizes the training of the individual in theory

and in skills and which reflects the ancient Greek ideal of the

healthy mind in the healthy body. In this philosophy, team sports

have generally been regarded as an adjunct or branch of physical

education. Coaches have been appointed as instructors first with

coaching being regarded as a part of their teaching load. The

school is proud of its more than 3,500 graduates who have held

positions as directors of physical education programs, instructors,

and coaches throughout the United States. Over forty graduates

from this program have obtained doctorates and the La Crosse

masters program in physical education has granted 120 degrees.

The program demands theoretical knowledge and practical compe-

tence in all activities in which future teachers may have to offer

instruction. Through the history of the La Crosse school, collea-

gues in physical education from other institutions have regarded
17
this instructional pattern as having few peers.



16 Board of Regents of Normal Schools, Proceedings, July 20-21, 1926.

Gilkey, pp. 275-288.


25







ACADEMIC NEEDS


During President Cotton's administration the campus and the physi-

cal plant of the Normal School were expanded. Following designa-

tion of La Crosse as the special school for training teachers of

physical education, options and land purchases prepared the way

for the erection of a building for that purpose. The building itself

was first authorized in 1914 but not completed until 1920. Funds

were also allotted for developing an athletic field on fairgrounds

property which was close by. Opposition in the legislature to the

expenditure of $45,000 for the physical education building almost

prevented its erection. Assemblymen W.C. Bradley of Hudson, Carl

Pieper of Dunn County, and Henry Freehoff of La Crosse sought to

stop the appropriation. Pieper denounced the proposal as "non-

sense" and added ". . . that there never was a greater curse

inflicted on the people of Wisconsin than the teaching of physical

training." Ultimately the proposal was saved through the work of

Regent William F. Wolfe, Assemblymen E.J. Kneen and Carl

Kurtenacher, and Senator Otto Bosshard, while the local press

satirized Pieper as "David from Dunn" out to destroy that Goliath

"physical culture."19


Despite its tenuous beginnings, the University of Wisconsin-

La Crosse has since become one of the largest physical education



Gilkey, pp. 280 & 281.

19 La Crosse Tribune, March 11, 1915.


26







schools in the nation. It has acquired this stature in spite of

having only one outdoor physical education field. The University

has shared city-owned athletic facilities with the local schools and

with the City Department of Recreation and Parks for many years.

This situation creates inevitable conflicts in scheduling, improve-

ments, maintenance, and funding and helps to clarify the Univer-

sity's long-standing need to acquire additional land for physical

education fields.


Only five and one-half acres of the city facilities are presently

available to the University for outdoor classroom space. This area

is maintained by the University which has regular use of it during

the school year but it is inadequate to support the large physical

education programs in existence. Heavy field use also makes it

impossible to maintain adequate grass coverage. During the 1976-77

school year, six major soccer injuries were directly attributed to

the limited, unofficial size field space allotted for this activity The

track and field facility, which is owned by the city and available to

the University for official competition with other colleges and univer-

sities, could not be used during the 1976-77 academic year because

of its deteriorated condition. Other teams in the Wisconsin State

University Conference refused to use the facility for track meets.


Dr. Glenn Smith, dean of the School of Health, Physical Education

and Recreation, has identified eight factors related to the existing

outdoor areas which are handicaps to a good physical education

program:


27






I. SIZE


The areas assigned to the various outdoor activities
are not regulation size required by the rules of the
activity. It has been necessary to narrow and to
shorten the available field areas in archery, field
hockey, soccer, football, etc., in order to offer the
variety of activities necessary for a balanced pro-
gram. As a result, certain skills and strategies are
lost because of the lack of opportunity to participate
on a regulation size field that allows for optimum
teamplay.

2. SAFETY

For safety reasons, the type of instruction has had
to be modified from a predominantly activity-oriented
program to more of a classroom-lecture program.
This is in direct opposition to the philosophy which
guided the college to its national prominence.

We have also had recent letters from doctors in the
Student Health Center and from instructors in the
Physical Therapy Department suggesting that the
outdoor areas overlap and are inadequate for the
activities to be conducted in a safe manner. There
have been numerous accidents and near misses
resulting from baseballs, javelins, and discus being
batted or thrown into areas occupied by participants
in other activities.

3. MARKINGS

Because of the multiple use of the present outdoor
areas, class instruction is hampered by the inability
to line the fields properly for various activities. If
all the sports were allowed to have the proper mark-
ings, no one field would be distinguishable from the
others. The overlapping lines would make the area
confusing.

4. TIME LOSS

Multiple use of the area also leads to the loss of
valuable class time which is presently used to move
equipment on and off the field; e.g., at the begin-
ning and end of each soccer and hockey class,
cumbersome goals must be moved to prepare the area
for another activity.

5. PROGRAM CURTAILMENT

It has been necessary to curtail and/or eliminate
certain desired activities from the program because
of a lack of space; e.g., golf, archery. The


28






women's intercollegiate softball team was recently
dropped from the program for this reason.

The intramural program controls the number of
sports offered, the number of teams, the number of
games played per season, and the length of each
game. In every case, the number controls are
necessary because of space limitations and this, in
turn, limits the quality of the present programs.
With the advent of the Club Sport movement and
Title IX, new activities and teams are putting a
further squeeze on an already difficult situation.
The Marching Chiefs, UW-La Crosse's band, are also
seeking a space for practice. Because of the short-
age of field space in the entire City of La Crosse,
community requests (i.e. YMCA, local high schools,
industry) for use of the few areas available must be
denied.

6. GROWING ENROLLMENTS

The enrollment at the University of Wisconsin-
La Crosse increased approximately 10% during the
1977-78 academic year. Additional students have
been added to existing classes because there is no
space for additional class sections of P.E. 100.

7. EXPANSION NEEDS

Due to the lack of available outdoor teaching sta-
tions, we have been unable to implement programs
properly with the expansion of the physical educa-
tion curriculum to include an emphasis in elementary
and handicapped specialties.

8. MAINTENANCE

Even with a conscientious effort at continuous main-
tenance, it is impossible to retain a safe playing
surface on the fields. Most of the time, the area is
either slippery or dusty, bumpy and irregular.
Because of the extensive use given such a small
area, it is impossible to maintain the grassy areas
and requests for constant resodding are needed.

The School of Health, Physical Education and Recreation had 2,154

majors enrolled in the fall semester of the 1977-78 academic year.

This is a record enrollment and one of the largest, if not the

largest, in the United States. Qualitatively speaking, this increase

has occurred in spite of increased standards directed towards

controlling the continuing growth in the disciplines.


29






One confirmation of a high quality product is the placement of gra-

duates. The 1976-77 job placement report shows that, in spite of a

tight market, 82.6%, or 119 of 144, of the graduates in physical

education obtained positions. Recreation graduates were placed in

ninety positions out of the 117 seeking employment for a total of

76.9%. These results are far above any comparable figures

available.


The enrollment projections for UW-La Crosse are estimated to de-

cline to 6,400 in the early 1990's and begin increasing thereafter.

The percentage of student majors in the School of HPER has consis-

tently represented one-fourth to one-third of the total student

body. The additional teaching stations proposed for the north

campus and planned for the main campus would be needed even if

the estimated enrollment declines for future years are accurate.

Requests for similar space were made twenty years ago when there

were less than 4,000 students on the campus. The Daverman

Associates, Inc., report completed in 1968 indicates the actual

enrollment for that year was 5,111, with 1,271 majors in the College

of HPER, The need for additional land for outdoor teaching sta-

tions, intramural programs, and recreational use is cited by these

planners. It is clear that the additional area will be needed even if

the enrollment declines to 6,400. It was needed when there were

less than 4,000 students; when there were 5,111 students; and

presently, when the students number approximately 8,700, because

the University has never had the outdoor stations recommended for

the action disciplines.


30






CAMPUS PLANS


At the time of the construction of the new power plant facility in

1965, the Wisconsin State Building Commission indicated it would not

permit future university expansion southeast of Campbell Road and

it discouraged any development in the residential area to the south

of State Street. Alternatively, the City and State agreed that the

city land north of the main campus and south of Gorder Road best

satisfied the criteria of size (large enough to develop physical

education activities), proximity (close to the existing physical

education building), and feasibility (causing the least economic and

social disruption to the existing residential and commercial neighbor-

hoods).


In 1969 the University of Wisconsin Board of Regents purchased

from the City of La Crosse 35.6 acres of land north of the main

campus and south of Gorder Road for the purpose of providing

additional area for the UW-La Crosse campus development,


University President Samuel Gates cited the following mutual bene-

fits to both the City and the University from the land sale and

purchase:

(1) It will provide a site for an auxiliary building (Ser-
vices and Stores) which will not infringe on adjacent
residential areas.
(2) It will nearly double the size of a campus which is
by far the smallest in the State University System,
thereby reducing some of the pressure to acquire
residential property located on the immediate peri-
meter of the existing campus.
(3) It will provide an area for the development of play-
ing fields and parking areas to relieve current
unsafe and congested conditions.


31






(4) It will be a large step toward realizing a long sought
after community go.b, the reclamation and productive
use of marsh land.

Another 10.89 acres of contiguous lands were added in 1974

bringing the State's total land ownership south of Gorder Road

to approximately fifty acres. In 1972, a new Physical Plant

building was constructed on three acres of this land. A solid

waste disposal permit was obtained in 1971 and, subsequently,

two filling entrances to the property were constructed. How-

ever, further development was delayed due to lack of funding.

Solid waste disposal can not be considered under current laws.


In 1969, the architectural firm of Daverman and Associates

developed a master plan for UW-La Crosse which included the

development of the fifty acres known as the north campus. In

late 1974, the State Bureau of Facilities Management contracted

with the architectural firm of Hackner, Schroeder, Roslansky

and Associates to update the campus master plan.


During the study of the campus and prior to the final Sum-

mary Report, various preliminary campus plans were prepared

to show how and where athletic fields could be developed. It

was agreed by all participants (city officials, administrators,

state officials) that the development of the north campus marsh

area was the most feasible alternative. The eventual purchase





20 Letter from Samuel G. Gates to Mayor Warren W. Loveland and members of
the Common Council of the City of La Crosse, December 10, 1968.


32





of contiguous city owned recreational fields was also contemplated.

In addition, some fields would have had to be developed on other

parts of the main campus to provide all the outdoor physical educa-

tion and athletic facilities necessary for a university with a special

emphasis in physical education and recreation.


One plan in particular showed full use of the fifty acre north

campus site. This plan was changed, however, when the Wisconsin

Department of Natural Resources and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife

Service expressed concern for wetlands preservation. It was then

decided to preserve + 18 acres of state-owned lands in a natural

state (except for a fitness trail and access route from the south)

and to consider developing only the remaining + 29 acres.


The University of Wisconsin-La Crosse, in cooperation with Univer-

sity of Wisconsin-System Administration and under the review of the

Department of Administration's Bureau of Facilities Management,

undertook a study of outdoor physical education facilities require-

ments in order to arrive at the type and number of outdoor fields

and areas needed to support the broad physical education program

on the campus. The study employed a detailed programmatic

approach in defining the needs rather than using generalized stan-

dards as applied in the past. This approach involved an assess-

ment of programs and modes of instruction unique to the campus

and a specific identification of program needs. In view of the

projected enrollment curve, current programs and FTE enrollments

were used as a base for defining the need.


33





In August, 1977, the Campus Development Plan And Summary Report was

completed by Hackner, Schroeder, Roslansky and Associates, Inc.

The report indicated that outdoor physical educational fields and

off-street parking were the two major concerns the University had

to deal with in developing a campus master plan. The following

excerpt from the report shows the need for an athletic field develop-

ment which support the proposed action:

The physical education outdoor field needs are primarily
instructional although some intercollegiate competitive
areas are included. The program is related to curricu-
lum, students, and projected usage. It is ironic that one
of the best physical education programs in the country
has virtually no outdoor space and that which is on
city-owned land subject to schedule, improvement and
maintenance conflicts.


PREVIOUS EVENTS AND ACTIONS


The Wisconsin State Legislature approved, for the 1975-77 biennium,

the amount of $238,500 for development of outdoor educational fields

at UW-La Crosse as part of the University of Wisconsin System

Capital Budget.


DATE DESCRIPTION

11 November 1968 State Building Commission approved Mainte-
nance-Stores Project 6811-11.

25 January 1971 DNR approved filling.

3 March 1971 DNR set fill levels:
First floor of buildings: 649.
Land not used for buildings: 640.

7 September 1971 City of La Crosse granted a limited ease-
ment which required, "That all of the land
...be filled by the State of Wisconsin so
that a uniform slope will be created be-


34







tween the adjacent roadways and the fill
placed for construction of the University
Maintenance Building."


5 October 1971-
October 1976

5 October 1971-
February 1977

1 December 1975




18 May 1976




27 May 1976



28 July 1976





17 August 1976

29 September 1976






26 October 1976



March 4, 1977


Fill by University of Wisconsin-La Crosse
using cinders.

Fill by University of Wisconsin-La Crosse
from parcels being leveled on
main campus.

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers found that
the discharge of dredged or fill material
into the Myrick marsh requires Department
of the Army permits.

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers contended
that the University was in violation of Sec-
tion 404, Federal Water Pollution Control
Act of 1972.

University denied violating Section 404...
"Subject wasteland is not contiguous nor
adjacent to any waters of the United
States."

DNR (Kozel) claimed the University is
operating a solid waste disposal site and is
dumping incinerator ash and residue in a
wetland in violation of Chapter NR 151 of
the Wisconsin Administrative Code.

University denied DNR claims and asserted
that it is not subject to Chapter NR 151.

DNR (Miller) acknowledges that the Univer-
sity is exempt from Chapter NR 151 "re-
quirement necessitating the submission of
an annual fee and application," but con-
tends that the University must close the
solid waste disposal site by November 15,
1976.
University legal counsel suggests a meeting
to resolve the problems in the relationship
of DNR and University of Wisconsin-
La Crosse.

Corps of Engineers published notice of
application for 404 permit for Lang Drive
improvement.


35







April 4, 1977


April 15, 1977




December 1, 1977


Corps of Engineers published notice of
application for 404 permit to place fill in a
wetland for its physical education facilities.

DNR (Damon) proposes that the City of
La Crosse establish a bulkhead line
around the proposed fill project area and
include the centerline or all of Gorder
Road.

University of Wisconsin-La Crosse releases
publication of the Preliminary Environmen-
tal Report (PER) for the north
campus development.


36






D. Description of the Existing Environment


1. Physical and Chemical Environment


ENVIRONMENTAL SETTING OF THE PROJECT SITE


The La Crosse River flood plain separates the two urbanized sec-

tions of the city, with the river ranging from about twenty-five to

eighty feet in width and to five feet in depth during average

discharges. It meanders through an extensive wet bottomland, the

lowermost part being the La Crosse or Myrick marsh. Standing

waters within the marshland vary seasonally and annually. This

marsh area also comprises part of the Mississippi River floodplain

whose east bank is approximately one mile west of the proposed

project site.


The environment of the proposed site is located in an isolated

portion of a two thousand acre marsh which extends from the La

Crosse business district in a northeasterly direction along the La

Crosse River. (See aerial map in section F., item 3.) The marsh

is located within the city limits of La Crosse. The portion where

the proposed facility would be located is part of a + 50 acre parcel.

It has been physically separated from the wetlands by the man-made

land forms of Lang Drive on the west and Gorder Road on the

north. (For detailed data on the area, see County Natural Area

Inventory, appendix D-8.)


37






The existing land use adjacent to the area consists of retail and

commercial outlets, cemetery, vacant land, and marshland.

Commercial development exists at the intersection of Lang Drive and

La Crosse Street and northerly from Monitor to St. Andrew Streets.


Areas of the original marsh which have been filled include busi-

nesses, industries, and residential homes east of George Street

between the La Crosse River and the railroad tracks (C & NW).

Lang Drive, Gorder Road, water pumping causeways, a power

company substation, a radio station transmitter, and the Univer-

sity's Maintenance & Stores facility are located adjacent to the

marsh. The C & NW tracks that cross Lang Drive just south of the

La Crosse River have been proposed for abandonment.


TOPOGRAPHY


The City of La Crosse and the area designated as north La Crosse,

which are separated by the La Crosse River floodplain, are built on

the surface of a large sand terrace which now stands twenty to

forty feet above the level of the Mississippi River. The terrace is

bordered on the west by the Mississippi River and on the east by

steep irregular valley walls that rise five hundred feet to a dis-

sected regional upland. The La Crosse River valley in which the

proposed project will be constructed is three-quarters-to-one mile

wide and consists of a flat, generally marshy area ten to thirty feet

below the level of the terrace.


38






The fifty acres of the University's north campus land is relatively

flat with elevations ranging from a high of 637.8 feet to a low of

631.5 feet, a maximum difference of about six feet. (See the topo-

graphic map of existing area in section F., item 11.) The lower

elevations of the university property are to the west and south of

the project site. The U.S. Soil Conservation Service survey bor-

ings indicate a higher water table on the west near Lang Drive

which would confirm this. The ground surface does not have a

gradual slope; rather, its surface has irregularly spaced depres-

sions and knolls. The + 29 acres proposed for development has

approximately three-fourths of its area above the 635.8 (10.0) foot

elevation which is two feet below the Mississippi River flood stage

elevation of 637.8 (12.0) feet.


GEOLOGY AND SOIL


The material underlying the terrace consists of approximately 150

feet of glacial outwash sand and gravel that rests on Cambrian

sandstone. In the La Crosse River valley, in Mississippi River

channel areas, and in low areas near the terrace perimeter, the

outwash material was eroded and land surface aggraded with more

recent material. In these areas, the surface soils consist of depo-

sits of peat, soft clay, and stratified silts. These deposits are

underlain by the same outwash sand and gravel materials that make

up the terrace, while the steep river valley walls are composed of

Cambrian and Ordovician sandstones, shales, limestone, and dolo-
21
mites.


21 Wisconsin Department of Transportation, page 27.
39






The borings made by the Wisconsin Department of Transportation

illustrate the cyclic nature of floodplain-marsh development. Sub-

surface sands and gravels imply active cycles of erosion and despo-

sition, while the black organic layers suggest passive cycles of

stable vegetation accompanied by tranquil, seasonal overflows. In

appendix B-2, the plate entitled "Test Borings, North Campus

Development" shows that several cycles are recorded. (Also see

Weinzierl letter, appendix B-2.)


The soil of the project site was evaluated by the U.S. Department

of Agriculture Soil Conservation Service through the district office

located in La Crosse. The report, submitted to UW-La Crosse on

September 14, 1977, is based on six soil borings evaluated to a

depth of five feet or less. A summary of the report and the de-

tailed evaluation appear in appendix B-1.


Soil borings revealed organic soil layers from six inches to four and

one-half feet in depth overlaying a sand base with the organic layer

becoming more shallow toward the east end. Saturated soil was

reached at a depth of three feet on the west end of the project

area; no saturated soil was encountered in the five foot probe

depth on the rest of the site. However, throughout the study the

sand was mottled or grey in appearance indicating a seasonal high

water table during the past years. The study indicated that "be-

cause good sandy soil is located close to the surface, the filling in

of the marsh for athletic fields is feasible from an engineering

standpoint." (See Soil Conservation Service Report, appendix

B-1.)


40







HYDROLOGY


Thomas Claflin, professor of biology and director of the River

Studies Center, believes that Myrick Marsh has a recharge func-

tion. In the January/February 1977 issue of the River Studies

Center Newsletter, he wrote: "The Myrick marsh serves as a

ground water recharge area."


The existing environment has maintained its wetland status and

connection with the larger marsh by means of a sixty-inch culvert

located under Gorder Road. When there is a high water table this

also contributes to the wetland status. The hydrology of the

existing environment consists of a fluctuating water table. Local

storm sewer discharges are not in a proximity to feed into the

marsh area south of Gorder Road.


Overland runoff to the south of the project area is limited to the

hillside between the marsh and Oak Grove Cemetery. Overland

runoff to the south of the project area between East Avenue, La

Crosse Street, and Lang Drive enters the city storm sewers. This

water is then discharged west of Lang Drive near Leuth Park and,

at the end of East Avenue, into the marsh area north of Gorder

Road. Substantial amounts of water entering the marsh south of

Gorder Road occur during periods of flooding on the Mississippi

and/or the La Crosse Rivers. Two five foot culverts allow entry of

water into this marsh area. (See contour map in section F., item

5.)


41






The hydrologic activities within the marsh area south of Gorder

Road are not known; however, an active discharge system is not

suspected. Previous fill and the construction of the University's

Maintenance and Stores facility in this area of the marsh have been

successful. It is the belief of a local soil scientist that upward

ground-water gradients in this particular location of the La Crosse

marsh are not an important consideration, particuarly for athletic

fields. (See Cropper letter, Soil Conservation Service, in appendix

A-12.) If the site had been closer to the bluffs there would have

been more likelihood of upward ground-water gradients. Buildings

that are placed on sand fills in former marshlands east of George

Street and south of the railroad tracks give factual proof that

foundation conditions do not prohibit construction of facilities.


An important function of many wetlands, as well as uplands, is the

filtration of water as it percolates through the soil to underground

beds or strata of earth, gravel, or porous stone. When recharged

with water, these strata are capable of yielding well water. Pre-

sent and past conditions suggest that the recharge/discharge char-

acteristics of the area will not adversely affect the proposed project

nor will the project adversely affect those characteristics.


The following excerpt from the "Definitions and Concepts" section of

the guidelines for a Federal 404 permit explains this in more detail:

Wetlands are part of the hydrologic cycle. In Wisconsin,
water usually enters the groundwater system in upland
recharge areas (water entering the groundwater system
recharges it, water leaving the system is a discharge.)
The water seeps through the soil until it reaches the
water table - below which the rock or soil is saturated


42






with water. Then it seeps through the soil or rock to
discharge areas such as springs, lakes, streams and
wetlands.

Wetlands may occur in any part of the landscape, from
the upland drainage divide to the river floodplain or
other lowlands. Most drainage-divide wetlands have an
impermeable (or nearly impermeable) bottom seal that
prevents water from recharging the groundwater; these
wetlands are "perched."

Upland slopes may have wetlands where a dip in the land
surface intersects the water table. As with drainage-
divide wetland, relatively impermeable sediments may
separate these wetlands from the groundwater system.

Finally, wetlands are common at the lowest point in the
hydrologic system - river floodplains and lake margins.
Water flows out of the groundwater system through these
wetlands and into rivers and lakes.

Wetlands may become recharge areas in spring or fall
when their water levels are higher than the water table
due to heavy precipitation, saturated soil, and slow
evapotranspiration.

FLOODING


The City of La Crosse occupies a geographical and topographical

setting that has subjected the areas abutting its rivers to the

ravages of flooding twenty-two times from 1880 to 1969. This

number includes all known floods above bankfull stage of twelve

feet at the Missississippi River gauging station in La Crosse. Of

this number, ten flood years exceeded the flood stage by at least

two feet, with the worst flood having occurred in 1965 when the

flood stage was exceeded by 5.9 feet. (See Flood Elevation Table

in appendix C-2 and Ten Year Flood Table in appendix C-1.)


In 1935 a major flood occurred in August that was restricted mainly

to the La Crosse River. The flooding was caused by the run-off of


43






6.43 inches of rain that fell in a six-day period which was culmi-

nated with a storm of cloudburst proportions. This storm was

responsible for washing out eight highway bridges and six

approaches in six counties, sweeping away two dams, and wrecking

railroad and telephone communications.


The worst flood occurred in the spring of 1965 when colder than

usual weather in March and April delayed the melting of an accumu-

lation of heavy snows north of La Crosse and into Minnesota. When

the temperature finally became seasonably normal, it was late

enough to allow the snow to melt during the nighttime hours as well

as during the day. There were no cold nights to slow down the

melting and the runoff and this resulted in the record flood.


The most recent flood of record magnitude occurred during April

1969 with a peak stage of 15.7 feet, 3.7 feet above flood stage.

Melting snow again caused a flood, and substantial damage occurr-

ed. This flood ranked third in the order of magnitude for flooding

in the La Crosse area. During this period Lang Drive was closed

to traffic for eight days. (See Flood Magnitude Table in appendix

C-1.)


Flood durations are quite long on the Mississippi and La Crosse

Rivers in the vicinity of La Crosse. While flooding on the

La Crosse River caused by its own flow would be of much shorter

duration, the most usual cause of flooding is back-up of the

Mississippi River. Nearly nine days are required for the Mississip-

pi River to rise from normal to flood stage. During the record


44





flood of 1965, it had a maximum rate of rise of about 1.6 feet per

day and remained out of its banks for twenty-seven days.


Stages on the La Crosse River can rise from stream bed to maximum

flood peak in two and one-half days following an intense regional

rainstorm. Flood peaks are reached more quickly and durations are

shorter.


WATER QUALITY


Although water quality information on the La Crosse River is limit-
22
ed, it is available for the winter months of 1969. In that report,

extremely high fecal coliform counts and biochemical oxygen de-

mands were cited as evidence that raw sewage was entering the

river and, according to National Water Quality Criteria, the

La Crosse River was unfit for human use.


The City of La Crosse monitors the water quality of the La Crosse

River during the summer recreational months. These studies have

indicated high fecal coliform counts making the water unsafe for

human skin contact. Studies are continuing to determine the source

of water pollution. The City posted the stream to prohibit any

type of human contact in the spring of 1974.


The water quality of the La Crosse River usually carries a heavier

silt load than the Black or Mississippi Rivers, especially during


Kathleen R. Dion, April 1970, Fecal Contamination in the La Crosse River,
Unpublished Report, Biology Department, Wisconsin State University-
La Crosse.
45






heavy rainfalls or spring runoff. The watershed along the

La Crosse River is used heavily for agricultural purposes thus

contributing to the amount of suspended solids. The Fish and

Wildlife Service Fish Control Laboratory in La Crosse has been

performing complete water analyses monthly for the past five years.

Their records show that monthly variations in total hardness, total

phosphates, and nitrate nitrogen are due to changing water flows

from rain water and snowmelt and to agricultural and municipal

wastes entering the river. (See Marking letter, Fish and Wildlife

Service, appendix A-13.) Specific data on the surface water quali-

ty in the project area was collected during April, 1978.(See Williams

letter, Fish and Wildlife Service, appendix A-16.)


NOISE LEVEL


Because the existing environment is located within the city limits of

a thriving community, it is subject to ambient noise. The main

source of noise is generated by vehicular traffic along Gorder Road

and Lang Drive. The noise level generated on Gorder Road is

minimal. Traffic on the road is sparse and road conditions encour-

age slow movement of any traffic. Lang Drive, on the other hand,

generates continual auto and truck traffic and accommodates much

commuter traffic. Studies by the Department of Transportation,

District No. 5, indicate that as much as 80 dBA is generated on

Lang Drive.23 However, this would diminish to approximately 60

dBA at a distance of 300 feet. (See Noise Level Chart in section

F, item 15.) The open space of the marsh, the existing foliage,


23 Wisconsin Department of Transportation, page 53.
46






and the distance of the existing environment from Gorder Road and

Lang Drive dissipate and absorb much of the noise generated.


Heavy foilage, a hillside, and a cemetery prevent ambient noise

from entering the existing environment from the south. Immediately

east of the existing environment is the University's Maintenance and

Stores facility. Infrequent and slow vehicular traffic in this area

has little to no effect on the ambient noise level within the existing

environment.


The land use relationship of the existing environment is not signifi-

cantly affected by the ambient noises previously discussed. A land

use category of 'A' would prevail for much of the existing environ-

ment. (See Design Noise Level/Land Use Relationship Table in

section F, item 16.)


The heavy traffic that Lang Drive has sustained for many years has

undoubtedly had the effect, by virtue of the vehicular noise gener-

ated, of discouraging the establishment of any natural proliferation

of bird or animal habitats in the immediate area.


AIR QUALITY


The air quality of La Crosse is generally very good because it does

not have a preponderance of air polluting industries and because of

its geographical location along a major waterway. The City is

situated within the Mississippi River Valley which acts as a channel

for air currents. These air currents dissipate and disperse any air


pollution created in La Crosse.
47






The only source of air pollution adjacent to the proposed site is

automobile traffic. The traffic on Gorder Road is minor; rarely are

there more than one or two cars present at any time. Lang Drive,

a major connector between the north and south sections of

La Crosse, carries traffic almost continuously during the daylight

hours. The Wisconsin Department of Transportation indicates,

however, that traffic on the present Lang Drive facility, as well as

on the projected improved facility, will have no significant adverse

effect on the air quality of the human environment. From time to

time fires in the nearby marsh contaminate the air with smoke.


2. Biological Environment


VASCULAR PLANT LIFE IN THE MARSH


In general the entire La Crosse River marsh may be divided into

four basic habitat types: (1) deciduous woods, (2) grass areas,

(3) wet marsh, and (4) open water areas. The upland areas of the

marsh contain a mixture of deciduous species such as oak, maple,

elm, cottonwood, and willows. The wet marsh consists chiefly of

sedges, cattails, and arrowheads. The grass areas include reed

canary, quack, timothy, and others.


The amount of open water is dependent on the fluctuation in the

river stages. During the past few dry years open water has been

nearly non-existent.


48






The La Crosse marsh adjacent to the project contains two types of

wetlands. 24T ype 1 is a seasonally flooded basin or flatland and

Type 2 is an inland fresh meadow. A seasonally flooded basin or

flatland has soil which is covered with water, or which is water-

logged, during variable seasonal periods but is usually well-drained

during much of the growing season. An inland fresh meadow has

soil which is usually without standing water during most of the

growing season but is waterlogged within at least a few inches of

its surface.


According to discussions with Mary O'Brien, a Wisconsin Department

of Transportation biologist, native sedges dominate Myrick Marsh.

Present in quantities of lesser importance are reed canary grass (an

exotic plant which has invaded the marsh to a great extent), smart-

weed, cattails, and mixed deciduous trees and shrubs including

(where water levels permit) elm, silver maple, boxelder, cotton-

wood, and willows. Submerged aquatic vegetation appears during

periods of high water levels. Vegetation maps of the entire

La Crosse marsh do not exist. However, the marsh lands adjacent

to the west and north of the project site generally have types of

vegetation similar to that shown on the vegetation map in section

F., item 6.







24 Wetlands of the United States, 1971, U.S. Department of the Interior,
Fish and Wildlife Service Circular #39.


49






VASCULAR PLANT LIFE IN THE PROJECT SITE


The dominant plant in the project area is the river bulrush. This

and other plants present are included in the table developed from

observations and collections by W. A. Smith, UW-La Crosse gra-

duate student in Biology. (See plant flora list in section F, item

17.)


ANIMALS OBSERVED IN THE MARSH


Studies on the annual migration, emigration, and immigration of

wildlife in the La Crosse marsh do not exist. The studies which

have been done tend to relate to the wildlife found in the marsh

only during the period of each particular study. The conditions in

the La Crosse marsh may vary greatly over time. In 1975 extensive

flooding in the marsh provided an environment for nothern pike to

spawn and provided a habitat for waterfowl for much of the year.

In 1977 no flooding occured in the entire marsh. On April 9, 1977,

a fire swept through a large portion of the marsh destroying many

acres of ground cover.


The quantity and types of wildlife vary from year to year as the

weather and flood patterns change. The La Crosse River Marsh is

subject to the flooding of the La Crosse and the Mississippi Rivers

which greatly affects wildlife. There was no high water during the

spring of 1974; a temporarily dry condition resulted by late

summer. According to one observer, "An arid condition such as


50






this is common with plant communities that exist in shallow

water. .25


The marsh was completely inundated in the spring of 1975 driving

out wildlife and adversely affecting vegetation. An inventory of

animals in the marsh was carried out by Charles Craig, a UW-La

Crosse student, between February 1974 and January 1975. The two

most abundant mammals were found to be the meadow vole, Microtus

pennsylvanicus; and the white-footed deer mouse, Peromyscus

leucopus. Other species noted were the cinereous shrew, Sorex

cinereus; short-tailed shrew, Blarina brevicauda; and the meadow

jumping mouse, Zapus hudsonius, which followed numerically in that

order. One each of the eastern cottontail rabbit, Syvilagus flori-

danus; the southern flying squirrel, Glaucomys volans; and the

least weasel, Mustela rixosa, were also noted. Thirty-seven musk-

rats, some woodchucks, a beaver, and some white-tailed deer were

also observed during the study. The great majority of these ani-

mals were noted in the other areas of the La Crosse River Marsh,

however, and not in the area of the proposed site. The beaver

and muskrat populations were much larger in the past.


During numerous field observations by Department of Transportation

personnel in the area of the project site during the years 1973-

1977, it was noted that there was not enough standing water pre-



25 Charles D. Craig, Some Ecological Aspects of Myrick Marsh with Emphasis
on Animal Populations, 1975, page 22. (Thesis on file at UW-La Crosse
Library).


51






sent in the marsh for a long enough time to provide an adequate

habitat for ducks, muskrats, or beavers. In former years muskrat

huts had been commonly seen in the La Crosse River marsh.

However, in recent years, this number has dwindled significantly.

This decline is possibly due to the low water level and to the

sparse growth of cattails, a prime food of the muskrat. There is

also little evidence of burrowing in the banks of Lang Drive or in

the old well roads.


FISH SPAWNING


The La Crosse marsh is used by northern pike for spawning during

those years when flooding conditions favorable to this activity

exist.


Climatic conditions are considered to be favorable when the marsh

provides a place for the fish to spawn. From information obtained

from field personnel of the Department of Natural Resources, it has

been determined that, during flood periods, there are some areas of

the marsh that are used by northern pike for spawning. The

depth of the water contained in the marsh during the spawning

period exerts the greatest influence on where the fish eggs are

deposited. During a period when the flood water area is small, the

spawning takes place in locations that occupy the lowest parts of

the marsh provided they are accessible. These areas are several

hundred feet from Lang Drive. When more water is impounded in

the marsh, spawning takes place closer to the highway.


52






It is difficult to determine the number of acres needed by northern

pike for spawning. Areas of marginal value will change from year

to year depending upon flooding conditions. The Wisconsin Depart-

ment of Natural Resource's Bureau of Fish and Wildlife Management

conducted field studies on the spawning activity of northern pike in

the La Crosse marsh in 1974 and 1975. The area of the marsh

proposed as the project site was not chosen as a location to check

spawning during their two-year study. (See Northern Pike Spawn-

ing report, appendix D-7.)


In addition to northern pike, other species of fish found in the

marsh are buffalo and carp, more commonly referred to as "rough"

fish. During periods of flooding, large schools of crappies invade

the marsh and feed on the various minnows, insects, and organisms

that the marsh produces. While channel catfish may also be taken

from the marsh during flood periods, their natural habitat is the

La Crosse and Mississippi Rivers.


The proposed project location may be of marginal value for northern

pike spawning during some periods of flooding. The site area is

probably one of the last portions of the marsh to receive overland

flood waters. Two culverts, one under Lang Drive and the other

under Gorder Road, provide the only means of flooding, and these

are located above the marsh basin. Fish enter the project site

through the culverts during times of flooding and some become

trapped as the waters recede. If the water lasts long enough for

spawning, and if the development of fry is large enough to move

considerable distances, then it is still debatable whether lower


53






culverts at the proposed site would significantly affect the prolifer-

ation of fish in the river or in other open water areas in the

marsh.


Dead carp were found after the flooding of the project site in 1978

even before the waters had receded. Possible reasons for the fish

dying could be from lack of oxygen or more likely from the toxic

swamp gases carp release as they search the water bottoms.


BIRDS OBSERVED IN THE LA CROSSE RIVER MARSH


Paul Harris, a University of Wisconsin-La Crosse graduate student,

completed a report of the avifauna of the La Crosse River Marsh in

July 1975, based on observations in seven hundred acres south of

the La Crosse River from December 1973 to May 1975. The pro-

posed project site was a part of the study. A total of 150 species

of birds were observed, with fifty-one species found to breed in

the marsh. The study states, "It must be kept in mind that bird

populations are continually fluctuating and expanding with new

breeding species becoming established, and others disappearing."

The highest species count of birds observed were in the category

of those that appeared during the spring and fall migration only,

with the next largest category being breeders which arrived during

the spring migration, remained through the summer, and left during

the fall migration. (See Harris study, appendix D-6.)


A Department of Natural Resources report submitted by Ronald

Nicklaus recorded twenty-five bird species over a six hundred acre


area. Waterfowl and upland birds were observed with house spar-
54






rows, barn swallows, rough-winged swallows, and tree swallows

representing the bulk of the sightings. These observations were

made from July, 1974 to May, 1975. (See list in section F., item

24.)


BIRDS OBSERVED IN THE PROPOSED SITE


The data available on bird species in the fifty-five acres of univer-

sity land were made available from field studies done by Paul Harris

from 1974 through 1975. These field studies were reviewed in

October, 1977, by Mr. Harris and a graduate student from the

university biology department.


Mr. Harris had divided the marsh into three study areas. These

areas are identified in his thesis and on the map in section F., item

18. Area number two covers that portion of the marsh on which

the project site has been proposed. It is bordered on the south by

Oak Grove Cemetery and on the notrth by Gorder Road. Its west

boundary is Lang Drive and its east boundary is the University's

Maintenance and Stores facility. Area number two includes all of

the land within these borders and a list of birds observed there

appears in section F., item 19.


It should be mentioned here that many of the birds sighted were in

or near the treelines next to the borders. The proposed project

site will not disturb the trees along Gorder Road, Lang Drive, and

Oak Grove Cemetery. Another treeline is proposed along the south

edge of the proposed fill site as well as other plantings which will


55





encourage immigration and visitation. It should also be noted that

only seven of the twenty-four species which breed in area number

two breed in the actual marsh. The remaining seventeen species

breed along the edges of the marsh area. Paul Harris, in his

nesting studies, noted that after one week into the study of the

hatching success of the red-winged blackbird and the yellow-headed

blackbird, a flood eliminated 90% of the nests in the marsh area.

Mr. Harris indicated that the most diversity and abundance of bird

species was found in areas three, one, and two respectively. (See

Harris study, appendix D-6.)


INVERTEBRATES


Many invertebrates contribute to the diet of fish, birds, and other

vertebrate forms. In many cases, these invertebrate organisms

constitute their basic food supply. The following excerpt from

Some Ecological Aspects of Myrick Marsh summarizes the type of

invertebrates found in a flood plain rmarsh:

Shelford (1913) found that springtails, snails and slugs
were very abundant in floodplain communities, pioneer
communities and most wetland communities. Many of the
mites and springtails are found in the space between the
bark and the log as well as the litter and soil.

Goff (1952) in his survey of floodplain animal communities
found that the Hemoptera, and Coleoptera were more
abundant in higher elevations of floodplains and not the
wetland areas. The snails, slugs, and earthworms had
higher densities where periodic flooding occurred. Shel-
ford's (1954) study of biotic communities showed that
many of the slugs, annelids, ground beetles and snails
were able to survive annual flooding well enough to
establish stable communities.

26 Craig, page 15.


56






No specific data are available concerning the existence of inverte-


brates in the project site.


INSECTS OF THE MARSH


The insect life of the marsh is described in the following passages:

Among the most abundant forms of insect life found in
Myrick Marsh are the Chironomidae. They are found
throughout the marsh and are not limited to any one
vegetational area. The larvae produced are an important
food item for fishes, because of their high population
density (Shelford 1913). The species of Coleoptera
captured were non-winged and were observed adhering to
the standing vegetation. Although both Lamperidae and
Carabidae have abundant populations within the study
area, only one Lamperid and no ground beetles were
captured. For the Homoptera, which comprises from 15%
to 28% of the relative density, Cicadellidae was the most
abundant form in all of the units studies. The grass-
hoppers that were captured were of both the short and
long horned variety. Numerous Orthoptera were ob-
served, but few were caught due to their flying ability.
The Arachnids comprises 4-7% of the relative density in
the sample areas. They were observed climbing, and on
the ground within the standing vegetation.

The reed canary grass supported the highest insect
density by more than two-fold. This area far out-ranked
the smartweed-reed canary grass and cattail dominated
areas in quality and quantity of each insect order cap-
tured and observed. More varieties of Odonata, Lepidop-
tera, Neuroptera and Hymenoptera were noted in this area
than in the other two units. In comparison to the reed
canary grass which supported the highest relative density
in Myrick Marsh, Goff (1952) found in his flood plain
community studies that Homoptera, Herniptera and Coleop-
tera were the most abundant. In an old adjacent flood
plain area he showed that the Diptera species were the
most prevalent.

Insects such as mosquitoes make up a significant portion
of the diets of fish, birds, and small mammals. For
example, in Dorney's (1954) study of the ecology of
marsh racoons, summer stomach analysis showed an insect
frequency of 27%. The mosquito is perhaps the insect
which is most equated with marshlands. It is not only an
excellent food source, but often times a nuisance to
animals and humans which live in and adjacent to these
areas. Taylor (1960) found that wildlife was seriously


57






affected why? wetland drainage was implemented to control
mosquitoes.

The mosquitoe problem in the marsh is addressed at length by

James Parry, UW-La Crosse professor of biology, in an excerpt

from a letter which is found in appendix A-17:

The marsh presents extreme problems from a mosquito
point of view only when it is inundated with water either
by spring flooding or significant rains. Experience has
shown that most of the mosquitoes of the marsh are 'flood
plain' mosquitoes and as such the life cycle is completed
after eggs laid in soil (along water lines) hatch following
water covering them in the spring. Some species of
mosquitoes produce multi-broods, but for the most part it
is the spring or early summer hatch that presents a
mosquito problem in the La Crosse area. Such hatches
provide mosquitoes throughout the summer as a result of
their life cycle longevity.

Most mosquitoes found in the marsh are "pest" mosquitoes
and serve as a nuisance rather than a disease vector
mosquito. Culex pipiens is found in the marsh habitat
and could serve as the vector for the St. Louis strain of
encephalitis. Aides triseriatus, the vector for the
La Crosse Strain of Encephalitis, has not been found in
areas of the marsh that have been monitored.

From a point of view of mosquito control, filling of marsh
areas with fill or draining them does serve to lower
mosquito habitat. The area in question that the univer-
sity plans to fill probably is the least significant area of
the marsh from a mosquito habitat point of view for two
reasons. First, culverts controlling water flow are higher
than most of the marsh, and as such the area does not
receive flooding as readily. Second, in recent years the
area has been quite dry. The southern edge with its
heavy vegetation serves as a habitat for adult mosquitoes
coming off the marsh. Such an area is an interface
between the city and the marsh and can present some
problems.






27 Craig, pp. 34-36.


58







3. Economic, Social and Cultural Environment


TAX BASE


The +29 acre area owned by UW-La Crosse is not part of the real

estate tax base of the city. State-owned lands are not subject to

property taxes.


ZONING


The UW-La Crosse north campus property, as well as other portions

of the marsh, are zoned "residential" which reflects one viewpoint

that this lowland should be filled and developed for city expansion

thereby increasing the tax base for the city. An awareness of the

value of lowlands for flood control and wildlife habitat has had an

impact on the historic approach to some degree and will restrict

residential development.


FIRE CONDITIONS


Even though the UW-La Crosse property is not on the tax rolls, it

does require services for which the S--ate pays the City of La

Crosse. Occasionally, the city fire department must extinguish

fires in the existing environment. In the past five years,

twenty-two fires have occurred in the marsh. (See section F., item

20, for a list of the fires that have occurred in the marsh from

1972 to 1977.)


59






This marsh is also regarded by local marsh-abutting residents and

business owners as a potential menace and threat to their physical

well-being. During the past few years this general area has been

subjected to the effects of a progressive drought, and the marsh

was a virtual tinder box in 1977. In April, 1977, the extent of the

dryness was evident in a series of isolated fires in the marsh that

were followed by an out-of-control blaze which threatened homes

and business establishments abutting the marsh and traffic using

Lang Drive. (See photo in section F., item 21.)


Following this series of fires, it was estimated by the chief of the

La Crosse Fire Department that + 290 acres were burned and the

containment of these fires was at considerable extra expense to the

city. The major fire was extinguished by eighteen firemen after

five hours of effort. Lang Drive and Gorder Road were temporarily

closed and electric power poles were burned. The following day

another fire had to be fought which burned grass on university

property and threatened hillsides and homes located on the escarp-

ment to the south. In summary, during dry years there is great

danger of fires in and around the marsh. The cost to the City is

substantial since police protection costs increase proportionately

during firefighting seasons.


AESTHETICS


The appearance of the site is dependent on the viewpoint of the

beholder. A naturalist, a hunter, and a developer will all see it

from a different perspective. To some it is a quiet place to enjoy


60






nature and learn about the various plants and animals which inhabit

the marsh. Others see it as an undeveloped open space which

breeds mosquitoes and hinders expansion of the city. In reality it

is a combination of both aspects. Lang Drive and Gorder Road, as

they now exist, are not attractive roadways and actually degrade

the appearance of the marsh. Both roads have deteriorating pave-

ment and shoulders which need upgrading and landscaping. Gorder

Road has a large growth of volunteer trees and shrubs along its

south edge which improve the appearance of the road.


HISTORICAL AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES


There is no known historical site or structure worthy of preserva-

tion in the proposed project site according to Dr. George Gilkey,

Professor of History at UW-La Crosse (See Gilkey letter, appendix

A-6.)


RECREATIONAL USE


The project site is used only occasionally by individuals for wildlife

observation and photography as compared with other parts of the

La Crosse River Marsh. The dense strands of river bulrush dis-

courage most people from walking through the area even though the

water level is usually low enough to permit it. Most activity involv-

ing observation of wildlife or of the changing site is done from

Gorder Road and from the hills along the south edge where shade

trees, firm soil, or pavement provide a more comfortable location

from which to observe the lowlands easily. Joggers use an aban-


61






doned roadway which runs along the base of the wooded hillside

instead of running through the high vegetation of the marsh.


ACADEMIC USE


Most of the research and observation of wetlands, an activity which

is promoted by the UW-La Crosse biology department, is undertaken

in the areas north of Gorder Road where a greater variety of

wildlife habitats exist and where abandoned roadways provide easy

access. The biology department faculty differ in their opinion of

the value of the university-owned land because of its physical

separation from the rest of the flood plain and because of its

general inaccessibility as an outdoor classroom.


62







E. Description of the Proposal


1. Location and Accessibility


The proposed site is located south of and adjacent to the right-of-

way of Gorder Road. (See photo in section F., item 2. ) Except

for a thirty-foot strip of city property along the edge of Gorder

Road, it will be accessible from three directions. The community

and the University would have vehicular access to Gorder Road

from East Avenue North and from Lang Drive. Bicyclists would use

East Avenue North which leads directly to Mitchell Hall, a distance

of eight-tenths of a mile. A proposed access trail from Oakland

Street will allow pedestrians from the main campus or the community

on the south to walk or jog to the athletic fields. This trail would

use an existing land form which extends from the elevated hillside

on the south like a peninsula protruding into the site. The steep-

est grade is approximately 7% which would provide a good location

for a walk and jogging path. The peninsula extends from the north

end of the right-of-way of Oakland Street which abuts the Univer-

sity's north campus property.


2. Aesthetic Concerns


The aesthetic functions of the project have been taken into con-

sideration as well as the utilitarian functions. The project attempts

to create a facility which has a positive impact upon the visual

senses. The proposed landscape design goes beyond simply creat-

ing fields with a bare, austere environment. The creation of an


63






appealing place for physical activity would make the facility more

inviting for community use as well, and would become a visual asset

to the campus and community rather than be a concrete intrusion

into the natural landscape.


3. Natural Topography


In addition to a low-profile fill of a three-to-four-foot rise, the

edge of the fill would be curvilinear to blend with the existing

natural curves of the escarpment to the south. (See development

plans in section F., item 9.) The grade on the edge would vary

from 5% to 50% to create different visual effects and habitats for

trees, shrubs, and ground cover plants as well as creating a

natural appearance. The instructional golf greens, which would

utilize otherwise unused space between the baseball fields, would be

mounded to diminish further the flatness of the fields. The rise

from one flat level to the other would be done in a curvilinear

fashion to avoid an unnatural appearance. The land form along the

north boundary of the field development would be straight because

of locating the land fill as close to Gorder Road as possible. The

existing trees and shrubs now along Gorder Road, and those to be

planted along the newly created edge, would camouflage the linear

space between the road and the site while providing nesting habi-

tats for wildlife. The east slope of the Maintenance and Stores

facility site would be extended several feet westward from existing

property posts preventing irregular slope reocurrences due to ero-

sion problems. Preparation of this area would allow for ease of

maintenance and control of surface water.


64








4. Fill Material


The physical development of the project site involves transporting

an estimated 150,000 cubic yards of fill material for use in creating

a + 29 acre firm base for the construction of outdoor physical

education fields and supporting facilities. Fill material would be

sand. This material is available at Holmen, Midway, and Brices

Prairie. The old race track near Oak Street is presently providing

fill for the development of a new high school.


The fill material would be secured on a contract basis through a bid

process. The source of fill material would be the commercial

responsibility of the contractor. A settling-in period of several

months would be necessary before final grading is completed in

preparation for field development. Coordination of the City's Lang

Drive project with this project would facilitate the letting of a

single contract, to be administered by the Wisconsin Department of

Transportation, for placement of the fill. This might result in

economies of time and money, and would minimize disruption in and

around the project site.


The cost of the project would vary depending upon the cost of the

fill material. The possible use of Mississippi dredge-spoil has been

suggested in an effort to help dispose of this material. The Wis-

consin Department of Transportation has investigated the feasibility

of using dredge-spoil for their Lang Drive improvement project.

Their figures indicate the public costs would be at least $5.30 per

cubic yard. If a stockpike of dredge-spoil is available at a site
65






within a reasonable hauling distance from the project site when the

project is let to contract, the contractor will have the option of

using this material. The Department of Transportation has recently

agreed to use dredge-spoil depending on its availability and on

suitable conditions. (See Cattanach letter, appendix A-14.)


5. Topography of the Land Fill


The placed land fill would have four different levels, each relatively

flat, and would be sloped only to allow for proper drainage of the

fields. The approximate proposed elevations of the four areas are

637 feet, 638 feet, 641 feet, and 648 feet. Three areas are below

the one hundred year intermediate regional flood elevation of 643.6

feet above sea level. (See map of the three elevated areas in

section F., item 10.)


Annual spring water flows may inundate the two lower levels for

two weeks or less during the spring, (See Flood Data Table,

appendix C-5.) The proposed elevations will not greatly affect the

use of the fields due to the short period of inundation. The open

green space and the landscape plantings would be well suited to

flooding without damage, much like a park development. Creating

elevations which are above periodic flooding patterns would increase

the cost for fill materials proportionately.


66








6. Landscape Plans


The conceptual landscape planting plan for the north campus de-

velopment project will use native trees, shrubs, and ground cover

plants along the edges of the project where the land form comes in

contact with the existing natural landscape. Native Wisconsin trees

and shrubs which already exist in the surrounding landscape, and

which are adapted to a flood plain habitat, will visually blend the

project with the environment. They will also provide food and

shelter common to the birds and animals which inhabit the marsh

and adjacent property. A suggested list of plant species for the

proposed site is found in section F., item 22.


7. Vegetation Preservation


A portion of the fill site measuring approximately 180 feet by ninety

feet which contains large silver manles and cottonwoods will be left

untouched. (See photo and map location in section F., item 23.)

Preserving the trees, shrubs, and native grasses of this slightly

raised area in the marsh will not detract from the use of the phy-

sical education facility and will add to the natural appearance of the

project. The fitness trail will meander through these trees so

people can enjoy the beauty and the shade of the mature growth.

(See map of fitness trail in section F., item 12.)


67








F. Maps and Graphics

1. La Crosse River Watershed
2. Aerial Photo: UW-La Crosse and Adjacent Marsh
3. Aerial Photo: City and La Crosse River Marsh
4. Aerial Photo: Marsh Flood During 1978
5. Contour Map of Project Area
6. Vegetation Map
7. Campus Master Plan/Alternate
8. Site Model
9. North Campus Proposed Development Plan
10. Elevations of Proposed Project Area
11. Cross Sections of Proposed Project Area
12. Exercise Fitness Trail
13. (a) and (b) Proposed Alternative "I" Field Development Areas
14. Existing Park and Recreation Areas
15. Noise Level Chart
16. Design Noise Level/Land Use Relationship Chart
17. Vascular Plant Flora List
18. Map of Areas in Harris Study
19. List of Birds Observed in Area Two
20. List of La Crosse River Marsh Fires (1972-1977)
21. Photo: Marsh Fire April 9, 1977
22. Suggested List of Vascular Plant Species for North Campus
Development
23. Vegetation Preservation Photo and Map Location
24. List of Wildlife Species Observed in La Crosse River Marsh


69








F,. 1


PROJECT RI.^ RIVER
V AREAJ~'" LA CROSSE
IOWA
MISSISSIPPI RIVER WATERSHED

0 100 200 MILES


I


9 LA CROSSE RIVER, STATE ROAD ;
COULEE AND EBNER COULEE WATERSHEDS
0 5 10 15 20 MILES













w
U,
0

0




4
u.

0




I-








\
U,
2:







iLL














0

Z
o^
U)



2:


























w

4
*3:










4
LL



w





0
€0





w
I-

0

IU






2:



0

0
I-i



a.
t"














2:

w























A~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ,~,'1 ...



C)~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ C A. 'I.
:i~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ .. . ...................












i:-:iii:-:i::i-:: i:i:iiiiiiiiii :_ : : : -_-ii:- iiiiiiiii:-i ::i- iiiiiiii---iiiiiiii:iiiiiiiiiiiiii-:ii ::::::: ::::::ii:iiiii:i--iiiri:iii:-
:::: ::::: ::_ ---'-' I ._....._ :ii-.il; _ i--i-iii iiiiiiiiii-':::--':':- -:: ... iiiiiiiiiiiiir '-' :.: '':-- "''''''''''':'- ::-... .:::'. '-':':'-:'i'-'_,iiii:i i:iii-i:iiiiiiiiiiii
:--:: - -:::':--'--- ::_:::_i:i-i :::: :::::-_:-:--i:i:ii__:::li-:-::..:ii:.:: ---- :'---:iiis:i-.i:3:iiiiiiiiiiiiiii liiiiiiiii-ii:ii :ii-i:i::-i-i:::::::i::::::'-:::::-:-:':-:-:;ii-ii-;-: :
: --i-i-i:i:i i-i--- -i-iii-i:i-i i-i-
:'9':':: :"":::: : iiiiii: --iiji: ii: iii-i iiiii-iiiii-i-:- i-i :::::::-:1- : ::: . -:: ::: : :: iii:iiiii-iiiiisijiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii
-:- - -i-i-i-i:i -::- i: i:-iiiiii:i iii-i ii-:iiiiiii iiii:--:-ii_- .. _i_-i:iiii :i:- ...: I::I--:-- i::-: -i-i:i- i:i-ii: i:i:i- :::: :::::: :: : :: i:---:--
-: ---::: -:--i -:i-i- ---:-:-- ---:-:------:i::- --:i:--i-i-
.E;ii.. ...: -i-ii:i:i-iiiii:i-ii:i-i:i:ii-:iiilii:ii .
: - -I-i:-:-::l 'i:i::ii:i:i:iii:iiiii:i-iiiii: iii :::: . i :. ::: -iiiii-i:i:i: ;. _ ---i-i:i "''''''' ''''''' ' '-'
--: _ :: -: ::-i- -i:i-ii--:i-i-i i-i:iiiii- :ii- -::-i:i:i-iiiii-i-iiiii-ii-iiii:i:i::-i--:-i:,a-ii --:i-iii-i-i-i iiiii ::::.._
:. i-i:i- ::--: --:i:--i -i-i _ -: ::_::_:-:i::-._-__
::_ --::.--: :-:--:::: :::-_ --: :-:-:::; :-----.. -::-
-i:i-i-i:i:i-iii: I:% D-: i-i:iiiiiiiie ::
:-----: -i-ii--_:T iiii
iiiii-i:_:iiir .;-.-. -i-iii:;:: iii--i-i`i
-iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii - i iiiiii-iiiiiil;:i::iii . :: :i_ _ii
-i-i :.. -iiiiiiiiii--l-irl- --: -iii-i-ii--i::: -iii`iiiiii--- :
- iiiiiiiii ii-ii_-:li:i-iiiiiiiiiiiii-i .- -:i_-:_:i:i-iii:iii::__li:ii_ : ..:..:_-_ ,_ill:-:iiil-I
i:i
"-'''----:' ii:i -- -li-:-iiiii:-i-i:: ii
: ;i_ :i ii :.:::._ iiii:-i-i:ii__i__:_ i-::i .::..: .::. i: -.: - -:-::I:: ii---iiiiii:-i iiiiiiizii _i_ : -__
-i-i:i-i, -: i i-i
i-i i:--:-zizlii _-.:..:_ ---- iiiii:ii: -i-:i-
iii::: .:-- i-i::iiiii-iiiii :ii iii:i iiliiiis
:_::_::::__:_:__-_:iii:____:_:iii-i-iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiilii:- iiiiiiiiiili:i:ii:i
i:i -i-i:i-i-i-i- -iii:ii:i- :ii::i-i:iii iiiiiiiiiiiiii :::::;i:;:i:::i:-i::(:_:
i ::_iiiiiiiiiiiiiii ... .. :i:i:i:i---iii-i-:i
:,:iiiiir '--:_I!_-""- _iiii -::-- : ..: ':::-
.. ..:::::__ ... i iiii -:- i-:-::-----i-i-i:i:i -i:i:i:-i-i:-i:_- -i-::i-i-i-:-i -i:i:iiii-i:iiiii-i-ii-iii-i:i:i i-i:_-i:-i:i-i ': -iii:i:i-iiii :i-i:sii:--iii:.i ...:.. ..- ... :i:i .. iiii ii:i:i--i-i-i i-:i iiii:_i::i:i::i-- --:: - -:I:-.--'I-
-:--:-:::::-:':- .: ---:: _i-;i-:i_-:-
---I::-:! ''' "'':'''':i -.---- -:-_-----iiiiiiiii:--i:iii-- iii:ii .....:... iiiiiii
:-:: :- ::-: --:-- :::::i-i-::--:::i:i iiiiii-::ii:..-.::....----- --:-_ iiiii: i:iiiii:i:-:::--;iisi I
-: :-i-i i -i:--:i iiii---i:i:i :.::: i-i:ii-i
:ii-iiiiii-- iiii -. :' -::'' :- :-::::'-r iagiiaiii I
:, ..: --i- :..::_ --:-:--i ::-.-- -... ::i-i :i-:::i:i--:::-: -:. iiiiii iiiiiii ii:i:i-i ..:.. ;iiiiiliiiiiii
-:_--::-_-------:-_: -,:-i-i--iiii:::iiiiiiiiiii-i:iii'-:.-.: iiiiiji-
i-i- :: _-:-:iaili:i :i:i:i-:i--:-:- ----:: . -i:_ .
-::-----:iii iiiii-iiiii:i:iii-'j::i:i:-:i__ hi: _::::::::::::: ' :---ii-i:i-i-: II I---::-:-
:..::.._;_ i:ii- --: :-:_:::::: : :: liii:i_ :iijiio:i;;-i-i_- :--li-:-ili_
i-iiisiiiiliiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiii-iliii::-iiiiililii-i:iii-,: i- i iiiiii .:-.:
-i-i:,-i:i::i:iii-ii;-ii----ii-i :.:...:: .:.. -i:iiiiiiiii:;iiiiiiii-iii i- B
iiiii:iiiiiiiliijiiiiiiiii-iiiiiiiiiiiii
-ii:i:i-i-i-ii-i-i:i:i:i-iii:i:iii .:..:: iii ii-iiii_:Eiiiiii--i-:ii iiiiiii -i:iiiiiiiii;iii:i-ici:ii
----- .-..: : ...::::_ .:: :_:_ _-----:-:":::E--'-:-::::::- ::.. -_-::I . --:-----:.:
i:- :_. _ .:: --i-:--i:i-izii:8-i-i:i i:i:i::i::--.--: -i:i-i--i-i:i:i:ii:ii::- -_-:--
_:_:-::: ::_____-:::l-i-i:i;-iii ---:i-:':'-:-:i':::'I:-:---:i:::----i-: --::: -I-i-
iiiiii::_-iiiii-: i:iiiiiiiiiiii:iiiiiii:iis:i--::,-,-, . -:::i i_ ::..__
,ii _iiiiiiiiiiii:_i:ii :::::: :::::::::::::::-:::1;:::::::::::;::: :::::-:
--- i-ii : : .::: ii- ..... -:...:::_ -iii:--lii:li--- liii -iiiiiiiiiiii-iil-iiiiBi-iiii.liiiiai
-i-i-i i-i ili:i:i-i:ii:i::ii'- i i-i-i-i-l:i'i,iii:-- ... -:--i:-lri' i.iii iii
::: :
:i--- :i- :-::--:- i:i-----i 'i:ii-i-i--:i"-i-;lli: -i-i:i -i-i:e:ii .... i-ii-i'Ziici iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiili i-iiiiiiiii:iiiii-id
--aWii:--i:-:_i:--i'iiii:ii-i:ii:i-i-i:i_-_i-iii--i:-liiir-i:i-i:jii'i?iiiiiii:ii::i-i.i l
i:: i:i-i:i:i-i-i-i:- ::::: - ::i::-:::-':i--:::- -ii- -i-i'iriiiFiii-::-ii_-ii'
_i:--:::- .-.- i iii ..-.-__ i:i- -iiii-i-iiiiiiiii.iiiiii-iii: :i:i-i-i:i:i-ii:-i---:i:
iiiii-i-iiniii:
i--i-iiiii:i:--:::-:--i:i:i :--::i:i:i--i:i -:::--iiiiiiiil-;a-: -:i i --- i
..::: iiiiiiisisii:iiiiiiiiiiiii:i:i::_-i- -,___:iii-:i_-:-ii:ii-::--iiiiiiiiiiiii
iiiiiiiii'ii'_ii:liiii -:iiii iii;i:ii -ii: --i:iii=iiiili:ii;-iii:iiiiiiiiF::
ili-::::ii:i:i;i-s :...::: hi::: - i ....::'_ :-.:':::- iii i:i;i:iiii-i:-
-i-ii:i:iii-.a:iiiiliiiiii:i-i-i-i-i:ii : i---ii-i:::i-i-iiiii-- : i -::--:i:i- -:--
::::::::::::::::::i:::::::::::: -:::::-._ ::: i ::: .:: .... : : : -: :::_ ---_:: ...... iiiiiiLiiii:::iC
: iii!iiPE:: :::isiii:ii-i jiiiijii:- iiij*:-:
iiiii:ii-iiiniiliiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii-?: . ::::-:_::_:::-:::::i:i:: ::_:-:_- ::- :_:-::-
ii:i-i-iiiC:i-i- -i-i::iiiiiii:iliiiiiii i- :-_ i! li_.__ BiiiaiiiiiZiii'-i"i
iiii'iii:ai:iaiipili:i-i:i-i-i:i-iiiiii '- ....- ..
-.iii--i-:: Fiiii-iiii:i:i
-iii-iiiiiiiiiiiiiliiii:i:i--ii:iiiiiiiiii-i- :
-iii-i:iii;iiiiiii-iiioiii-i i:iiiiiiigiiiiiiiiiiii :i:iiii:i:i:iii: - ii:i:ii i;iii3iiiiiii: :-:::: ..' -'i-i--i
-:'',-.::iiiiiziiiiii --:----:i'-''''::'- iii5lli::ii:: . iiii9
ia - ,i i ..:. i-ii, s
'i:..'l'_l-ii-tiii-iii'-:liiiiiii: .- ::;iii iiijCiiiiliiii'i:i:i- - ::: ::: :: :::_: ::: : " 1
ai;il.iiiiiiiiiiiiiiii i-iiiiiiiii::-i'i'i''"':;'''''''''''' '::: _iiiiiiiiiiiii:iiii:ii:i.:i:iiii:il- : : :::: ::: ..:.. ... :::::: :::: : :
iiii;iiii:,iiliiipiiii;iiiiiiiiii.iiii-iii:i:l-iiii;iiiii i-i:i-
:-:::' ::::::;::::i::::::::-::-:i_:'::::Fi:--i ::::-_ -.:.-.:."-
-iiiiaii
::-:- -:-:'::: -:::-i -i-i:-,:-_':::rii::-i:-:liiiz:i:-_--:
i--iii:i-i:iii-ii-:aiiaiiiii-ili-i:i-.i i-ii;ii-iii:ii-i:::-::i-i- i : I i:iiiiiii i:i-ii-i iiiiiii%.iiiiiiiiiiiis:::--:i:--::::- . ::: : --:-::'-":':-:- --
-i-i-i:i:-:i--F ii:-iiiiiii-iii'-i-;: ::::'-::::: -i---i-i i:ibiiiiifiiii:i:l:i::i:i-i: Ciiiii-ii::: iiiiiiiii-iii:i
g'i'i-i-i'i'iiiiiL;::i:i-i:i-ij.
i2B:lal :I ..:::::i ir
i-i-i-iiiii:iiiii;':ll:-:i.r:: _:::i . i iiiiiiil ,'iiiiiii
-ilii8iiii-iii-iiiliii-i :-i- ::i :: :::::::
:::: i-ii-:i::iiiii-:i ::::::-::i:::i.-i i;ii:i:_iii-
-
iiiiiiiiiiiiii-iiii ..... :i-i:ii :
i-i-i: .- .. :.. -::
;*:::-:: i:::_-;a9 "I:
i..-iaii iici_,-i.. --i: I
::::ii i:i . .:.--:: -: -:iiii -::: ::i::--i-:l-
--:-i--:i:i:i-:i:-i-i-i :: --::
:: -ii:-: i-i-i-i
iiiii':l'ilr-:oii:.;l'ii;iii:;ill;:i -::: :-: i---i- i:i-
ii-ii
A
:i:,iii.ijiiiaiiiziiiii-,iiiii,:i
_--:I:iii-iililai?li'-icfiiiiiiii-ii-iiiiii8iiii I::i-ii:-i i:i-i I-ii: -i:: ::
i;;iiiiii:i iiiii .:..: i-i--_
i-i-iii-i-iiiJi2iiii:-iii:
:-::- --:--- i:i--- :-i- i:
iiii: I:_ -_- I .. --i!i ...:..:_ .:.. ::-

.-: -s:::::. .:...:.-. i .:::: :. i--i--i .... ..:.:-_ _:i :
': ''I: '-:-- --" ''': ":--'- :'I':'-'':'"'''''''''"''''' -'-'':'-'-'-''--:- -i I:-Dl:il --:;:'- -::'---
i:- .. ii .: i:i-__ ::--- :-:-i:-iii:i-ii-i-i:i_:iii:ii-i:i:ii-i;
:..:::._ ---iiiiiiiiiii .:::.:. i-'-:li
---:-:-i-:-i:-:- i-i:i-i-i:iiii iiiiiiiiiii: :
:-:iiii-iii i- li:ili-i :.:B.:.:: i-:i:iii:i-iii:iiiii iiii-: :
-:::::-:::; ..::-:: -:: : - ::iii--iiiiiiiii iii ..-. --iii-i-ii:i_::::-:-:::
Il;:;-:,liii-i:iiiiici
iiii:iiiii:li--:- i:i ..: ii-i . i-ii-:i --. -:-i i:-_ b*.: :

i-iQiil--i:ii:;..:ili.-,i:
iiZ-i-ii-i-iiiiiii
::iiiisiDii*
iiiiiiiii ii
-:ii- .:.:.::.:
iiisiiiiiii-i-i:-:i`ZI
iiiii\iiii i:ii;i:iiiaiiii iiil:iii:i:iiii;
ir i:iiisiiiii,:: i_ -,_i___i i iii:iiiiii:-:lii_- .::.: i-i
w;s:ii
..:: iiiii-,iiiiciii-ii
aiiiiiiiiii:iiiiibiii;'i:ii:''iiiiiiiii ii:i iii i:-i-iiii
:::: ::::_--i-::i:---:i:--- iiiii ii :: ii:: ii:
:1 :iil: i-i-;?-::::-ii-; --i:iiii-iiiial:::::ii:iii'-iiili::i' ii ii:i-i) :::::: :::__: iii-i-i-i:i--::-iiiiiiii'iiiiiii--i:'-i
--::- -iiiiiii:i:iiiiiiiiiil -iil:iiiiii-ii:i.::. i-:iiii i-i-i -i-i-i -i-i-i- :
-:- - ---- ..-.-.-: :iiiii-i:i-ii;iii-:lii-i-i:i-i:iiii::i: -..:.. i -:i ii :___i -:ii _iiii iii ii-i
''-''':- ::----:-''-'''-" ':':' '''''----i::::ia:;isiliii:'i:iii-iiii -i--:i i-i-i iii:i:iii:-iii/ii :iiiiiiiii:ii-i:iiiiiii: iiiiiiiiiiiiiicii
ii- iii:iiiiii:i::li;i-i:i:i*i:i:i-i:iii iii-ii-iiji iiiiiiiiisiiii;iii-i-i-ii:iiiiiaii-.ii
_ .:.: .::.... -:-:: -:::---:I:_: :_::::::iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iii iii: :-....: i-i::iiiiiziiiiiiiii-i:i-iiiiiiiiii :i-iii- i
:i'-:-'"'i:i:-::--iii--:W1-i-ii:iiiii i-i-r :iiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiii
--;;:l-.--u--r-:;:is-- n ;s*i -i!; BEi -:--
.: _--i:i:i.:i:iiiciiii:isi:i-i-i:i-ii iiiiii-iiii-li:i:;-:iiiiii;iiii--
I;sij" -
-i:--ii:i:liiiiii-:i-;:i.i,_i:i_i:i:i- iii-iiii-il "iiiiiiii:'i'i':'-i':''''-::- i':' :'-:' 'i'i'i'i'::iii .-. -:I i-------i
: i-iiiiiii:iiiiiiiiiiiii li-i-i-i:i-i i:i:niiii':lis.-:ii:i
:::: ::: i-=iia:iii-,iiiiii: _:. -::--:iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii
-:-:-:- : i-iiiiiiiiiiiiiii iijiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii-i-l-ii-l







10~~


. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~.

'~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~l IL %
", -'-4~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~t
D '-~" ~"
IN~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~1
' C.O<00~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
.~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~O J


" ~ ~,--'1~~c:~
LLJ
Z >
'~.~x + ' ,-., --I~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~/










0-

:lo~~~~~~~~ u l
ItIU






to'


r81 ^* '2 - J'. ' /
^ )^ y. fi. ',; \,'.^ ? -,~~~~'.~-- .





I


;':o~j (.0 D>tTro I ( 7c -cO

X ,CD <: Q, H F5 I HH H2 c 1
rh n iJ D) O CD O (D ) 2 < C CL rft
0D CD CD t C r ,
fI t , C ( DD C)D > (D ( CD

C( C) CD- - ( - ) tl O
CiJX<UnH ' ( CD J
,(' f) ~CL CDH ^ 0 0 ~0 0

U P; '-; | mm.~ o >

/)~ crD 0 ' r+ H 0 < CD C/ )- 0O




; ;^ d. > Ft n 'Qw 0
0' PJ ' H-C C- CD H D
CDD1ri 0CD OH- CDCL

0 1- - H- 0 CD 0 Dl H- H 0.
H- . |H-P. f < H. -5 -u CD H- H-
I rD lt)li 0 - l HP- H 0 D

.(D L-<l H CDCD




J 1

. Tn , .,
C /
t-.-L 9(


Co



41


-4~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~4


~ilq,, I


'V: -
.t ,
.4 ::


-' O ,





























F-












(c/)
rn'
*.t 6


s* >, _o X w6


. r: 'n


i ~::::, /%
S . sY


" -D ,

I n
.;> ::



S , ! 4
? s 3 :i/'
*cr ':-



' C l



' '..

' .. .":'
i __ e *
ii^ s L. Z


Cli





CD

CD)





CD


IlLJ


CD






0


Fait,P1 k CO

* - m
C) . A..

0"-I'1 ''''
U) . W
U)Cl


!:


v .


't


P'-"


I


or


:.


I I I
i

I111..1,.....m .
....... I
...1.
......I..
j.>... .
. .


4 V

om


A


e/. I'j
.VnX.e i


r. 1, I . : ,
Ift,
*.-: . wlk
10.-, I


1, v 0
,.. o
I:1...ir
lll.,. * -*- It -
V, t., II w
 A10 q
i#,,;> '. Ao







Fi, 7


,.,


j BASEBALL

i R~G 240

PG! .."

i, ^ BASEBALL ' T
I~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ I

l - :. IV.: T l
i d; 13


'.;'-i:? : UNDISTURRED OPEN SPACE



:*^ - ''^ 'b'':
\ I' . ';",- ::



'"',,%4,:~,,; ,.-, i. /:,. ",,< . .




;!o
; " . i _







* ~ ~ ~ ~~.. ~" '~ [ i
i * , '}i 'i;*,' ,







,, ,.,..i' ;
- , j 0 *




[195E

,... . .. ,-, B:'
..:| , , i.




.: ~ !,:!; ' X:
1 - ' *i- I* ' i'^ '


















, , I
:j







m.j


-: .... / B ' ' , , ,.o, ,r' , -. HAL | - \ ....i.. :' i F r' ,D vQ -o Dpl
J" q^3QiL-.J Q /'fir- '-?*_r- s rJ 3 p 1ti LJ ,'
* ;^*; !ir- ;^ r8 ^ BUS E^iX a*^ y ':. *** /^ 1 s ^? n * 01 - ) D ; j


n r ^ -- r AUERN~~~~~~~~~~~~rE PLA~~~~~~sT L
----i-'m,,. . 1'. ' " ,@,'-. " -=- i.. . LACR S S-
BUS com, I BlA1 ,i;) AD S X ,A , wE US -'# ' *' '"""' '''"''"K !

; < ;I : :~ r; :- .- ---- NOrTH 0
4 ~ I H I * s0) i', r A I9J- Itoo l~it J D ,,, S , s_ 8GRASS AREAS
[kJil Lji-LI3.~ ....
Li oj L. * --,;- ',. i. J '_ J.PARKING 1,969CARS
.. .. _..._i _._
MAIN STREET
- ........' ALTERNATE PLAWNI
I~~~~~ UW' LA CROSSE,



Fj 8


w
cU)
0
cc
U

z
Zr
0

z
U-

=.4 LL
z 0

z
(i Z


z
U/)
z
0
C/)


cr
-.


LU.
CD
LUJ
--
el)


I


~'~-~~~~~ i~,-~ ~-. .~.~.~ ........~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~.: .......... .........
........~,..., '''~~~.~~...~ ~~~ ~~ ~ ~ ~.i~~~~,~!~~~! ~..."'11.~1'i~~.i~-i~i


i


I

F,j 9





F,. 10


I
1-
.*1 _ -
I \ . ! .


.


2S
LL

w
0-

on


,I

'C


P.































I



















)
i

























Ar


8-
rA


| to i 4 - | X















t1
0~~~



















bi~~~~i
2 \


















3 ~ ~~~~~ \






'D~.
0 \ *i










0 [S |- , \
.sa








F 1 \ * M n
!/ '0
%~ o u
,,> 0 i


Y~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
.iI
to 0 o
z bL v
7 r C<
. -,i-7 3 c-<. '/-

--,T7 ; ivfr - e7>>s -t.r.s'


tu Li
o e

Z >-

0 f<J
i 1
Lk


0
Ul
oe
t !

0 nZH


go
jJ





-1
tL
C)



0
(111


cl,
td
0
Ct
0
d


f-ll ^hs.(
a0




Al
Be..., !

0 L
X t


Jo'.
....
mu


0


i


U
V.
0
0
cA


;rlkl T^^t^ ^"^^--'"^


_S Mg0S~................ .... ~ sv~wf4_ 9i<Rs4vXsgo
li ~ I tM o q d,/-1 Cr


'1 S13 3 Al
4. .

~.-.,. .





Ji 1. F, 12

.P z01N-vDEi'
\\ I~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~FI

\ \~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~4

I~~~~~~~~~~~I




ri~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~-
i;t,r^r~'^ *'" -<<w^ - -" -''-..-.-. MeluON 3nN3 3 V FQ CO) H m c;5 F M U. C7 . a: 0D ,^ 0: U _ - -_- „ ) /T U C
'N^^ /tL?)/**/>^'^,~r^ - 'rC^-T-^LLIrcU- aE-. pi,Q en o, FfiFo<XF^u ;vHIP4 -- _ -
\'W f ^ \ * - '/Afl '" LL ^-C^ ^^^---^^" ? -1 < r. FQ i M M ^) l, r, ; ^ Er- rM M ^ < H W C.'; 0 < r - $ ..fa^. - .J^ ,t | EI Si
!1 \ g Wzl. - >I A u vI s n z r ' Et t o rl > i <- a: r s ! ( + =: = g !~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ -,~D IXI 'D

ipij^L S' ^ j//^/'f/ /(\r ^--0 ^ wQ^ j ,<CMn rrs n Xr7 =t9C m'; -_ t- 1 0\co 11 Oi
*II 'l '^,^1i' 'l^"~' ---""" --; /7?1 1'\6''- '-2!-1 S&H P-l ^5?-i p;!; LQS5^0!^0^-i HHIHAH r-i Hri r-i r .

tl ,~~~~~~~~~~~~~~t





- -1~~~~~~~~~~~~~6-



, ,~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~s

^|^t~~~~~~~~~- W La =--r/V^^oJ?^';'l^^y '





90 \: O~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~9
L; _j



*'liir'.:^:;*"'. H ^^' ^'s""--^" "<'," ^TYr )"***''*'**''.'l| '!'*^^\it,''' 3',1


Lo





































































1;-


:ii :. * l/:










; 't6- -
642! I
.^ f.'t \ ! A c 'l
:]:|.:,' \ P l I |*;


/-...... .....i : „ -:'"-:
iX- SU-U-l 0 Cr- l j liil. -- "; : .^<:' 21 /i ^?^: -/:


__:/iE ey S. ._ sT 'l^ /,':-- :,i I" *~ 1( f 7^1~ * ™1' n-' 1 kU^U!'% ^' D '
M - -.f1. \ ' " '....... OI'

' I ........1 . " .... ....).. .._ *.... ,W'S'. "a

'4J -- JL..~ L *.Gn 0 1 / /* X,<4^ | WB) ; t.-^.e
X~~~~~:,. [.V-, :L--~ .I1%gE,\OSing ...'t.."l. - ;
.. '7" ' il" .. . . . .

! .......^^:i .;... i ~"....:...i~.. F , 13 (A) ;::..
.....i- i......... fiw..:
40.?







..... :' :s '"z"~e J .. > ' . ~ . - :. . ; .|:.: '
~i:.ll?:. : , :: ,'i(...'. ...,,.. -. . .


i: ..i. .' . '. o \'' ' . */ . .................
*,,, S j-,|i , '. _|:* '! :"\. , ' '?'*V....... =/========================.......'
1.4 ^1 J 29.'1 I0 To C it W 11 ' - * '\ ' |; . , .,, ,, \--' (Tower



i~~~~ ly Su bsta |1ri ' j:;"-1 : , ; !| \L \*. t\\ -, ' .} '-<



'~ r--t 1 G X0W ",.::'%-%x>,"
|^vi4 : - | M ^~kij.. . \ | -- ... L...


I'0!! !| 1 3 2 :- :. -' - . \0 0 I"H ,\\ I - -
-. -*i, |..!: .- _. (:. , ' :*C* iy W>.i edClsud . . ::..:*..~. \1,FT-/-: "- - .

BSfll1;*:11 :",**'1-Q**:: -as-Crr085-;n; :ir\-jj,ipa.k , \ E . ..-. . k ' - ...... .. \- .


-e^D~~~ - --1- ii . i * . i *\ i , " ^' '^loPali M- - n, i1/ 1 $V"-.^' Wtt

1 I1!!a- - 1= : ^caR , & ' \\ I, ,,,f ^ i'j-->oc'' ^ '
7sh z R, jc - --' ' 'T -----l r










i -'LAC 0, O Et[ i ^;- | i- J - -^.?s s T
- I, jC .tj d t,o To rt Ao th Ate ,F 5 Bl ..s tgr 'rnt *, , fr t< < 00^ f0V,,, ,:^ ~^
............... ........S ..ti : ;, ..... ,................. " ,,,- !. .1- ... .











Xw >S h '1 '.f> 'r ' Wi ;' G 'i tY
...... s I ,I .J J ' j t I 1 - : \ ; jl-4 _ <
t*^l~~~ ~~~-^ -iN -J- 11









~- || l""^ I if'7 sb ""ai M~~~~~~~~ifor~~~he'A~~if'':E;-''P ~ ~ ~ " ' :~ i--%, .'"i " " - -'"" _--:: . .......
I ,l-.,|w^^, j ^ i ^ jL,4,^| ^ i ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~.-.O. i.:.""i;^^.-?-1-'
,|L.^,,JI .„,,.., .IL^^JL.J ..,. .,*^--"^,..-:^i--^ J o,,,,:i..-.,-iL.^ .t:::i. . . . ...|% .. .................. . ....
0!_J ~ ~ l'sh:[( . [olj* .... .
IH-2i'" 9:?I-, .
'D~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~,.
















;!......- L'!i™1 ^jt~~~~~~~~~m~s~~itai 11iiii11n i i n j, r ;, , 5 * , ./*'.* :;:,: /i....^..' : :'t" ,.. -...'^s" .:.
11 i'111"" 1^ T f:"' ^ :'~ iio :fe '* v s -: i l -^


I
i'
F-


L) 1 -i-


:r~i
1.. .....
,!!.......
-~. , . ....

7-?F ,....


3>


I :1 / * *-.I:
./,.-^ .:v .,[
.... < .... . -_: "


' ' 3nt OU/ ... i. .
:,,s -":,~- '-i _ . . ! T ?
. '~i , '....-*
.'% North * X.,"
* La Crosse .... :--
- 1 1 ; '-.t,.-


ii .


uostatlon', * I
^^ ~~~~~.'* , ' :x' = y/
,,\ ' ' ' --*| x"64 '

.[. ') Tt! * J ! ,.ii'.-.
t\' U i-"'n!? 1. i- ,,.
><> 1S @ ' '^'"lli i ..V-Ai51

\ o \. \64 *@* * |-





ub a li- . i , -
\ .\ ,



'T~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

- ...:.... 4r 6 , -#

. <






:[~!~~~~ ::. .. i. ~.T.Mj1;=
'.'








Publc~tee WM 0 0~<, .
' ! . :. l......
D is posal - ,i. : ...........


i: ........

D isposal! :; - : 1^ .„ ,.!„~1!.....
:' ?t>-:,"::'''='~.._...... t _ J 53 ::

Public Access - - %~ ^
- ;^rO:^%l


P) '' C en'ter. I
ST!!S... . "... .


...... I


5


l,


t ! , ...... ,, X7:.......


I ,


I -,Jif"
i...'i||... ; _
I. ...... ....~ ~ ..... ......

' ' . ita ' ' :
:.............
. '..,
..... i :.i
~..... .'.... .i.


-if- : S j .-'.-..I: :.: . :i ::= , :- : ' - .....,,,, ..l,, 'J - _ z - '-
T! I :1 T , .........- :.....IT '.- i '''| ......'->T ::i.:": ALTE
: t i ' T ,.^ ' ;,'.........f T ... ,i..
-y: . ~ ' . ':' llen"f io ]i ' i"- '-:" - 1|~ -. ' . ,,,~ ; ', ' i
-- |S--i|1'W b te i T"""H, ? _1 Sl';1 * **'ir t ri _
T':... :.....:'' 'TI -....< I '
......4 ,-otT va$-,".,--<~: ':.'" ..-::,....:'.'. :-~ ..3.....: .........i!,' -.--::-__. ............ .= ... .........j

' : : 35' . : We'sfterTd...........i T' #, ~ r .............:Centern
...:.i.' ...:'..i .... ... ,~, _~ i TT TI i - i! .T.$ q.l TT






F.,, 13 (B)


ILi


-.-.--.-- MASTER PLAN BOUNDARY


-******* ALTERNATE PHY. ED. FIELD DEVELOPMENT AREA


ii r I






F., 14


CITY OF LA CROSSE

EXISTING


PARK & RECREATION
FACILITIES


PROJECT SITE


COMMUNITY


PARK


0 NEIGHBORHOOD PARK

* PLAYFIELD

* PLAYGROUND

- CITY LIMITS

CAMPUS PLANNING
UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN-LA CROSSE
LA CROSSE WISCONSIN


NORTH


i ---


1


0


or
LA CROSSE
WISCONSIN
cIrY ENGINEERS DEPT



F., 15


NOISE LEVEL CHART


COMMON OUTDOOR
NOISE LEVELS


NOISE LEVEL
(dBA)


COMMON INDOOR
NOISE LEVELS


-110


Jet Flyover at 1000 ft


--100


Gas Lawn Mower at 3 ft

Diesel Truck at 50 ft

Noisy Urban Daytime

Gas Lawn Mower at 100 ft

Commercial Area
Heavy Traffic at 300ft

Quiet Urban Daytime

Quiet Urban Nighttime
Quiet Suburban Nighttime

Quiet Rural Nighttime


Rock Bond


Inside Subway Train (New York)

Food Blender at 3 ft

Garbage Disposal at 3ft
Shouting at 3ft


80


Vacuum Cleaner at 10 ft

Normal Speech at 3 ft


- 60


- 50


- 40


- 30


Large Business Office

Dishwasher Next Room


Small Theatre, Large Conference Room
(Background)
Library


Bedroom at Night
Concert Hall (Background)


- 20


Broadcast and Recording Studio


- 10


Threshold of Hearing


COMMON INDOOR AND OUTDOOR NOISE LEVELS.




F., 16


DESIGN NOISE LEVEL/LAND USE RELATIONSHIPS


Design Noise
Level - 10


Description of Land Use Category


60dBA (Exterior)











70bBA (Exterior)




75dBA (Exterior)


55dBA (Interior)


Tracts of lands in which serenity and
quiet are of extraordinary significance
and serve an important public need,
and where the preservation of those
qualities is essential if the area is to
continue to serve its intended purpose.
Such areas could include amphitheaters,
particular parks or portions of parks,
or open spaces which are dedicated or
recognized by appropriate local officials
for activities requiring special qualities
of serenity and quiet.

Residences, motels, hotels, public meet-
ing rooms, schools, churches, libraries,
hospitals, picnic areas, recreation
areas, playgrounds, active sports
areas, and parks.

Developed lands, properties or actvities
not included in categries A and B
above.

For requirements on undeveloped lands
see paragraphs 5a(5) and (6), this
PPM.


Residences, motels, hotels, public meet-
ing rooms, schools, churches, libraries,
hospitals and auditoriums.


Land Use
Category


A


B


C


D


E




F., 17 z
z
0
u


uJ
C)
0
0:
U


L-
0

>-

uh








I
Oc








IE
U
0



Ir
QC
















n
Q:
0




















U
ir-











L-











z
2cLL




















.J


0L



(J)


-C
4-.)
E
(I-)


U,
0
z

r- 0

t U-)
EU







f) a

CU
(f


au)
w
E


m
CU

z
C
0
E
E
U




03








.u
U)
E
CU
z

(U
*u
CO

Ul)


CO







C









Q.
-c
zn
CU
E


LU co

< a)
Ial
<I


Z
DU
zo
D


Q.
D
U
L-
a)

3
CQ


U-
-J

03
U



CY

C

3

3
c
CU


00












>
U1)

Co
f)
I
U)
E
E

'a


a)
N
I)

C




<LL-

-j
Ll_

_..l


LON C~ M m r 7
C\jNCjC) a)0 () C)
(D (0 (0 10LO 10 L


LLj
LL
(2
u i

a


E
L
>1
S-
U)

UL

















:3
S-
L

U)
F3

D


>


CO>


0.


: 0
* -
a) Cr
> Un
E 0
f)



-. C4
L/) CU*(->
E .

4-J U _-_
Tw C {f


C) CLU
U) a ) U


) LL LL U- 0
N
)


O3 (-)
4-U


-0





U)


CU--I'~


C







I 0)
03 1. C


U)

CE
Ca

O
0
c

E
u

a)











Q
0








-a
aD


L
C-
U


LU

LU
U

0
z
LUJ
(-


()

U 4-


- I
C|

LE

LL D


0)


C
U)
3
Cl
LL


4-.J (/
L0_E

D > 0 oH-

_ LL-) (

E c 0 t
CUCUQ


- 0CD CDOC c
00 0 O (7) L0)n
(0 LO D (LO LO


-0
a)
0)

O
u ?


Z C

<Cl



a)
CfU

a)

-
a)
C
. _


. E
CU- J E




'Yt | - m u

o o+ 4
_.>1


X0 a -C " O
U U U


UJ

LL
C


c
C
Q


U()



U
C

10

ro
4-E


0)
0

E







) 1
)



C


C)

)


U)
>

C4-)
i f- .c
CU

-) L:

n -

- rE m
L E
> (

0)u-- >
U 0

U) C D


U. LC


)

LD -a -0 D

E3 (1 3

CU E EC U
3: ( n3


3:

E


. _
C)
u

0
u






Q,


-J

E -
3LU.
C3 ia

'c IJ
>?4--) I
m
4,-~-)I4-J

C C =

CI-3
E E a)-

=s 3 >
c c
0 0 X
CD 0) E
^> >
0-0-L 0


]









0- 0r
(D( w D i 0


a)

Cu
c
.>

a) I
> -0

I C
n 0

E

Eo
-3u




C -
0
+-U

cQ

LU +

< a) u
0

J-

<
_


w u
EL
a
.- U )

) a) C
U
v j v> a
a -a >
Ln a ._
) c

L - 4-) 4-J
LU cv c



< ^ u- c
C, 0 <o
U-
U


-o
a)
3 a)

0 : o c
E3 o m: .-E
z S -- E o
o U Cu-
o -0^ o
O . C . c
U > LO CO U


03
(U)
CL
-C
V)


Co I'l,,- 00 CT)
N~ omCY)
~~0-~ 0-(0 LOLO)


U)

CL
.)


Cu
c
>
..




av
C
+->
LUc
)"
I-

< 4-

<:
z
0




E
'L-

0)
c
U)
IL


a)

a) >


L a

E tn
a) C
E
ro w

I Q
C c
uU

u C

<C C


w0
o <


-o
0
0

0)
0
0
S-
)(D
on
0

c0


c
L.
0
-c
4-u
u
:3
col


a)
-0
E

c N
Z CD


S

c
0
2


>
4-


C




cvrE Cu
a



u -C
C U) L U

-a-a E
0 0

_0

C lJ 4 c
V )a ) c a
C CC
c cv L. S < c L


UC C <LL U-<
U <C
iUJ <
< LU
0


Q.
L
(D
a

, c
E 0

' -
> 3


Q.

)
_ L
X >
0 -
O. 02


E
:3
'C
r-

0


0



ccv ' C
c 0va. 0L EJ O Z

0 S 03 J cv -J E
M> __ >-- -- V () C) D




V) (nCL C >> n Q~ a. C-u > L<
cooa Q. j 0 U or a..>


U)
0

c
0
U
4-5
0























(V)


(D






a)
3


a)

c .

I L

U) a



0
3


0 0



< ..
oi
LU
Ucv

0


Cu

0-

a)

(/)


CD
.O





0
z

O0')COo I"-CY) o(0.0)0 OO Lo O "'
C3 J0 0- CO-_000))Co 00CM C\j Co) C
U LOD(.0(0I CD LOLOLf)O(DCD OCD
a)
-5
8w a) ia

0C
c E u


a))
) U)
)- '0 0

U) Uc C) C c
e - u4' 0


+J r 4-IOc

v)
a oU (
(nV).) . E
-C Cs WI X~i E oI I{ -a -a wI D1?10
a ('lU)
(~ I (yU)-U

a--a- 'o- B : E- -
EI E-. Ea '0C' (i
U) E)0CU ) I a I
nQ+JS- _0a)E a)._ C"L
2mcN C'a. N--.. _
o- >- 'aQEc
U Ec Ua om )-
>U-J <~~V OcQU- cJ U
._)II 4-C.
LiJU)0c0. a) _
a)a).NcQ. O~UU.c.
mg- --o E t >



Uc 1 -JE~~~~~~ <^IE ->, m <
o - U-U 3 C

U O>G3~ C0 (<<13

+- (
U)>00 z-_
U iJ
0<U -0aU) - <wLU



c0U C U) cI^ rn. *>w
E EU a)=U)I-|
E 4U(P w (U 0
4I)Ct-Cj 0> 0--









E.B - B


(zI '" LE. 'a L 0
U'--EC U Z a >
CJIC )c s>. n



< CO) (fu0 LLUh- u.I(()UUUH


F.I 17


r








F.,17


LO LO t a)
C0)D 0 CO
LO CD (D (D


U )

U) U)

a e-

uJ Co

CL
--

E
a)
o >

4n Co
U)0 i
E o

CC
U) na











LCo

ck X c
Z0 v


u

nU)
U_
L-
c0
E


(a
c
I
(-



O.
E







U c
<0
Or


u
.C
V)

a

E
U)




C

E



W E
< (n
u



r0
LL x


U) CD

f i n3
C) o
L

0 ) U)
C 0) - C
Co L. _.
O -U













CU .

U) CO CO
C a -JI






:5 ' EIF:
0)
zZ ' ~_

12_E

-C u


U)

0
u
o

U

_J
I

D
4-)
Co

E

'C
-0
L.

-0


-C
+U
co





U)

')

()

*


0
)z
















oj





































)



0

0
U
Un
























ru
4->























z




U


a)

(f)


I



F,, 18


MARSH AREA - - HARRIS STUDY


ARROW INDICATES CENSUS ROUTES FOLLOWED THROUGH THE STUDY AREAS


47




F., 19


LIST OF BIRDS OBSERVED AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO THE MARSH-AREA #2


Five categories were used to characterize the birds observed in the marsh.
These were: (I) Permanent residents; may not breed in the marsh study area
but were observed during all seasons of the year. (2) Winter Residents;
these birds appeared during the fall migration and remained through the
winter months, decreased during the spring migration and were absent in the
summer. (3) Transient Visitants; those that appeared during the spring and
fall migration only. (4) Summer Residents; breeders which arrived during
the spring migration and remained through the summer, leaving during the
fall migration. (5) Summer Visitants; observed in the marsh during the
summer but not breeding in the marsh.


Permanent Residents


Great Horned Owl
Downy Woodpecker
Blue-Jay
White-breasted Nuthatch
Brown Creeper
Starling
Cardinal
English Sparrow

Winter Residents

Red-tailed Hawk
Ring-necked Pheasant
Hairy Woodpecker
Black-capped Chickadee
Northern Shrike
Dark-eyed Junco
Tree Sparrow

Transient Visitants

American Woodcock
Hermit Thrush
Golden-crowned Kinglet
Ruby-crowned Kinglet
Yellow-rumped Warbler
Louisiana Waterthrush
Fox Sparrow


Summer Residents


Pied-billed Grebe
Green Heron
Mallard
Blue-winged Teal
Wood Duck
Sora Rail
American Coot
Killdeer
Common Snipe
Mourning Dove
Yellow-billed Cuckoo

Summer Visitants

Spotted Sandpiper
Greater Yellowlegs
Lesser Yellowlegs
Solitary Sandpiper
Chimney Swift
Red-headed Woodpecker
Yellow-bellied Sapsucker
Great Crested Flycatcher
Northern Waterthrush
Rusty Blackbird
Brewers B'ackbird
Chipping Sparrow


The following species were recorded as using area number 2 for breeding. The
greater majority of these species did not rely on the actual marsh for nesting
habitat.


Green Heron
Mallard
Wood Duck
Sora Rail
Killdeer
Common Snipe
Mourning Dove
Yellow-billed Cuckoo


Starling
Warmbling Vireo
English Sparrow
Red-winged blackbird
Northern Oriole
Common Grackle
Brown-headed Cowbird
Cardinal


Song Sparrow
Common Nighthawk
Downy Woodpecker
Tree Swallow
Blue-Jay
White-breasted Nuthatch
Gray Catbird
American Robin



F,. 20


LA CROSSE RIVER MARSH FIRES

1972-1977


Type of Fire

Grass and brush

Grass and brush

Grass

Grass

Grass

Grass

Grass

Grass

Grass

Grass

Grass

Grass

Grass

Grass

Grass

Grass

Grass

Grass

Grass

Grass

Grass


Location of Fire

Both sides of Lang Drive to NSP sub-station

East of Myrick Park

North of Myrick Park (Peat fires)
Engines No. I and 5 called to fight fire.

North of Myrick Park
Engines No. I and 5 called to fight fire.

Lang Drive southeast of Monitor
Marsh fire and power telegraph lines down.

North of pump house and Gorder Road

East end, Myrick Park

Myrick Park north

Lang Drive at WLCX Radio Tower

Myrick Park (fire off of park)

Lang Drive

North end of Myrick Park (2 NSP poles burning)

South of bridge on Lang Drive

East end of Gorder Road

North of Gorder Road

North of Myrick Park pumping station

Lang Drive bridge area

Lang Drive bridge area

North of Gorder Road

Lang Drive bridge area

North of Myrick Park


Date

4/09/77

12/02/76

11/26/76

11/25/76

9/03/76

5/11/76

5/04/76

3/24/76

9/24/75

4/20/75

4/15/75

4/13/75

3/05/75

7/21/74

3/10/74

7/19/73

3/30/73

3/24/73

2/11/73

11/24/72

4/20/72







Fe 21


r-jl

r-I

0%
zn








CI)
Uj

P-4

U-

U,











z
U-


LL
LL z
1 LU LL ~Lj
U-

Z Z-u




LI)= (U L

(I LE
S- .
OLL0<U aI- 0
m LL. a.-0 ~ UL

O>c a) > ) L ~ (
LU 0*-0 a o- ((UE~i


z

O ' Z
Z E







if0 0)fO+j if(U
1o+c z

E-0 i.E Z 2HC H




MQ (5* U 0 - if



U~oLU UHT3^-CO LCo
- ,3,a- fD ,,,D<u wa)

01 m u -C8- V)5ME
L)OQUi ---^io ]LUCQC]Q0<


If)
LU
LU

H
(I)
D
0
D

LU
Q


V)
LU
z
-





I
nO


z
z Iz
co ~~~~~LL
z -
CO
LU z


U-L-a ~ f L L LL L1L

-1 ~*~ LULJULC 4-
0U

(UiUZ n w+ U




CL S f -Q L L
( U iEZ0

0)--:3. In.o: -. ) (
..N ICOi0E)-(n 0
(U (U. 0) 0 0) 0--L(
Lnc E U- o<Uc


z
LU
z
z
u LLJ 11 "
z L. Z ZL U

LUZz L Z -



.. L E .!L.L!L L
ZoLU L ULL " U.L







_ 4i M o o-o S- ou-3.o Z

I 0 > v O ) m E'u]
z~,,,,,,-0, - >_3







E a)- O-E r -L ' --
a).-- 0-



Co LoIf>- "l roQ QiO ih-


F., 22


LU~z

z


LLJU L

(-9

LuCO

Oz

LL-U
Hm L



0>z

F-
LU

< U-
0

LUZJ

zo



oU-


zU Z

Z uZ



CD
W 0
U-0 LL

00LUHLU


D<
(f)ZCO







LU


z


_J
LU
Ci-
O
LU


n
D







z
0

z










U
0

0


O

0















w
z

0

(f)

u






o)


U-
0

LL






U
0

LU



(-9

D
If)


3

>
(Uo
4-
O 0n

0 _
Qw-


L
'-0
U 0

D C

C

-Q 0)

cn






>
0)j
3 in











0
4ow


.-
(3






- Q3
ro
av D





F, 23




F-
a000 rs

i i ,,r. l.a_


I2:
a!LU


0

F-
0
0_


C


0
o X

-< , v"
Vsf


LU

uJ
U
Q:

LL


LU


-J
0


-J
-_
._



-i
CL



CO

! <

^. .
aL 0-


I


-- I P
t'II
t , It4 I
a - I .1-1T



F., 24


WILDLIFE SPECIES OBSERVED AT LA CROSSE MARSH JULY 1974 THROUGH
MAY, 1975

SIGHTINGS


Birds Common Name

Mallard
Blue-winged Teal
Wood Duck
Scaup
Ringneck
Tree Swallow
Rough-winged Swallow
Barn Swallow
Great Blue Heron
Green Heron
Eastern Kingbird
Red-winged Blackbird
Short-billed Marsh Wren
Grean Horned Owl
Red-tailed Hawk
House Sparrow
Crow
White-throated Sparrow
Purple Grackle
Cardinal
Rough-legged Hawk
Belted Kingfisher
Slate-colored Junco
American Egret
Black Tern


Genus Species

Anas platyrhynchos
Anas discors
Aix sponsa
Aythya affinis
Aythya collaris
Iridoprocne bicolon
Stelgidopteryx ruficollis
Hirundo rustica
Ardea herodias
Butorides virescens
Tyrannus tyrannus
Agelaius phoeniceus
Cistothorus platensis
Bubo virginianus
Buteo jamaicensis
Passer domesticus
Corvus brachyrhynchos
Zonotrichia albicollis
Quiscalus ouiscula
Richmondena cardinalis
Buteo lagopus
Megaceryle alcyon
Junco hyemalis
Casmerodius albus
Childonias nigra


From a report submitted by Ronald Nicklaus, Wildlife Biologist, Mississippi River
Works Unit, Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, La Crosse.


Number


27
46

II
3
725
725
725
2
2
2
19
3
I
2
725
4
4
6
2

1
18
13






II. PROBABLE IMPACT OF THE PROPOSED ACTION ON THE ENVIRONMENT


A. Physical Impact

1. Topography


The + 29 acres of land fill will raise the finished grade of the exist-

ing, relatively flat lowland between three feet and four feet. The

relative flatness will not be altered. Because of the low profile of

the land fill, the change in height will probably not be noticeable

when the proposed trees and shrubs begin to mark the edge of the

raised land form.

2. Drainage


The drainage pattern of the surface water will be altered where the

fill is located. The project will be graded to direct water from the

fields to the preserved wetlands to the south. Then the existing

drainage pattern will drain flood waters toward the west as it

presently does. The underground drainage pattern will be altered.

Underground drain tile may be included within the proposed fill

area to assist drainage unto the adjacent marsh.

3. Soil


Filling the marsh with materials of high permeability, such as a

mixture of sand and gravel, should have a minimal effect on exist-

ing infiltration rates. It is likely that the ground water table will

rise somewhat depending upon capillary attraction of the fill and

annual precipitation.


71






Black organic material should not be a problem in terms of compac-

tion if the overlaying fill is limited to a height of several feet.

Construction of major buildings with considerable mass, however,

may result in compaction and eventual subsidence. (See Weinzeirl

letter, appendix B-2.)

4. Flooding


The conclusion arrived at is that the north campus development will

have little effect upon flood elevations because the volume of water

displaced by the 150,000 cubic yards of fill is insignificant when

compared to the volume of water which is held by the total flood

plain area or to the speed and quantity of water flowing into the

Mississippi and La Crosse rivers during flooding.


If classes and athletic events were scheduled prior to the snow melt

and a resulting flood, they would be such things as instruction in

golf, soccer, field hockey, introduction to elementary games, speed-

ball, track and field, and softball. Athletic events might be base-

ball, track and field, and various spring intramural activities. The

number of participants varies from one section of elementary games

to six or eight sections of softball. Activities would not be

scheduled during a threat of flooding. (See appendix F-8 for

proposed student utilization.)

5. Water Quality


The fill material will not lower water quality in the wetlands conti-


guous to the site if the fill has no pollutants in it. To the extent

72






that the La Crosse and Mississippi Rivers carry pollutants, how-

ever, flooding pollutes the land fill site. In as much as the source

of water in the area is very often rainwater, it would be ecological-

ly sound to prevent the run-off from the site from becoming con-

taminated with chemicals which might endanger wildlife and vegeta-

tion. Fill material free of pollutant chemicals would help to maintain

the existing water quality of the wetlands as would dewatering

underground drain tile within the project fill area.


The proposed filling of the project site would not affect the quality

of the La Crosse River. A sand fill free of organic materials,

wastes, and pollutants would not adversely affect the water quality

during periods of flooding by the La Crosse River.


6. Noise Level


The noise level on the site and adjacent to it will be increased

during warm weather daytime hours. The primary increase will be

from people talking and shouting as they participate in various

athletic activities. A noise level chart taken from the Federal Noise

Standards and Procedures shows that shouting indoors at a distance

of three feet equals about seventy-eight decibels. (See the noise

level chart in section F, item 15.) This noise level will drop con-

siderably before the sound reaches the undisturbed wetlands to the

south or the marsh to the north of Gorder Road. Active team

sports will be from twenty feet to four hundred feet away from the

edge of the marsh depending on the location of the activity on a

field. All fields have a minimum twenty-foot buffer zone around

them. The baseball fields have a sixty-foot buffer zone along the
73







outside base lines. The open space and the distances involved will

dissipate human voices to the extent that they should have no

impact on the marsh wildlife.


An increase in automobile traffic will also add more noise to the

environment. The impact will be felt in the marsh land north of

Gorder Road because of its proximity to the road. (See traffic

data, appendix E-1.) The existing trees along the south side of

the road will help to absorb the sound impact upon the people using

the developed facility. The four hundred to five hundred feet of

land fill between the road and wetlands to the south will dissipate

the noise generated by automobiles. The automobile noise generated

by additional traffic to the facility should not be very great since

bicycles will be used by many of the students, and only a limited

number of students would be using the facility at any one time.


The north campus development would serve area residents as well

as the campus population. The area is bounded by a public road

along its northern edge from which vehicular access and parking

will be provided.


The proposed parking lot will accommodate one hundred vehicles.

In addition, forty-four vehicles could be parallel parked along the

service road's north side and a one-way traffic pattern established.

A rule of thumb is to figure four persons for every car at a spec-

tator sport. The 144 vehicle minimum would therefore accommodate

576 people. This will provide adequate parking spaces for classes,

intramurals, and varsity competition in baseball, track and field,


74







and field hockey. These activities are attended primarily by stu-

dents and do not attract a large number of spectators outside the

University. If future additional parking space becomes necessary,

the parking lot could be expanded.


7, Air Quality


Increased auto traffic to the site will be a source of air pollution as

will the use of maintenance vehicles for cutting grass and hauling

supplies. The quantity of air pollution has not been ascertained.

The air pollutants will be quickly dissipated into the atmosphere

because of the two thousand acres of open space dominated by

marsh lands. The same pollutants would be placed in the air if the

site were located elsewhere in the City of La Crosse.


8. Aesthetics


The visual quality of the project site will be altered from a wetlands

landscape to a park-like landscape. The argument as to which one

is more beautiful depends on one's perspective. The park-like

atmosphere will have a negative impact oc. those who prefer wet-

lands aesthetics. The landscape of the development will be an

improvement upon the landscape for those who enjoy athletic recrea-

tion.


The landscape concept planting plan for the north campus facility

attempts to blend a park-like atmosphere, which will be reflected by

the expansive green field areas, with the natural environment of


75






the marsh grasses and existing tree groupings. It does this by

creating an edge on the fill site in which grass areas weave in and

out of native tree, shrub, and ground cover groupings. Two of

the goals established by a landscape architect for the concept

planting design in the development plan are noted below:

1. Create an informal atmosphere for athletic and
recreational activity and create natural landscaping
to blend the developed area with the natural land-
scape to the south.
A. Specific Methods of implementation:
1) Place trees and shrubs in irregular pat-
terns.
2) Use only trees near flat field areas.
3) Use native trees, shrubs, and groundcover
along the edges of the wetlands.

II. Create unique plantings along the fitness trail to
support the enjoyment of exercise programs.
A. Specific methods of implementation:
1) Create shade around exercise stations.
2) Periodically place native flowering plants
along trails and near exercise stations.
3) Place benches at some exercise stations.

B. Biological Impact


1. Plant Life


Land fill will cover + 29 acres of type II marsh land. The tree

species in the area to be filled are predxuiinantly silver maple and

cottonwood. The predominant non-tree species in the area to be

filled are river bulrush and canary reed grass. See the vegetation

map in section F., item 6, for the location of vascular plant species

in the proposed fill site area. None of these plants are endangered

species; all exist in other areas of the marsh and in the marsh

areas near the City of La Crosse.


76







2. Animal Life


Some animals will probably immigrate to different parts of the marsh

as the land fill is placed on the site. Some of the small vertebrates

may be covered by the fill material while others will immigrate

elsewhere.


3. Birds


Birds are mobile and can readily find new nesting sites after the

land fill has covered existing trees, shrubs, and marsh plants. A

problem could arise if trees, shrubs, and marsh plants are removed

after the nests have been established. The eggs or young birds

would then be destroyed during the filling process. This could be

avoided by removing the trees during the winter months.


4. Insects and Invertebrates


By far the greatest impact will be upon the invertebrates and

insects because of the covering with fill and the removal of their

habitat. However, their ability to breed rapidly offsets any tem-

porary loss of this food source for birds and other wildlife. It is

estimated that, in six months, two flies could produce a family of

more than five and one-half billion descendents in a favorable

environment.


If the mosquitoes could be destroyed in the larva stage, a positive

benefit would result. Filling the site in early spring before the

mosquito eggs have a chance to develop would be effective.


77






C. Socio-Economic Impact


1. Academic Support for the University


The purpose of the north campus development is to provide outdoor

space for university students to participate in physical education

programming, athletics, and environmental study. Development of

this + 29 acre parcel would be a positive benefit for the University

and the State. The north campus will help to fulfill the responsi-

bility of this state agency in carrying out its program of higher

education in a manner it is not presently able to do. Physical

education, a discipline in which UW-La Crosse has developed a

special mission, would be the primary beneficiary. Courses would

be arranged to fit more adequately the needs of all students requir-

ing space for field activities. (See the student support petition

reference in appendix A-18.) The project would help maintain the

position of the University of Wisconsin-La Crosse as a leader in

physical education and recreation.


2. Recreational Facility Available to the Community


An additional positive benefit of the proposed action is in its use

by the community of La Crosse. The one mile fitness trail with

twenty exercise stations will be available to the public. The Presi-

dent's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports has endorsed these

types of outdoor facilities and has encouraged the development of

them in cities and towns across the country. Because the fitness

course is self-paced and non-competitive, it allows individuals to

progress from simple to more difficult routines and is well-adapted
78







to use by the general public. It does not require special equipment

or clothing and can accommodate people of all ages. (See exercise

fitness trail map in section F., item 12.) The fitness trail will be

accessible from La Crosse Street and from Gorder Road and will be

open to the public even when the playing fields are being used for

education purposes by university classes.


The La Crosse Exercise Program, which is part of the University's

physical fitness program for local residents, involves more than 250

adults from the community. This program, which includes jogging

and other exercises, is comprised of the "Cardiac Rehabilitation

Unit" and the "Adult Fitness Unit". Dr. Clifton De Voll, director

of the Adult Fitness Program, has indicated his belief that the

proposed fitness trail would be of definite benefit to the public.

(See DeVoll letter, appendix A-3.)


The proposed site is seldom used at present by recreationalists.

Recreational uses of the marsh are primarily north of Myrick Park

and along the trails which extend into the marsh. These uses

include hiking, biking, jogging, and cross-country skiing in the

winter.


Numerical estimates of recreationalists using all of the marsh area

are difficult to calculate. Recreational uses are generally sporatic,

unscheduled, and unsupervised. Jogging is the most popular

recreational activity along the developed marsh trails north of

Myrick Park.


79






Where the fitness trail runs along the edge of the fill site, it could

be used for nature observation. It will provide many good vantage

points from which the marsh land can be easily viewed. The public

will also be allowed to use the fields when the instructional pro-

grams are not scheduled. Cooperative use of the north campus

development by the University and the public will make it an asset

to both and will employ the facility to its greatest potential.


Plans for the development of the area have been coordinated with

the Bureau of Aid Programs of the Wisconsin Department of Natural

Resources. A request has been made for LAWCON recreation aid

funds for the provision of such things as pathways, plantings,

a shelter building, parking, benches, bike racks, signs, baseball

and playing fields, and the fitness trail. This development would

occur after the + 29 acres are filled and graded and would become a

usable addition to the existing city recreation facilities. (See the

map in section F., item 14.)


The proposed jogging trail in the Myrick Marsh area would be used

by several organized groups of non-university people on a regular

basis. On Monday, Wednesday, and Friday mornings throughout

most of the year, an Adult Fitness Program of 125 joggers could

use the trail. Another organized group of runners in the city, the

River City Studies Group (forty people) could use such a trail.

The YW/YMCA, which is located only five blocks from the proposed

trail, could conveniently use it for their fitness classes (seventy-

five people). These numbers are based on present enrollments in

these programs.


80







Possibly the greatest non-university use of the trail would come

from individuals who jog on their own. There is no way to estimate

the number precisely, but there are hundreds of people in the city

who presently enjoy this type of activity.


Community use of areas other than the jogging trails in the pro-

posed marsh facilities will increase with the availability of such

areas. Most of this use will occur on weekends while school is in

session and during the summer months. The area would be used

by junior league baseball, Stars of Tomorrow baseball tournaments,

and industrial league softball teams on an organized summer sche-

dule. The area would also be used by impromptu pick-up teams

and by individuals for practice. The YMCA Soccer League and

Adult Industrial Soccer Team are other groups which presently use

the existing outdoor areas when they are available. A city rugby

team, in the developing stages, is in need of space to practice and

play their games. In the winter cross-country skiing possibilities

would exist and be widely used.


The planned outdoor recreation facilities are especially well-suited

for local community use. The two baseball fields, physical fitness

trail, soccer field, and practice golf putting greens are the facili-

ties which would receive the greatest degree of public use.


The Parks and Recreation Department of the City of La Crosse has

indicated that the University and the community are definitely in

need of the proposed facilities and has encouraged the proposal.

(See Fry letter, appendix A-10.) Mayor Patrick Zielke has also


81







expressed his support for the development and for the shared use

of the recreational facilities. (See Zielke letter, appendix A-11.)


3. Neighborhood Preservation


According to the campus master plan for UW-La Crosse, develop-

ment of the north campus will eliminate the need to extend into

residential neighborhoods adjacent to the campus. The University

would not have to seek alternative solutions such as the purchase

of surrounding houses, apartments, and businesses. It is to the

benefit of the University, as well as to the City, to maintain exist-

ing residential neighborhoods and commercial establishments. A

pleasant, aesthetically appealing residential environment surrounding

a university campus creates a very positive image for the campus

and the City.


Within the residential area outlined for alternative development,

single family homes and rental units and three apartment complexes

would have to be vacated in order to create the necessary space.

The preservation of local businesses which serve the university

community and the residential neighborhood is a very desirable

goal. There are nine small businesses in the + 29 acre plan which

would have to be closed if the required acreage were secured

outside the marsh areas designated in the proposal.


Neither the proposed project for placing fill on approximately twen-

ty-nine acres of marshland south of Gorder Road nor the proposed


82







fitness trail will have any adverse effect on the adjacent Oak Grove

Cemetery. (See Oak Grove Cemetery Association letter in appendix

G-16.)


4. Create Jobs


The implementation of this project will result in the creation of jobs

to complete it. The project will be funded from the Wisconsin State

Building Commission's budget for construction projects. Thus the

expenditure of tax dollars will provide employment for many people

who would directly benefit from the project. These employed people

will, in turn, pay taxes and spend their salaries thereby support-

ing other people. If the project achieves the goals and objectives

it is designed to fulfill, the tax dollars used for it will be well

spent and the jobs created by it are a complimentary positive impact

upon the economy of the area.


5. Flood Control


In terms of functional significance, the La Crosse River marsh

serves as a site of sediment collection as well as an area of water

storage during times of high river stages. Artificial filling of the

marsh should be considered detrimental since it accelerates the fill

process and reduces flood storage capacity. Flooding has an effect

on home owners, business places, and transportation facilities on or

near the flood plain and flood damage to buildings and properties

involves financial hardships for the owners.


83






The amount by which flood waters would rise is related to the

amount of fill placed below the flood elevation and related to the

size of the floodplain. It is said that one cubic yard of soil re-

places one cubic yard of water; however, the soil actually absorbs

some of the water and retains it as the flood recedes. The maxi-

mum amount of flood water which will be displaced by the fill mater-

ial for this project is less than 150,000 cubic yards. This would

occur only when the flood stage attains or exceeds an elevation of

641.0 feet, which is 14.68 maximum stage at the Mt. Vernon Street

gauging station in La Crosse on the Mississippi River. Floods have

crested at or above this elevation only five times since 1873, twice

in the 1950's and three times in the 1960's. (See the flood crest

elevation data in appendices C-4 and C-5.)


The United States Geological Survey map shows that the two thou-

sand acre marsh lies below the 640.0 foot elevation. Consequently,

the total two thousand acres would be inundated when the water

level is high enough to cover all the fields on the north campus

development. This would indicate that the 150,000 cubic yards

spread over twenty-nine acres would have little effect upon the flood

level of the two thousand acres. Since twenty-nine acres repre-

sents only 1.5% of the total acreage. Lower flood crests would be

affected even less since less water would be displaced. (See flood

data in appendix C-5.)


The effect of the proposed project on increasing the depth of flood

waters is minor. Between April 10 and April 20, 1978, the greater

portion of the La Crosse River Marsh to the west and to the north






of university property received flood waters. This provided a

means of observing the extent of flooding necessary before water

could enter the land south of Gorder Road. As the water level

rose, it entered the university land through the culvert under Lang

Drive on April 10 and through the culvert under Gorder Road on

April 13. As late as April 14, with a river elevation of 10.4 feet,

there was no open water south of Gorder Road. Aerial photos were

taken on April 14 to verify these hydraulic relationships. (See

photo in section F., item 4.) Water did not continue to flow under

Gorder Road after April 20, 1978. A trickle of water was recorded

entering the university land through the culvert under Lang Drive

on April 24. At the same time, the marsh water level measured

eleven inches below the culvert invert elevation. The water eleva-

tion south of Gorder Road never reached an elevation greater than

the Lang Drive culvert invert elevation of 635.1 feet (9.3) even

though the river crest reached 636.3 feet (10.5). (See Rice

observation report, appendix C-8.)


In summary, the Mississippi River had to reach an elevation of 9.3

feet before water began entering land south of Gorder Road. It is

also apparent that the crest river elevation of 10.5 feet reached

during 1978 would not significantly affect the athletic activities of

the proposed development nor, at this crest, would the development

significantly affect the water table and storage capacity of the area

south of Gorder Road.


85






6. Effect on City Well Water


In the past city wells were located in the marsh north of Gorder

Road until they were abandoned due to poor water quality. Pre-

sently fifteen wells supply the City of La Crosse with its fresh

water needs. The nearest city wells are located on the east section

of the university campus. There will be no negative effect on the

quality of the water from these wells due to the proposed filling.


7. Cost/Benefit Analysis


Positive Benefits:

1. A state educational agency will acquire a much needed outdoor

instructional facility.

2. Community residents will be able to use the facility.

3. The site will be conveniently located within walking, bicycling,

and jogging distance of the present indoor physical instruction

building.

4. Taxable land will not be taken off the tax rolls.

5. State expenditures of $7,000,000 will be saved by not having

to purchase twenty-nine acres of residential and business

lands, demolish buildings, or relocate businesses.

6. A semi-upland wildlife habitat will be created on the proposed

edge of the fill site.


86






Negative Aspects:


1. It will be necessary to cover + 29 acres of flood plain lands

and wildlife habitat.

2. Portions of the fields may not be usable during seasonal

floods.


3. Flood water storage would be diminished.

4. Water purification and sediment retention capability would

be diminished due to the loss of some space now available for

water-table recharging.






III. PROBABLE ADVERSE ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS WHICH CANNOT BE

AVOIDED


A. Loss of Lowland Wildlife Habitat


The need to fill + 29 acres of type II marsh land in order to provide a

firm base for development of the proposed project will cause a loss of

lowland wildlife habitat and will pose a threat to the loss of some wild-

life.


B. Mitigating Steps


The following steps will be taken to mitigate this impact upon the envi-

ronment:

1) The University will require the use of fill material that is free

of chemical pollutants which would endanger wildlife in the

surrounding marsh area by contaminating rain water run off

from the fill site. Clean fill will also limit the negative impact

to the actual site being developed.

2) Native lowland trees and shrubs will be planted along the edge

of the fill site to create a vegetative and a visual division

between the university activity area and the existing marsh.

This will help to insulate the marsh land from the noise of

athletic activity and to preserve the quiet atmosphere of the

natural environment. In addition, the newly planted vegeta-

tion will compensate for the loss of trees and shrubs on the

fill site and will recreate the nesting habitats for the wildlife

now located in the existing willow, cottonwood, and box elder

trees.
89






3) Marsh plants, trees, and shrubs could be cut during the fall

and winter months to discourage the presence of wildlife on

the site during the construction process so any newly born

offspring would not be destroyed.


90






IV. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LOCAL SHORT-TERM USES OF THE

ENVIRONMENT AND THE MAINTENANCE AND ENHANCEMENT OF LONG-

TERM PRODUCTIVITY


A. Filling Marshlands versus Preservation of Existing Site


The preservation of + 29 acres of marsh is being exchanged for space in

which to develop an outdoor athletic environmental interpretive facility.

The long-term productivity which would be maintained if this site were

preserved would be the food and nesting habitat it provides for wildlife.

The other function of the site is its limited ability to store flood waters,

snow run-off, and rain water. Both these are functions are important;

however, the loss of + 29 acres would not have significant impact on

them.


The present use of the proposed project area for flood storage, sediment

retention, and water purification is limited. During the period from 1971

to 1978, the area within Gorder Road and Lang Drive received flood

waters approximately two hundred days or less than 7% of the time.

This occurred on those days when flood waters reached a culvert eleva-

tion of 635.1 feet. During 1976 and 1977, no flood waters entered the

area south of Gorder Road. During 1978, floodwaters entered this area

for ten days from April 11 to April 20; however, during this time no

open areas of water were evident.


Very little runoff from rainfall enters the marsh. Vegetation on the

hillside to the south retains most rainfalls. The city storm sewers near

this area empty into the other portions of the marsh and are restricted


91






from entering this area of the marsh south of Gorder Road. (See the

contour map in section F., item 5.)


The + 29 acres of space needed on which to develop the north campus

facility is difficult and expensive to obtain from owners of alternate

sites. The use of the marsh land for university programs will create a

long-term educational facility that will benefit UW-La Crosse students and

the many people who benefit from the education received by these stu-

dents. Facilities used for educational purposes have long-term effects

which extend in time and distance far beyond the facilities themselves.

In addition, community-wide utilization of the developed area will also

occur over the long-term.


92








V. IRREVERSIBLE OR IRRETRIEVABLE COMMITMENT OF RESOURCES

IF THE PROPOSED ACTION IS IMPLEMENTED


A. Loss of Wildlife Habitat


Approximately + 29 acres of marsh grasses will be permanently

covered. The trees and shrubs lost to construction will be re-

placed by a planting program designed to establish tree and shrub

vegetation along the edge of the created land form as well as within

the facility itself. (See list of suggested plantings in section F.,

item 22, )


B. Loss of Flood Water Storage


The displacement of flood water storage discussed in detail earlier

can be reversed at a later time if necessary by abandonment of the

development and removal of the land fill.


C. Resources Used to Develop the Project


The use of fuel, the wear and tear on machinery, and the consump-

tion of construction supplies involve some resources which are

considered to be irretrievable. The use of such resources is an

integral part of any physical construction project.


93





VI. ALTERNATIVES TO THE PROPOSED ACTION


A. No Action


The no action alternative would preserve the existing site and

maintain its use for limited passive recreation and very limited

research. However, since university students regularly use the

marsh area located to the north of Gorder Road because of its

better accessibility and better research potential, the university-

owned land could be view by the State as excess land to be sold or

exchanged since the function of this land should be to serve educa-

tional purposes. The University would not achieve its own object-

ive of providing needed physical education and athletic facilities by

selling the land or taking no action with it.


B. Propose Another Project (site restoration)


It has been implied by individuals from the UW-La Crosse biology

department that the present university-owned marsh land is not as

useful for research purposes as it previously was. This is said to

be due to the fact that the land was separated from the larger

marsh when Gorder Road was constructed and, therefore, its func-

tion has been changed by human activity.


The overflow of flood waters into the project site is restricted by

Gorder Road and Lang Drive but is not halted entirely. Culverts

under both roads presently allow for a limited exchange of flood

water though not at the rate which occurred when it was in its


95





original natural condition. A proposed project of the Wisconsin

Department of Transportation on Lang Drive could increase the

flood water exchange capacity by providing for the installation of

two sixty inch culverts where the project site is located. The

portion of university-owned land which will be south of the field

development will be left undisturbed and will benefit from the

installation of the culverts even with the implementation of the

proposed field development project.


The site would be further restored to its original status if Gorder

Road and Lang Drive were removed or changed from land fill config-

urations to bridge structures which would allow free exchange of

water. The removal of Lang Drive would be the first priority in

such an effort because the flooding of the area results from backup

from the Mississippi River.


Since Lang Drive serves as a major connector between north and

south La Crosse, the negative impact of this alternative on the

City's transportation system would -orestall its removal. In like

manner, the cost of allowing flood waters quicker access to an area

of the marsh by building an extended bridge structure over the

marsh could not be justified. It should be noted that there have

been only twenty-five floods from 1873 to 1976. The same comments

would apply to removal or restructuring of Gorder Road. The City

has stated strong opposition to possible vacation of Gorder Road in

that it "provides a valuable point of access to Myrick Park, . . . a

secondary link to the University of Wisconsin-La Crosse, and ancil-

lary traffic generators." (See Bracegirdle letter, appendix A-5).


96





Gorder Road is separated from the project site by a thirty-foot

city-owned strip of land giving the City control of the right-of-way

removal. Removal of the maintenance facility could not serve the

best public interest.


C. Change Land Use (without fill)


The grassland fields could be developed agriculturally with cultiva-

tion and water control. A system of drainage tiles extending from

east to west would collect excess water in a pump tank and pump it

to adjacent areas providing improved (purified) water quality. The

drain tile would remove only the excess water from the soil not the

capillary water used by the root systems of the turf. Clearing of

trees and brush would be required but land fill for the fields would

not be needed. The flood storage water capacity would not be

reduced; however, flooding would have a greater effect on the field

utilization season and would limit educational usefulness. (See

appendix F-2.)


D. Use Entire Site (lake proposal)


Constructing the north campus by creating a lake and using the

sand dredge material to fill the remaining site area was given early

consideration as a solution. The lake would have had a sculptured

bottom to meet community needs for a swimming area and the wild-

life and fish needs for deeper water. The environmental effects of

dredging natural areas and the loss of natural areas made this

alternative impractical when dredging costs rose to equal those of


commercially-hauled fill. (See location "D" in section F., item 13a,
97





and appendix F-1.)


E. Elevate 29 Acres Above 100 Year Flood Stage (18 acres

undisturbed)


The functional use of the outdoor physical education facility could

be improved by raising the finished grade for all the fields to an

elevation of 645.6 feet, two feet above the one hundred year inter-

mediate flood stage. This elevation would assure the use of the

fields during all periods of flooding. The cost-benefit ratio of such

a project is questionable. The cost for fill material would increase

by at least two and one-half times to an approximate cost of

$625,000. The loss of flood water storage would be increased by

two and one-half times the project proposed.


F. Between C., B& Q RR and STH 16


This site is too remote for access by walking from the campus; it is

too inconvenient and costly when required shuttle busing is consi-

dered. The state university system policy prohibits a remote

campus area as not being feasible. The time, cost, and energy use

required would not permit selection of this alternative. This site

would effect no smaller loss of natural areas but may be less

disruptive because of the corner site. It would also save the

natural area of the project. (See location "F" in section F., item

13a, and appendices F-4 and F-5.)


98





G. Northeast of Myrick Park


This site is too remote for access by walking from the campus; it is

too inconvenient and costly when required shuttle busing is con-

sidered. The state university system policy prohibits a remote

campus area as not being feasible. The time, cost, and energy use

required would not permit selection of this alternative. This site

would effect no smaller loss of natural areas but may be less

disruptive because of the corner site. It would also save the

natural area of the project. (See location "G" in section F., item

13a, and appendices F-4 and F-5.)


H. City Country Club Golf Course


The same evaluation as in alternative F applies except that this

would not destroy a natural habitat; instead, it would destroy a

recreational development. (See location "H" in section F., item 13a,

and appendices F-4 and F-7.)


I. Contiguous Neighborhood Expansion


The University could use residential and commercial lands conti-

guous to the main campus and in closer proximity to Mitchell Hall,

the indoor physical education and athletic facility. The location of

twenty-nine acres of residential lands identified in the campus plans

in section F., items 13(a) and 13(b), would be prime space for

fields because of its nearness to the main campus. Securing such

land would be very difficult, yet necessary, if the University is to





fulfill its objectives in the field of physical education. The costs of

obtaining the 156 homes and businesses in the areas outlined on the

map, the removal of buildings, and the relocation of occupants prior

to development of the project would total $9,000,000 at the 1979

rate. Such land purchases could only be done over a long period

of time because it is not the practice of the University to use

condemnation procedures. In addition to the cost obstacle is the

State Building Commission's policy prohibiting university expansion

southeast of Campbell Road.


The negative impact upon the human environment would be great.

Many homeowners would be subjected to sub-standard living condi-

tion as homes are removed from the area or used as temporary

rental units until they are destroyed. Other lands in the City or

surrounding towns would have to be developed to provide replace-

ment housing for the people displaced by selection of this alterna-

tive. (See location "I" in section F., items 13a and 13b.)


J, All Remote Sites


The same evaluation as in alternative F applies in that no remote

sites would be economically feasible primarily because of the cost of

shuttle busing. The proposed site could remain natural but there

would be no solution to the problem of needed nearby outdoor

physical education and athletic facilities. (See shuttle bus

research, appendices F-3 and F-6.)


19Q





C
o 0_




-L0
a)



') C







O



* U)





'LI~ __
Z *4._ U











CU







._
0
(0
























O .



' )

+ 10

U







oo
o








0)


a1)



4-
U) C U

s E
0CU
-



U E' cr
)-










U- E U
0 Co U)







C) Ca >
ZC X U '





0 .








4-
U ) a: >
0 CUy) CU



C) '1 Q






















U
0 U








O Q)
'N






a) E

0o
0Z
z <


U)
0)
u
C .
c >,
U)4-J
4-
OL

E a)

11)
:3-
o E
0 c


E
o
L .
4 --


C U
4-

:3o
0U)~


c

N ro
-E "

O u
U a)
0




:--
l0 n
4-I
LU CU


LO 0 r-


:_I
-(


0--

U (





E U









01 O



-0

- E
10





LO


.1)

o-



'4-

EO ,-

E E

LO


0
C U C
0 4-


,o E (- z


. o . .-

N _ . z z :E




0 F-

I- Z U



0 U < F F --
LLJ Jn ": IZ0(
OU




O> -Z 1 LU

OLL" ~ <rLU<
L> <> -LL <
Q J-< rC ui 0 L

Ni 101 cm r 1


E
0
on

a) TI
4->

C U)
4- C

0 -


CD


Q) 4-
N 0O
-- (J)
.2-

U
0) a)
SL
0

0-
.o_

C -
u 0)

LU ro

rC-


a )

E - (
0 0bU

E-- -E -


- O C u

=> =5.3 '-^a)

CD O:~





JJ

> 4-
. o

Q <X
U)
< _0 0
03


AD rC


z
Z


>
4-a
In
C
0

Co


0


(D --


LU

ZU
n z

LLZ
H-

LU Z


z
0

N.
-




C--


oU
> Q
0 0)











U- O
:3
U) 4-
U) Q1)








O )
LU
4- J












U)




















Q =
LO



:3



0--
CU 4-














o)
(4



n) L
0)
0.0
4-j














LC
4-C











0

0
a)


LU
J














0

LO



L-
Cl























F-















z
LU









z
LLU

4-










LU


) a


C\a




U) c 4-







a) 0
U )-

o





(U C; 4





"0

) Q-
0L
CU a








a> o
UC D










O
U




CU )











u
O C



( o








U)
L)L




0 C
Z 4


z -
O0


LLZ

LU-1
U_ <


LU




z
Uj

(U)
LU


0

D

L-

LU


. .

LU

ry
H
(9









a)
a) > c~
E O o
o o

4- U,)c
U WU)0





tc o Q nQ
T 0) c


t4, VOU 0
'0 ' 0 4 - U
'5 )a, CUa

U3 ) CC
L- . 3 00


0 3 0 0-


'0

4-

-- '0
L)a U )

(tl S^ ro


4-0 4- L

() a 4-
U.E 0 T

0


U)
C
0
z

03


a)
4-1


TO
-0
Q)

0
CL

E


V)
Un
L-




ro
_U
s-









, a)
CU

00





4-U)
CU
(75O


TOj (a)



4-

U)
(7- S-

(M S-

C0


4-
0




0 4-C
4- 0 OC
U)

CU L


o)
z


00

LU




Q-_
(n 00

UO
LU -
U- >
LL <
LU Z


c)
o


C)
0
z




LLJ
0



LL




Z ')
< LU
LI

01
30


U)




0 ' - C -
C - ) .- OL

-0 Q U CU- L

a O Q un + CL C


CM






a) < = a) C-

> CE 0 U
o E

0








'E

.I



) - N

C C4 4
3

0-










O 0


' N
U 3


0
'-N












4OC

o



o
C) 0

C ,

OU

0


H

I-

:
Q-
(9

a


0
0
0


Uc







C
L
S-





o3


U) C
>) 4
) ~--


10o


U) 1- '
> -p
0 U^
0

CU L





a) U
7)


CM -

















-3) 0
U)-

























u3
0



















L-
C(D )
D
V)






C























o
U3










5


.C:





0)
'6'
L
a0

U 0




O
. )

U )
















0

o


LU

.U

<
H

z

LUL












Q
F-
-4





.L


h-
<
Z





H
LU

















z
LU




F-
<










z







w
w

.1
LU










H












LU
H
F-
<:




























z
LUJ










H-
<







<




LL

UJ
(-

:


o4-



o -o





o u E L4-3
L) CU u) C U
L U V) C



0n0
0o >
4-
OC u







*- )
QC)

0

Q) Q)

u EL



a) .





_3 -
o fD D
+ ) - 4o
4- C- '03





0) U

CL 40Q
















a) m)

S LL









L-

)ro




r)U)
C-


4-J
0
0
-5)







U 4-







j a)



J C

-'0

Ua)



4lC





/)

U')

CM

LU

CO
Q)

Q













0-
c









'0'
C



-0

C


























F-


LL


_ _
TO - r
4- '-

U)L3
C CUT

0a) C a)

) aE












0) - U
-) - *



- O2
M.

o 3 a)


C - TO
CU _) 3






















U)LC
-O '













c 04-
0 aU) o
N LL- Q






















U)- 3
4-O C
a) 5
1- 0)

C 0 ~-. L
0 U) - U
N LL , Q

'C)






C ,TO



O - 3
'0 >-










O" i
C0 - CL
0 U) q U)










NLLE S a
-.C
,'L


O)

C


a)
U)

'0
C

Q\o
(0





C
C

U)




o
o\0
C
C)





C)




C)

U)



4-





CU










ui
(D




'O
U







o\o
O
U)

'0






Co

cI








C


u
.LI

D

0


z
0


D

L-
LU


LU
4-

(4
Qr


-J

a:

LL
01
(f)
LU
Q

r-


LU



LLJ
-j

u
UL
C0

CM
r-


J -
<0

Z
LU 0
Of u

r-











4-'


(U
U)








0

4-
.U)


)
(Un (









0 a)
a)
C 0 a








0
:3 ._U

U)

, 5Q
glC:







uI O


U)
(U
L





0
- O




a) Q
U.

C








0
0 0







c-5






a) a)
5-

E _
o a0
L (l


U) . )U)

o 2) C)


a) U)
Cy) cU) Co :

U C(UL m)-

UCQ 'yt~0


a)
U)
{(

0
co

S- Q
>._
UO
) (U
*_ 2
1,-L


* 0 N 0
_Ua)4
. E o No(
>- E 0 (.l



.* . o. E
a Ul~ *n b co

U) U) ~ 4 U ~Ln U )
U) (U 4:]

> - cor.-'E~C

LC (0 O- 03


C0'

O C
0

UC a) ,-








,- >-
U)U)





E u o0
L L0

0- C 0)0 (
a ._ g )


3 (U )
Q- Co fc6 i a

0 C


U
(1U
a)






+\

00


3 S- (f), LO ,

3U . a). +
L >- N m
o)2 ,;OJ) a
4U)L- a)ICD a)

cQ a3LO U) -) j

rU 0 ) 0 r- Cv-+


VU

4-L


LU)
u > +-

a) (U >


(U 4 C







a) 0)+J (U

u> 4-1
) U) a

N ._ -



U >3 0
0Q4.Jo


U)
U
C


ro
(U
C
U)

E
U)
-a
a
:3
0
L-


L()

U)
U .





c
a O




0o c3


LO CD


4-


u .
C-
U) C (C.)
oL E -

O') ) E '-
a C
c 3
U C C CEo
U.. OC


3 (U)
_E >
:3 .




(I) c .

CU m ' E
CD2 ^



((


U)
.


C U
- a)
E _

CE

:3 O
oc

LI)


QZ u

< z






H OJ 0 0
LUU 0. <

. 7' ~N C'


-a 2

N o

C_ S-
MU


O'U)
0

C -
C

( 4-
U U)

LU (n


a
0
z


u)
U)
4->
:3D =
c 5
I

'_


E -
o
(f) i-


(D


E
0
L-
4--

a) I
3 =
C )
,_ r
E u
o -
+- z


U)
a)


0






) o



.0
"-

U _



U)

CO



0



-I



:3









co







LU















:C:
4-n
0>.










JOX


z
-i

LU





7-
<












..
4












LU
<






H
LU







H
hy
Z









CK

I
LU










7-
H
<
Z

LU

<


















..
H
40
(-9
H-
<
Z

LU









H
4



U-
<









.U
LL
H
<:
Z
z
(:
HU
4-


r-* co

a .2
U) 4-
N U
*- a
C _
Ov u
0) (U
1, L.
0



-0 0)
C 4-



I- co


E
In .

a) I
4 -
O4

LC )

(0


0) )

0U
_3




o


'- U





U (')
C _




4 .2



U )

CL
"0


LO U
LU (U


z
0

<
_l

>
UJ


L-

2 E
S o

W
4-i U)






() Ln
UELU



oa





4 O
o 0


E
0
4-- -
v? (



Eu
Q)


w
LU


0


O-

0 0
0 U
- LL

103


(U)

uu
z
z <
o z

L z
-
LU <

a -

Ln


Lo
04





LL<

Iiw

LL Z
LU Z

00


LH
LUZ

z u
< z


>
LL Z
0
U

CD


z
0

N





r-





-o

u


0 (u +-
OJ a)t

> - >-c
o m'~



0 > W.U

0




o a)


C a) 0 -
a E a)
0 0




a* '0 a)
W E)EC

0 <0 J U '-
z

CD O~



( >

O ~0
0 C-

U .u I

C 4oJ a )-

0 _

W EC-




(n ; v

0) T a) - a) -





om on oo c


CM



ro
s_

0-
L

4-I


( 0)
C ro

L. L
U U
co ro
LO IL


Ix/

CMr '- (

4-w ) 0U)
E 3i2 n - C i

0 _ 4V) a +j

a)C- 0)

> EW a) 3
o E u V q -Lu
C- o X o r r
CL uVQ in o3 a- C


9O0

_U CW

E

C a- -








.L m00


-0C U)E
Q 0















w -- 4O

0 _ L U







0 '-E-







no3

0 O
a)U V3 .

c W '-
















UC -
- c- C >.

* 0 E a







> a) a )






.L 0

(U0 a)
-n Lc L
.0

>a E


U)
3
a >

U - ._
a)>-
LO > 0
W a

m E 4
) C >U


Cj
'(-


.0
4-j
0


c 0

0 o
OU-


LL m 4-

\


.0
4-J
0
co
0

0 ..

0)

LL U _

CM


4-



C
4-,
0)


















0
-0
Ua)



















C (

CM


u

o\o
0)

. c

0
> Q
> -.
L1 0








.- - -
' ._ U
-C


U -0
W Wc

C 0 o\O
0O


CO


ro
(U

")


-0 -
o

















M E
-N
. 4__ 4-.


















.2E -r
a) < (






C


. -
E

N LL CL


C) ^ (L



0 W o W


0)

0)
c




o
U)
( )
3

-0


CD











3
-0
C-
-0)
o\o C
0 (U
r- U

4t


U)
3

C
(o

0
0-


LL
H-

>- LU
H LL

_J

_o UU
LU LL
QC M

104 C
r-- r;-


0 (n
H-I
< O
J- z
OZ
LU 0


..

LU

z

LU

-J
<L


H
LU









h-
I






<



L.










H
LU














F-
<
Z










LU
H








F-
I
LL
<:


LL


z




LIJ
LU
:
z
-U

-J









LL
LU
F-
<

LU
F-
I


U)
a)


0
E
a)
L










. 0
WO

CnC
U)

0) 0


O r




C 0
U







o o
OCL
















Vj
Z (

Uo



(U I
C (0





L3






0o >t
on Q0


z
0

D
-j

LU


a)
0)
c
r-
C
(U
0


F-
U




<L

0


Lll
n-
(LJ

<U

Q LU
z -
< U

LULL
3 <

a)


LU


U


LU


0
(5
z

()
LU
(Jf)
:D
O
z

-I







APPENDICES


APPENDIX A:

APPENDIX B:

APPENDIX C:

APPENDIX D

APPENDIX E:

APPENDIX F:

APPENDIX G:


COORDINATION CORRESPONDENCE

GEOLOGY AND SOIL

FLOOD DATA

FISH AND WILDLIFE

TRANSPORTATION DATA

BACKGROUND INFORMATION ON ALTERNATE SITES

RESPONSES TO PRELIMINARY ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT

(PER)






APPENDIX A: COORDINATION CORRESPONDENCE


A-1 Earl letter re project implementation procedures: 1/6/77
A-2 Von Ruden memo re ordinary highwater elevation determination:
2/9/77
A-3 De Voll memo re fitness course: 6/20/77
A-4 Peshek letter re filling of wetlands; 6/22/77
A-5 Bracegirdle letter re Gorder Road vacation: 7/29/77
A-6 Gilkey memo re marsh historical preservation sites: 8/17/77
A-7 Dally latter re required fill elevations: 8/22/77
A-8 Dally letter re conflicts between proposal and city law: 9/26/77
A-9 University Affairs Committee minutes re north campus development;
10/4/77
A-10 Fry letter re support of the proposed plan: 10/6/77
A-11 Zielke letter re city support of the proposed plan: 10/19/77
A-12 Cropper letter re upward ground-water gradients: 12/22/77
A-13 Marking letter re monthly river water analysis: 1/4/78
A-14 Cattanach letter re use of dredge-spoil as construction fill: 1/6/78
A-15 Earl letter re Lang Drive improvement project: 1/24/78
A-16 Williams letter and report re April, 1978, water quality tests:
5/15/78
A-17 Parry letter re marsh mosquito research: 6/1/78
A-18 Rice letter re transmittal of student petitions supporting marsh
development: 6/6/78



A-1


State of Wisconsin \ DEPARTME NT OF NATU RAL RESOURCES
Anthony S. Earl
Secretary
January 6, 1977
BOX 7921
MADISON, WISCONSIN 53707

IN REPLY REFER TO: ..Q-

Mr. Kenneth E. Lindner, Chancellor
University of Wisconsin-La Crosse
La Crosse, Wisconsin 54601



Dear Mr. Liandner:

This letter is in response to your recent request for the Department's
advice on the necessary steps which must be taken on the proposal by the
University of Wisconsin-La Crosse to construct a recreational field in
the La Crosse River marsh south of Gorder !,oad.

First, the Department currently has no direct regulatory jurisdiction over
the proposed filling of that portion of the La Crosse River marsh south
of Gorder Road because we have not been able to determine an ordinary high
watermark in the area. Thus, the requirements of Section 30.11, Wisconsin
Statutes, would not apply since the ordinary high watermark is adjacent to
the north side of Gorder Road. However, Section NR 151.12(4)(f) would
prohibit use of this wetland area as a solid waste disposal site, and you
would be required to obtain a permit under Section 30,19, Wisconsin Statutes,
in order to create a lakeo

Secondly, I would suggest that you contact: the St. Paul District of the
Corps of Engineers in order to obtain a weitland fill disposal permit under
Section 404 of P.L. 92-500. The Corps' 404 regulations are contained in
33CFR209.120.

Thirdly, there is substantial public interest in any project proposal that
may destroy or alter valuable wetlands. An Environmental Impact Statement
would serve as a proper mechanism for the examinatilon of all feasible
alternatives including the adverse and beneficial impacts of your proposal.

In the event that you decide to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement,
you may wish to rely heavily upon the advice and guidance of your Biology
Department, and certainly the Department's files would be available for
your use.

Sincerely,

Anthony S. IR


Secretary (/

cc: Don Gerhardt - UW-Madison
Colonel Forrest T. Gay, III - Corps of Engineers
Jack Hemphill - Fish & Wildlife Service
THIS IS 100% RECYCLED PAPER
George Alexander - Environmental Protection Agency




A-2 aB $S H lb gRIEfe, jYJy^STATE OF WISCONSIN

Date: February 9, 1977 File Ref:

To: Memo to File


From: R. VonRuden



Subject: Project 5221-1-00
Lang Drive, City of La Crosse
S.ToH. 35, La Crosse County

Re: Determination of "Ordinary Highwater Elevation"

As defined in UoS. Army, Corps of Engineers Pamphlet: No. 1145-2-1
of October 1, 1974,the "ordinary high water" is that point on
shore that is inundated (under water) for at least 25% of the time
(91 days/year) and the determination of which is arrived at by a
flow-duration curve based on water stage data.

Here in La Crosse water stage data is obtained and recorded daily
by the U.S. Atmospheric and Oceanographic Service (weather bureau)
and copies of these recorded stages were obtained and plotted for
the years 1971 through 1976 for the purposes of relating river
stages and flow to the Lang Drive project as well as providing a
ready source of river stage and flow information for future
reference and comparative analyses.

Of particular concern here has been our need to obtain the now-required
404 Permit from the Corps of Engineers for this prxject because of its
location in a wetland and the construction of which roadway will require
that some 70,000 c.y. of fill material be placed in an area that the
DNR and others contend is ecologically and environmentally sensitive as
a wetland. The DNR has determined the ordinary highwater mark, or
elevation to be 635.19 USGS (1929 adj.) As river stage is based on a
zero stage elevation of 625.83 and a normal pool stage for this area of
4.0 the DNR's elevation translates to a stage of 9.3 which is 2.7 feet
below what is considered flood stage of 12.0.

By analyzing the aforementioned plottings of river stages for the
stated 6 year period we have determined what elevation was under water
for 91 days, or 25 per cent of the time, for each of those years,i.e.;
what was the lowest elevation on which this condition prevailed. The
following is a tabulation of the results:

year Stage Elevation
1971 6.5 632.3


1972 6.8 / 6: v2.6
1973 6.7 632.5
1974 6.4 632.2
1975 6.8 632.6
1976 6.4 632.2
Averages: 6 632.4
more ...

A f-7.6




A-2
Memo to File
Page Two
February 9, 1977

The"ordinary highwater mark"' as established by the DNR was done so
in that part of the marsh that lays between Lang Drive and the C. &
N.W, Rwy. Co. tracks to the west. This was done sometime between
November and December of 1974. Our plotted graph of river stages for
that year shows that during that period the river never got: any higher
than 5.2 (elev. 630O6)

The topographic. maps of the Lang Drive area, which we are using in our
design work of projects in this general area , have shaded areas
indicating standing water in low spots throughout the general marsh and
the elevation of the water in these lowspots is shown as having been
about 634. The Lang Drive area was flown, on November 24, 1968 - withit
a week one way or the other of the DNR's marsh sortie - and during this
general period the river stage was generally at 631,0s with minor daily
fluctuations. It is reasonable to conclude that the water (or ice) in
the lowspots was residual from a flooding of the marsh earlier in the
year and could not be taken as being indicative of a prevailing water
level. there. When these low spots are absolutely dry - as they have
been in 1976-77--it can be seen that the accumulated siltation there has
formed an impervious layer that standing water cannot penetrate and must 4e
be dissipated by evaporation.

The "ordinary high water mark"' as established by the DNR is stated as
being 635.19 and arrived at by "field observation" by Rick Ranthum - an
employee of the DNR. This elevation would be equivalent to a river stage
of 9.36 (635.19 - 625.83) and as can be seen from the stage averages
shown earlier herein - this is considerably (2.8') higher and should be
subject to closer scrutiny,

The elevation of the area at the toes of tT ! existing Lang Drive roadway
is between 633.0 and 634.0. Our plottings of the river stages/elevations
puts the ordinary high water nmk at about 632,4 - almost two feet below
the elevation where we'll be filling. In other words - technicallyywe
will not be filling in a wetland as defined by the Corps of Engineers and
with particular reference to the "ordinary highwater mark". Types of
vegetation are other determnining factors - such as cattails, marsh grasses,
hummocks, etc., and while the marsh in general does have these in various
concentrations the growths along the existing r.odway and in the immediately
adjacent areas are more tree-like - cottonwoods, tag alders and box elders
and all of which tend to classify this area as a TYPE I WETLAND and no more.







The UNIVERSITY of WISCONSIN- LACROSSE


LA CROSSE , WI SCONS I N 54601


DATE: May 20, 1977


TO: Mr. Richard Ehrenberg
Division of Engineering

FROM: Clifton H. DeVoll, Director
Adult Fitness Program

RE: Vita Parcours for UW-La Crosse


(608) 784-6050


RECEIVED: UW-SYSTEM
ARCH--- iT;Ci"'R,1
AND ENGi,.Z-?ING

_Vl ,. 1'. ..


- ' - " .' :......

J<I " ,'I

EJQ l FILE


It is suggested that a Vita Parcours be considered for the UW-La Crosse
campus. A Vita Parcours can best be briefly described as a jogging-
exercise physical fitness course. With the increased awareness and
knowledge of the value of physical fitness for all ages, these courses
are becoming increasingly popular throughout North America and have
been common in Europe for many years. The President's council on
Physical Fitness and Sports has also endorsed this type of outdoor
activity and has encouraged its development across the country.

The facility may provide an opportunity to build strength, muscular
endurance, flexibility and cardiovascular endurance. The course is
self-paced and non-competitive allowing each person or group of people
to progress from simple to more difficult routines without undue strain.
It would be the type of activity which does not require a high level
of motor skill for participation and no more equipment is needed than
a pair of sneakers and comfortable loose-fitting clothing. Such minimal
requirements should make it a popular activity that would be readily
available to a large number of people of all ages.


Since the
the noise
sidewalks


course is an outdoor trail, it is a welcome alternative to
of cars, the smell of exhaust and hard running surfaces of
and streets.


The following individuals and groups would be served by such a course:

1. UW-La Crosse Student Body -- both in classes and as a recre-
ational activity. The location would be very close to the
dormitory area. (Specific classes: diet and weight control,
nutrition, skiing, physical fitness, conditioning, etc.)

2. The University Faculty-Staff -- we presently have a good number
who are joggers.


AN EQUAL OPPORTUNITY EMPLOYER




A-3


Richard Ehrenberg
Page 2
May 20, 1977

3. UW-La Crosse Exercise Program (service program to La Crosse
area adults).

a. Cardiac Rehabilitation Unit (Monday, Wednesday, Friday p.m.
program).

b. Adult Fitness Unit (Monday, Wednesday, Friday a.m. program).

4. UW-La Crosse School of HPER -- This includes over 1800 students
who are preparing for positions in preventive and rehabilitation
health programs.

5. Other schools in the area (public and private).

6. Community agencies - YMCA, YWCA, Boy's Club, etc.

7. La Crosse citizens (bird-watchers, hikers, runners, etc.)

Such a course could be incorporated into the planned scenic marsh area
development. The present jogging trails (six trails: 1 mile, 2, 3, 4, 5
and 6) established for the on-going university programs are adjacent to
the proposed area. The new course would add additional interest and
value to these six jogging trails,

Vita Parcours means "A Course for Life" in French. It just may be, for
many people.


bk





cc: Mr. Gerhard Mr. Lebiecki


^, tIlat <Eatc U (f Si5roltiin

M;~t,~ J^~Ocparmrltt of ajusticr

^yg~~~~~~~ adi lon

537.02 Bronson C. La Follette
A. Peshek Attorney General
Intervenor
David J. Hanson
Deputy Attorney General
June 22, 1977



Mr. Kenneth Lindler, Chancellor
University of Wisconsin-La Crosse
La Crosse, Wisconsin

Re: Filling of Wetlands

Dear Ken:

The Advisory Committee to the Public Intervenor has asked
that I write to you regarding a proposed filling of certain
wetlands by the University of Wisconsin-La Crosse. We would
like to thank you for all of your cooperation and assistance in
gathering information regarding this project. Your personal
appearance before the Advisory Committee was most helpful in
discussing the issues involved.

In judging the appropriateness of your institution's proposed
activity in relation to the public trust doctrine, the case of
State v. Public Service Comm., 275 Wis. 112, 81 N.W 2d 71 (1957),
provides useful guidelines. In that case, the City of Madison,
which owned a park fronting a recreational lake with connecting
lagoons, wanted to:

"Fill part of a lagoon, to remove an existing
bridge, to fill a portion of the lake bed and use
it for parking of cars, enlargement of 4-he beach
area, and relocation of highways, to open a new
waterway between the lake and the lagoon and to
build a new bridge." 275 Wis. at 114.

The Wisconsin Supreme Court held that the Madison plan did not
violate the public trust. In reaching that conclusion, the court
relied upon five factors. First, public bodies will control the
use of the area. Second, the area will be devoted to public pur-
poses and open to the public. Third, the diminution of lake
area will be very small when compared with the whole of Lake
Wingra. Four, no one of the public uses of the lake as a lake
will be destroyed or greatly impaired. And five, disappointment
of those members of the public who may desire to boat, fish or


swim in the area to be filled is negligible when compared to the
convenience to be afforded those members of the public who use
the city parks.


Peter
Public


Mr. Rice





A-4
Mr. Kenneth Lindler, Chancellor
June 22, 1977
Page Two


The court said that "the trust doctrine does not prevent minor
alterations of natural boundaries between water and land." The
question involved with your project is very similar. The state
is trustee of public waterways and associated marsh lands, must
determine whether it is appropriate to destroy the wetlands in
question and in so doing must balance the various considerations
involved with the project.

The Advisory Committee believed that a comprehensive environ-
mental impact statement now being prepared by the University of
Wisconsin was important in order to help conduct the policy analysis
necessary. The Committee believed that it was particularly important
that the University discuss the alternative of restoring the
marsh to its original status, prior to the construction of the
road and the improperly laid culvert, which have significantly
reduced the quality of the wetland in the last few years. A
proper public policy decision regarding the filling project cannot be
made unless we compare what the wetlands could be if restored to
their original condition, versus the public benefit that will
result from the University's proposed project. Certainly an EIS
that is to comply with sec. 1.11, Stats., will need to discuss
the above-described issue. Would you please provide the Public
Intervenor with a copy of your draft EIS.

I would once again like to thank you for your candor and
assistance. I am taking the liberty of providing a copy of this
letter to DNR Deputy Secretary Andrew C. Damon, so that he is
aware of the interest of the Public Inter:venor in this projects

Sinceree y,



Public Intervenor

PAP:klh


cc: Mr. Andrew C. Damon




A-5


CITY PLANNING -w- DIRECTOR
DEPARTMENT CITY OF LA CROSSE RONALD G. BRACEGIRDLE
CITY HALL
LA CROSSE, WISCONSIN 54601
RECEIVED: UW-LACROSSE
CAMPUS PLANNING

July 29, 1977 JUL1 1977


Mr. Lawrence E. Rice, Architect
Campus Planner
University of Wisconsin-La Crosse
1725 State Street
La Crosse, Wisconsin 54601

Dear Mr. Rice:

In response to your inquiry relative to the City's position
regarding the possible vacation of Gorder Road between East Avenue
and Lang Drive, please be advised that the City would strongly oppose
any attempt to discontinue the use of such street. It is believed that
Gorder Road not only provides a valuable point of access to Myrick Park,
but that it provides a secondary link to the University of Wisconsin-
La Crosse and ancillary traffic generators.

If you have additional questions on this matter please contact
us.

Very truly yours,


Ronald G. Braceg dle
Director of City Planning

RGB/alt
cc: Mayor Patrick Zielke


EI I I I

t:LjJ^T I FILE







The UNIVERSITY of


WISCONSIN- LA CROSSE


LA CROSSE, WISCONSIN 54601


(608) 784-6050


August 17, 1977





To: Lawrence E. Rice
Campus Planner

From: George R. Gilkey
Professor of History
Preservation Officer

To my knowledge there is no historical site or structure calling
for preservation in the marsh area now under consideration by the
university for possible development. Citizens of the area long
have regarded the marsh as a divisive element in the community
between the north and south "sides." Historically, it has been
a symbol of that divisiveness such as it exists.

GRG/jl


RECEIVED; UW-LACROSSE
CAMPUS PLANNING
AUG18 1977


IF HFILE


AN EQUAL OPPORTUNITY EMPLOYER 100' RECYCLED PAPER


A-6


i i - -~~~~~~~~~~-- -- I I I -1--W ft-




OFFICE HOURS


INSPECTION DEPARTMENT
CITY HALL
P. . Be* 94
505 NORTH 6TH STREET
LA CROSSE, WIS. 54601
EUGENE R. DALLY, DIRECTOR
August 22, 1977


Mr. Lawrence Rice, Campus Planner
University of Wisconsin- La Crosse
1725 State Street
La Crosse, Wisconsin


8:30 TO 9:30 A.M.
1:00 TO 2:30 P.M.
Ph.: (60 702"940

Ph.: (608) 782-3537


RECEIVEDi UW-LACROSSE
CAMPUS PLANNING
AUm' 23 1\377


~y41~ I I-LE


Dear Mr. Rice:

Please be advised that the flood plain laws of the city provide
that any building placed in the area bounded by Gorder Road on
the north, Lang Drive on the west, East Avenue on the east and
Oak Grove Cemetery and the high ground to the south shall be
placed on fill brought to an elevation of 44.62 feet above mean
sea level (city datum) or more and the finished surface of the
lowest non-flood proofed floor in any such buildings shall be
brought to 45.62 feet mean sea level (city datum) or more. Or in
the alternative the fill and elevating may be omitted and the
building or buildings floodproofed to 45.62 feet mean sea level
(city datum)/


Respectfully,



CSzg- OFFICE HOURS A-8
DEPARTMENTO^S^ 8:30 TO 9:30 A.M.
r/'2'~'":, INSPECTION DEPARTMENT 1:00 TO 2:30 P.M.
.,., ,)BJ ; ,'P.:.CITY HALL Ph. (608) 782-3463
P. 0. BOX 945
!^J^/^^^ ~~505 NORTH 6TH STREET
Lt9ll6,~ LA CROSSE, WIS. 54601
^O i/} -^ ~~EUGENE R. DALLY, DIRECTOR IFAp 7
z/'/ September 26, 1977 '. ,,


Mr. Larry Rice, Campus Planner
University of Wisconsin-LaCrosse
1725 State Street ;^
La Crosse, Wisconsin
Re: Your inquiry as to whether the proposal to
create receational facilities, as shown on the
plan you have presented, south of Gorder Road
and east of Lang Dr., conflicts with city law

Dear Mr. Rice:

The premises under consideration are zoned residential flood plain and the
laws of the city permit "schools, public and parochial" and their incidental
uses in such district. The uses you have proposed are, in our opinion, in-
cidental to a school and therefore permitted.

I see nothing in our laws prohibiting filling in a flood plain, in fact, it
is mandatory when a building will be erected. There are some schools of
thought, however, that conclude that a permit is required and so these con-
tents may be considered as the required permit, if one is in fact required.
I will not elaborate on necessary elevations or type of fill as that has
been covered in previous correspondence.

I'm sure you are aware that you must have authorization from both the Wis-
consin Department of Natural Resources and the United States Coprs of
Engineers to place fill in wet lands.

If memory serves me correctly, you commented no buildings are planned for
this area at this time even though toilets are shown on the plan. When
the toilets or any other buildings are built they must be placed on fill
brought to the required elevation and such fill shall project for a distance
of 15 feet out from the building or buildings.

Respectful ly,


Euge Dally|
Diretor \


ERD/f





UNIVERSITY AFFAIRS COMMITTEE


4 October 1977

The University Affairs Committee met in Room 208, Main Hall, of the UW-
La Crosse at 4:00 p.m. October 4, 1977.


PRESENT:







GUESTS:


Alderman John C. Schubert, Chairman
Alderman Thomas Roellich
Alderman Curtis Storck
Mr. Frederick Funk
Mr. Clayton Johnson
Mr. Anthony Rezzo
Chancellor Kenneth E, Lindner

Alderman Joseph Addis, Chrm., HPU Committee
Assistant Chancellor David R. Witmer
Mr. Ronald Oleson
Mr. Larry E. Rice
Mr. Donald Gerhard
Mr. Jim Bowen, Chrm., Student Senate
News Media


1. MEETING OPENING

The meeting was called to order by Alderman Thomas Roellich.

2. MINUTES

The minutes for the previous meeting had not been distributed.

3. VACATION OF 15TH STREET FROM FARWELL STREET EXTENDING
ONE-HALF BLOCK SOUTH TO THE INTERSECTION OF THE EAST/
WEST ALLEY

Motion was made by Curtis Storck and seconded by Fred Funk that the
City of La Crosse vacate 15th Street from Farwell Street extending one-
half block south to the intersection of the east/west alley. Motion
carried unanimously.

4. VACATION OF FARWELL STREET BETWEEN 14TH STREET AND 15TH PLACE

Motion was made by Curtis Storck and seconded by Fred Funk that the City
of La Crosse vacate Farwell Street between 14th Street and 15th Place.
Motion carried unanimously,



A-9
5. NORTH CAMPUS DEVELOPMENT

Chancellor Lindner explained the University's intent to implement a
portion of the Master Plan relating to physical education field develop-
ment by filling in a portion of the university's north campus marsh
area south of Gorder Road.

Motion was made by Fred Funk and seconded by Curtis Storck that:
(1) The University Affairs Committee endorse the north campus develop-
ment plan as described in the Environmental ImpactStatement and the
U, S. Corps of Engineers 404 permit application, and that (2) the
University Affairs Committee recommend implementation of this pro-
posed project in 1 978 to provide a commnunity-wide learning and
recreational experience center, and that (3) the Committee recommend
continued City, State, Federal and private cooperation. Motion carried
unanimously.

6. SIXTEENTH STREET

Mr. Joe Addis advised that the City Traffic Engineer and the City Planning
Department had turned down the proposal to make 1 6th Street an improved
and increased tho roughfare through the campus.

7. ADJOURNMENT

Fred Funk moved the meeting be adjourned. 'Seconded by Tomi1 Roellich.
Passed unanimously.

Minutes recorded by Larry E. Rice, UWYLa Crosse Campus Planner.

cc: All members of University Affairs Committee
Mayor Patrick Zielke






CtyP of ac a (rossCe (Ye iconsin
Park and Recreation Department


CITY HALL


784-0561


EUGENE B. FRY
Director


Board of Park Commissioners
Alan Cole - President
Merlin Eggen - Vice President
Donald Meinert - Secretary
Harlene Garness
George Hickey
William Hopkins
John Schubert


OctobeA 6, 1977


Mr. Lawtence E. Rice, Atchitect
Cam pus Pian nLeA
UnTiveA4sty o Wisconsin-La CLosze
1725 State Street
La Ctozze, Wisconsin 54601

Deat M/t. Rice:

In te&sponzse to yout i4nquiLAy tetative to the La Crosse
Park and Recteation Department's position tegardLding the
development of the marth acea as pet your plan. The Board
of Patk Commitsionets and myself peAsonnatty feel the
UniverVSity and the community defintely are in need of the4e
factlittie and are encouraged by the propozat.

Verty Trtuy YouL4,


Boartd of Parkk Commk4 onesA,
Eugene B. Fty, Directot


EBF/cp


RECEIVEDi UW-LACROSSE
CAMPUS PLANNING
OCT7 1977

LEf t1
I I FiL
3~~~FL




A-11


CITY OF LA CROSSE


MAYOR'S OFFICE


PATRICK ZIELKE, MAYOR


October 19, 1977






Chancellor Kenneth E. Lindner
University of Wisconsin-LaCrosse
1725 State Street
La Crosse, Wisconsin 54601

Dear Chancellor Lindner:

The City of La Crosse supports the University's
North Campus Field Development Plan. We see many
mutual benefits and absolutely no adverse effects.

The City and the University have worked closely
in sharing recreational facilities and the City does
need expanded programs for the health and well-being
of its citizens. This project is seen as a necessary
and important portion of our overall progress in
jointly serving our community. It does have our full
support.

Sincerely,



P trick Zielk / Mayor


PZ:ot





UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE

,,.. ' LA.OR tt .
, A/E. ,Ul December 2, 1977

Lawrence E. Rice, Architt . . '
Campus Planner . T
University of Wisconsin -.La CrMse ,.L.--
La Crosse, Wisconsin 546011-;.1"--w..:
Dear Mr. Rice:
I have spoken to one of our soil scientists, who is soil
survey party leader in Sparta. It is his belief that upward
grown-water gradients in this particular location in the La Crosse
Marsh is not an important consideration, particularly for athletic
fields. If you were to place buildings in such an area, further
foundation studies would be necessary. If the site had been closer
to the bluffs, he felt there would have been more likelihood of up-
ward ground-water gradients. There will be, of course, the ebb
and flow of the water table as the river rises and falls in response
to seasonal or cyclical moisture conditions.

I would still stand firm that those areas where the muck layer
is relatively thin over sand would be able to bear the loading placed
on them by the athletic fields. All you have to do is look at all the
buildings that are placed on sand fills in former marshland past of
George Street and south of the railroad tracks to get factual proof
that foundation conditions are not too bad.

Sincerely,
T/..,- ' -/
JAmes B. Cropper
District Conservationist

JC/dc








4






United States Department of the Interior
'~ IN REPLY REFER TO:
FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE
FISH CONTROL LABORATORY
P. 0O. BOX 862
LA CROSSE, WISCONSIN 54601

January 4, 1978


Dr. Lawrence E. Rice, Campus Planner
Main Hall
University of Wisconsin-La Crosse
1725 State Street
La Crosse, WI 54601

Dear Dr. Rice:

The Fish and Wildlife Service's Fish Control Laboratory, Box 818,
La Crosse, WI has been performing complete water analyses monthly
for the past 5 years on some of the rivers in this area. The
La Crosse River was included in our monitoring program, and 21
different components or properties of the water have been deter-
mined monthly. Briefly, the 1977 data show that total hardness
ranges from 132 to 180 mg/L, pH ranges from 7.83 to 8.82, total
phosphates range from 0.12 to 1.4 mg/L, and nitrate nitrogen
ranges from 0.15 to 1.0 mg/L. The monthly variations are perhaps
due to changing water flows from rainwater and snowmelt, and to
agricultural and municipal wastes entering the river.

The La Crosse River enters the Mississippi River at our labora-
tory site. Our observations are that the La Crosse River usually
carries a heavier silt load than the Black or Mississippi rivers,
especially during heavy rainfalls or Spring runoff.

Please let us know if you need more details on the water analyses.

Sincerely yours,

,i/ / , - 7
Leif L. Marking
Acting Di re tor

LLM:ajh


RECEIVED, UW-LACROS6E
CAMPUS PLANNING
JAN 5 1978






'lil.~ State of Wisconsin \ DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION 04

OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY
Room ] 20B Hill Farms State Office BIc
4802 She)oygan Avenue
Madison, Wisconsin 53702I
January 6, 1978 Telephone 266-1i13


Tony Earl, Secretary
Department of Natural Resources
4610 University Avenue
Madison, Wisconsin 53702

Dear Tony:

This letter is intended to confirm our conversation of yesterday
concerning the use of dredge spoil as fill in construction of
Lang Drive in LaCrosse. As I indicated to you in our meeting,
our Department supports the use of dredge spoil for highway purposes
when feasible, in order to promote environmental quality. In the
case of the Lang Drive project in LaCrosse, we will make every
effort to use whatever spoil material is available at that site at
the time the project is constructed.

We propose to act as follows. Approximately 60 days prior to the
contract letting date for the project, we would determine the amount
of dredge spoil material available and suitable for road fill purposes
and free from contaminants. (Incidentally, as you may know, this
project will not be let to contract before the fall of 1979.) That
amount of material will be specified for use by the contractor on
the project. We will notify you at that time of what specific
material is to be used and ask that the material not be disturbed
prior to its removal. Any additional material placed at Isle LaPlume
should then be placed in a manner that would distinguish it from
the material specified as roadway fill. To the extent practical,
we will attempt to test that additional material for use by the
contractor at his option.

It is. my belief that our proposal supports our joint commitment to
environmentally sound transportation projects. It is in the spirit
and intent of the DOT-DNR cooperative agreement. We hope that our
proposal will permit DNR to withdraw the special condition in the
404 permit concerning the use of dredge spoil on the Lang Drive
project.

Sincerely,
i \

Dale Cattanach
Secretary


- ko-5 -




A-15


' ^^ 'i State of Wisconsin \ DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES
Anthony S. Erl
Secrettlry
BOX 7921
January 24, 1978 MADISON, WISCONSIN 53707

IN REPLY REFER TO: 1600


Colonel Forrest T. Gay III, District Engineer
St. Paul District, Corps of Engineers
1210 U. S. Post Office & Custom House
St. Paul, Minnesota 55101






Dear Colonel Gay:

Re: NCSCO-S (77-12-08)
Improvement of Lang Drive (STH 35),
City of La Crosse, Wisconsin

The Department of Natural Resources is amending its requested conditions
to the City of La Crosse's Section 404 permit application for recon-
struction of Lang Drive (STH 35). Based upon the attached letter from
the Secretary of Transportation and further negotiations with the Division
of Highways, we would not object to granting of the 404 permit provided
that the following conditions are met:

1. That the applicant will not use those portions of the La Crosse
River Marsh beyond 15 feet fromn the proposed roadway limits (toe of
fill) for materials laydown, stockpiling, equipment storage, as a
source of fill material, or otherwise disturb or degrade the area.
All marsh excavation to be temporarily stockpiled within these
limits will be removed to the original ground elevation or lower.

2. That the applicant will maintain all local an" area drainage
patterns, and at a minimum, will install two 60-inch diameter
parabolic culverts beneath Lang Drive to supply water to that
portion of the La Crosse River Mlrsh east of Lang I)rive and south
of Corder Road. In addition, tthe exist ing culvert under I.ang lPrive
north of Corder Road will he replaced by a new 60-inch parabolic
culvert. The inverts of all culvert; will be set at thle lowest
elevation within 20 feet of the ends to allow adequate water depths
for Ingress and egress of :aquatic organisms.


:'t {., 3 In 0197B

- 'i-A









Colonel Forrest T. Gay - January 24, 1978

Mr. Dale Erlandson, Area Supervisor at La Crosse, should be contacted
prior to setting these culverts.


Sincerely,



Anthony S. Earl
Secretary


Attach.
cc: Dale Cattanach - DOT
Bill Franz - EPA
Chuck Kjos - Fish & Wildlife Service
Merlin Luher - DOT
Honorable Patrick Zielke - Mayor of La Crosse


A-15


2.


Lrlfp






A-16

United States Department of the Interior
~: IN REPLY REFER TO:
FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE
FISH CONTROL LABORATORY
P. 0O. BOX 862
LA CROSSE, WISCONSIN 54601

May 15, 1978

e ^ . '.. J t .



Mr. Lawrence E. Rice, Architect ''
Campus Planner ^ \..
University of Wisconsin-La Crosse \>%
1725 State Street
La Crosse, WI 54601

Dear Mr. Rice:

Attached are the results of analyses of water samples taken at
the University-owned section of Myrick Marsh during the April
1978 flooding. Results of analyses of water samples collected
near the culvert south of the intersection of Lang Drive and
Gorder Road,and samples collected near the culvert under Gorder
Road are included in the report. Grab water samples were taken
during rising flood waters, at the crest of the flooding, and
again while the flood waters were receding from the study area.

Hopefully, these data will answer some of the questions regard-
ing the water quality of flood waters in Myrick Marsh. If you
have any questions on the results, don't hesitate to contact us.

Sincerely yours,


John S. Williams
Acting Director


JSW:ajh








U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service U-LSE
Fish Control Laboratory ...
La Crosse, Wisconsin A ,U r',
May 15, 1978 ^ ti

Water Quality of Myrick Marsh ....- - .
During Flooding in April 1978

The University of Wisconsin-La Crosse requested that the Fish Con-
trol Laboratory perform water analyses for them in the area of Myrick
Marsh. The study area is bordered on the north by Gorder Road and on
the west by Lang Drive. This area is subject to occasional spring
flooding by water which backs up into the marsh from the La Crosse
River and enters the marsh through culverts under Lang Drive and
Gorder Road.
The purpose of this study was to determine water quality in the
marsh during 1978 flooding as part of an environmental assessment of
the area. (The University has plans to develop the area for athletic
fields.)
Grab water samples were taken near the two culverts during rising
flood waters, at the crest of the flooding, and again while the flood
waters were receding from the study area.
Flood waters reached the Lang Drive culvert about April 6, 1978
but did not begin flowing through the culvert into the marsh until
April 11, 1978. Water did not reach the Gorder Road culvert until
April 11, 1978 and began flowing through that culvert on April 13,
1978. The apparent flood crest occurred about 2 days following the
recorded crest of 10.5 feet on April 15, 1978 at the river stage
monitoring station located at Riverside Park. River stages for the
month of April with comments on the study area and sampling dates
are presented in Table 1.
Dissolved oxygen determinations were made on site using a YSI oxy-
gen meter, Analyses for pH and alkalinity were made on a Corning ex-
panded scale pH meter. Resistivity and conductance were determined
using an Industrial Instruments conductivity bridge. Subsamples pre-
served with nitric acid were concentrated 10-fold and analyzed for
lead and zinc on a Perkin-Elmer atomic absorption spectrophotometer.





A-16


All analyses were made according to procedures outlined in Standard
Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 14th edition,
1975.
Results of analyses of water samples collected near the culvert
south of the intersection of Lang Drive and Gorder Road are presented
in Table 2. Similar analyses of water samples collected near the
culvert under Gorder Road are presented in Table 3.






A-16


Table 1. River stages at Riverside Park during April 1978 with com-
ments on the study area in Myrick Marsh and water sampling
periods.

River
Date stage Comments
(ft)


7.0
7.1
7.2
7.4
7.6
8.1
8.4
8.6
8.6
9.0
9.5
9.9
10.2
10.4
10.5
10.4
10.2

9.8
9.6
9.5
9.2
8.8
8.7
8.6


Sample taken at Lang Drive




Sample taken at Lang Drive
Water flowing through Lang Drive culvert
Sample taken at Lang Drive and Gorder Road
Water flowing through Gorder Road culvert




Sample taken at Lang Drive and Gorder Road; carp
observed in study area
Water still flowing into study area at both culverts


No water flowing through Gorder Road culvert


Sample taken at Lang Drive and Gorder Road; carp
and gar observed in study area


8.5
8.3
8.2
8,1
8.0
7.9


4/01
4/02
4/03
4/04
4/05
4/06
4/07
4/08
4/09
4/10
4/11
4/12
4/13
4/14
4/15
4/16
4/17

4/18
4/19
4/20
4/21
.. 4/22
4/23
4/24

4/25
4/26
4/27
4/28
4/29
4/30


- - ----





A-16

Table 2. Analysis of water near the culvert south of the intersec-
tion of Lang Drive and Gorder Road during the April 1978
flooding of Myrick Marsh.


,Analyses 4/6Sampling dates
A1ys4/6 ' 4/10 4/12 4/17 4/724

River stage (ft)a 8.1 9.0 9.9 10.2 8.6
Temperature - air (C) 9.0 8.0 16.0 13.0 10.0
Temperature - water (C) 8.5 8.0 10.0 10.5 10.0
pH 7.20 7.78 7.86 8.40 8.03
Total alkalinity (mg/L)b 75.0 116 123 133 132
Dissolved oxygen (mg/L) 7.4 8.4 9.4 11.6 10.0
B.O.D. (mg/L) 3.4 2.0 2.1 2.7 2.9
Resistivity (ohms) 5006 2840 3307 2571 3224
Conductance (lmhos) 200 352 302 389 310
Total hardness (mg/L) 82.0 132 138 144 136
Suspended solids (mg/L) 89.5 128.0 64.0 5.4 8,6
Dissolved solids (mg/L) 133.5 129.6 154.0 173.8 198.3
Ammonia nitrogen (mg/L) 0.188 0.230 0.075 0.050 0.125
Nitrite nitrogen (mg/L) 0.003 0.022 0.025 0.020 0.004
Nitrate nitrogen (mg/L) 0.17 0.78 1.02 0.74 0.17
Total phosphates (mg/L) 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.25 0.25
Lead (mg/L) <0.02 <0.02 <0.02 <0.02 <0.02
Zinc (mg/L) 0.020 0.07 0.008 0.005 0.009

aAt Riverside Park.


As CaCO3





A--16

Table 3. Analysis of water near the culvert under Gorder Road during
the April 1978 flooding of Myrick Marsh.

Sampling dates
Analyses 4/6 4/10 4/12 4/17 4/24

River stage (ft)a N.A.b N.A.b 9.9 10.2 8.6
Temperature - air (C) 16.0 13.0 10.0
Temperature - water (C) " " 11.0 11.0 9.0
pH " " 7.50 7.86 7.98
Total alkalinity (mg/L)C 112 131 126
Dissolved oxygen (mg/L) 8.6 9.4 10.8
B.O.D. (mg/L) 2.4 2.4 2.6
Resistivity (ohms) 3321 2713 3227
Conductance (imhos) 301 369 310
Total hardness (mg/L) 126 146 138
Suspended solids (mg/L) " ~ 72.0 5.4 5.7
Dissolved solids (mg/L) 201.2 180.0 176.8
Ammonia nitrogen (mg/L) 0.200 0.075 0.175
Nitrite nitrogen (mg/L) 0.029 0.020 0.004
Nitrate nitrogen (mg/L) 1.02 1.22 0.23
Total phosphates (mg/L) 0.70 0.25 0.25
Lead (mg/L) " " <0.02 <0.02 <0.02
Zinc (mg/L) 0.019 0.007 0.061

aAt Riverside Park.

bNot available, flood water did not reach this area until April 11.


CAs CaCO3




A-17


The UNIVERSITY of WISCONSIN- LA CROSSE

LA CROSSE, WISCONSIN 54601 (608) 785-8000

June 1, 1978

Lawrence E. Rice
Campus Planner G - i
University of Wisconsin-La Crosse

Re: North Campus Development/Environmental Impact Statemen

Dear Larry:

In response to your letter of May 31, 1978, the following is given as
my assessment of the Myrick Marsh primarily based on a mosquito research
project conducted over the past four years.

The marsh presents extreme problems from a mosquito point of view only
when it is inundated with water either by spring flooding or significant
rains. Experience has shown that most of the mosquitoes of marsh are
"flood plain" mosquitoes and as such the life cycle is completed after
eggs laid in soil (along water lines) hatch following water covering
them in the spring. Some species of mosquitoes produce multi-broods, but
for the most part it is the spring or early summer hatch that presents
a mosquito problem in the La Crosse area. Such hatches provide
mosquitoes throughout the summer as a result of their life cycle
longevity.

Most mosquitoes found in the marsh are "pest" mosquitoes and serve as
a nuisance rather than a disease vector mosqu'to. Culex pipienSis
found in the marsh habitat and could serve a.. the vector for the St. Louis
strain of encephalitis. Aedes triseriatus, thie vector for the La Crosse
Strain of Encephalitis has not been found in areas of the marsh that have
been monitored.

From a point of view of mosquito control filling of marsh areas with fill
or draining them does serve to lower mosquito habitat. The area in
question that the University plans to fill probably is the least significant
area of the marsh from a mosquito habitat point j"- view for two reasons.
First, culverts controlling water flow are higher than most of the marsh,
and as such the area does not receive flooding as readily. Second, in
recent years the area has been quite dry. The southern edge with its heavy
vegetation serves as a habitat for adult mosquitoes coming off the marsh.
Such an area is an interface between the city and the marsh and can present
some problems.


AN EQUAL OPPORTUNITY EMPLOYER




A-17



Lawrence Rice
June 1, 1978
p. 2

Water is certainly the critical factor for mosquito production, and its
control by drainage or fill would eliminate a habitat source.

Under some given conditions where disease is involved, it is an advantage,
yet under other conditions of wild life habitat one has to weigh the
advantages pro or con. Strictly speaking,of the mosquito habitat as a
source of disease vectors and pertinent problems, its elimination is
probably good.

Probably the small area under question is not critical to mosquito pro-
duction on any given year. In addition, managed areas could be an
advantage if utilized.

The area north of Gorder Road offers at the present time the best of the
wetlands of the area.

Obviously the problem is not simple, but in my estimation, if one considers
all the alternatives, there are some things that could be done in the
marsh that would enhance it rather than hinder.

Siuncerely, . /

.... r ..
/Xamei^- Parry
Professor of Biology


JEP:ca




A-18


The UNIVERSITY of WISCONSIN- LA CROSSE

------ ------I LA CROSSE, WI SCONS IN 5460 1 (608) 87;ZXXO)6'0
785-8019

June 6, 1978


Donald Gerhard
Director, Environmental Affairs
University of Wisconsin System
1930 Monroe Street/P.O, Box 8010
Madison, Wisconsin 53708

RE: Campus Petition Supporting
North Campus Field Development
University of Wisconsin-La Crosse

Dear Don:

Enclosed herewith are additional copies of campus petitions
received by Chancellor Lindner. The signatures of dormitory
students, commuting students, and campus faculty total 1,683.
The petition gives name and address and states:

University of Wisconsin-La Crosse

"The undersigned support the filling of the university
marsh land south of Gorder Road for the purposes of
providing adequate outdoor teaching stations for
Physical Education and fields for Recreation, Intra-
murals and Intercollegiate Athletics."

Sin rely,


/arence E. Rice, rchitect
' Cmpus Planner /

LER:mb

Attachment

cc: Chancellor Kenneth E. Lindner
L. L. Lebiecki


AN EQUAL OPPORTUNITY EMPLOYER







APPENDIX B: GEOLOGY AND SOIL

B-1 Soil Conservation Service reports re marsh soil: 9/14/77, 1/70, 1/70
B-2 Weinzierl letter, chart, and photo re test borings in marsh soil:
6/12/78




SCS-CONS-5 U. S, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
10-75 SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE
FILE-CODE CONS-14-5

INVENTORY & EVALUATION B-1

OF LAND, WATER, AND RELATED RESOURCES

University of ,Wisconsin-La Crosse
REQUESTED BY IMIarkhite For LOCATION La Crosse, ,i. :;consin
Lawrence ice ice, Campus Planner

ASSISTED BY Trmiqs R. Cropper DATE SepteMber 14. 1977
* District Conservationist
INDIVIDUAL E GROUP r1 UNIT OF GOVERNMENT

SITUATION: Soil borinr.s '#1 and '6 had the deepest o rranic soil layer. , /1 was

4.5' thick and /6 3.5' thick before saturaLed sand as rach-edo ;6 iad thle highest

saturated level. Saturation :vas reached a-t a 3t deptho /3 had only a 6' thick

muck layer. The rest, of -the soil profile was sand. -2, ,4, '5 vwere very sinilar

the muck layer was about 2' thick. Below the muck w:as sand. lthlouic'h /2, J/3, /4,

and /J5 had no saturated zone i- the 51 probe de ;th, the sand :as eith r mottled or

grey in a::pearance indicating a seasonal high water table thro--,-;ot 1,he iThole 51

S~ r~/Mt soil profile. The area under co-nsideration is a :tixture of

type 2, (readows-without standing `Tatber during growing soa:son), Type 3 (shallow

marsch-usually ,iaterloaged during growing season; often covered 'i th 6" or more of

water), and type 6 (shrub swavips)o Indicator plants are: reed canarygrrass - Type 2;

cattails, smartweed, arrowhead - type 3; vwillo-Js and co-tonwood - type 6.

EVALUATION:


It is national policy vwitiii the Soil Co iservaioo i ;service that no

assistance be given to any landoJner to alter types 3 and 6 to any othler land use.

In its present state the land is not suitable for crop production. It 'present

dry condition is of a fleeting nature due to the past 3 years of low rainfall. It

would take extensive ditching, land leveling, and pumping to mirk this land


* Check appropriate category








b-1

SCS-CONS-5 U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
10-75 SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE
FILE-CODE CONS-14-5



INVENTORY & EVALUATION

OF LAND, WATER, AND RELATED RESOURCES

University of Wis onsin-La Crosse
REQUESTED BY Mark LOhite ForLOCATIONLa Crosse, :i sconsin
Lawrence Rice, Campus Planner

ASSISTED BY James B. Cropper DATE September 14, 1977
District Conservationist
L INDIVIDUAL - GROUP El UNIT OF GOVERNMENT

g~i.g agriculturally productive on a long term basis. Because good sandy :oil











Enclosed are two soil interpretation sheets for marsh and alluvial land, 'wet.

These 2 sheets suetoearize the capabilitg of the two soil t ps preaent on the

tract of land in question.


SUGGESTED SOLUTION(S)


C" ---I--- --


---- I -


? __ c - -


- I- - ---C- ---- --


I q - Mi M


C- I- I


--- -- ---- I


- .. --


II I I ---- ---- ---- -' L


- - i -- - ---


_ _











Land Type Aluvial land, wet


B-1

LRA 9____ Date January. 1970


Map Symbols


Name Southeastern Wisconsin Drift Plain


SOIL INTERPRETATIONS
BRIEF SOIL DESCRIPTION Deep, somewhat poorly to poorly drained loamy soils formed in neutral
stream sediments. These are nearly level, moderately permeable soils with high available
water capacity.

INTERPRETATIONS FOR CROPLAND, PASTURE, AND WOODLAND AND OTHER LAND USES


Cropland - general and SEVERE - subject to high water table; subject to frequent flooding.
specialty farm crops

SEVERE - sod easily damaged when wet; subject to high water table;
Pasture subject to freaqent flnoonng.

Woodland Production potential LOW to HIGH; LCOW for conifers.

Other

Land capability unit and yield predictions (crops, hay, pasture) _______
Slope Capability Corn-Grain Corn-Silage Oats Alfalfa-Brome Bluegrass
Slope Capability (bu.) (tons) (bu) Hay (tons) Pasture (AUD)
Class Eros. Unit A B A B AB A B R

0-2% Vw-14 - 55 - 10 - 50 - 2.75 40 110





LIMITATIONS FOR WILDLIFE HABITAT ELEMENTS
Grain and MODERATE - high water table; subject to frequent flooding.
Seed Crops
Grass and MODERATE - high water table; subject to frequent flooding.
Legumes
Wild Herbaceous MODERATE - high water table; subject to frequent flooding.
Upland Plants ........ ____e........ . m ,,__.....
MODERATE - high water table; subject to frequent flooding.
Woody Plant Hardwood
SEVERE - high water table; subject to frequent flooding.
Conifers
Wetland Foo an SLIGHT - subject to frequent flooding.
Cover Plants
Shallow and Deep SLIGHT - moderate permeability.
Water Developments

LIMITATIONS AND SOIL FEATURES AFFECTING RECREATION
Tent and Camp SEVERE - site remains wet and soft for long periods; poor
Trailer Sites trafficability when wet.
Picnic Areas, Parks, & SEVERE - site remains wet and soft for long periods; poor
Extensive Play Areas trafficability.
Playground, Athletic SEVERE - subject to frequent flooding; poor trafficability and
Field, and Intensive sod easily damaged when wet.
Play Areas
Bridle Paths, Nature SEVERE - poor trafficability, subject to frequent flooding;
and Hiking Trails wet for long periods.
SEVERE - poor trafficability site remains wet and soft for long
Golf Course Fairways periods; turf easily damaged when wet.


1 of 2











ESTIMATED PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES


Percent of Material Available
Classification Passing Sieve -Permea- water Soil Shrink-
Depth Uni- No. 4 No. 10 No. 200 bility capacity reaction swell
Inches USDA fied AASHO 5.0 mm. 2.0 mm 0.074 nmm in/hr in/in pH potential
Surface loam
Surface loam ML A-4 90-100 70-80 55-65 .63-2.0 .16-.20 6.5-7.8
layer
0-10" p <
Subsoil loa |-4- A-4 90-100 70-80 55-65 .63-2.0 .16-.20 6.5-7.8 Low
10-30" SP
Substratum oam- - | A-4 90-100 70-80 55-65 .63-2.0 .16-2.0 6.5-7.8 Low

INTERPRETATIONS OF ENGINEERING PROPERTIES Hydrologic GrQup B

Suitability as a source of:

Fair - high water table; subject to flooding.
Topsoil 1
Unsuitable - loanry.
Sand and gravel

Road subgrade and Poor - low bearing value and unstable when wet; not accessible when
hizhway fills 1 wet.

Limitations and Soil Features Affecting:
SEVERE - high water table; hauling and excavating difficult,
Highway Location ..
Foundations for
low buildings . . SEVERE - subject to flooding; high water table; low stability.

Corrosion Metal LCW
hazard
LOW
Concrete

Moderate permeability; high water table.
Pond reservoir areas
...... -, . ,..._ _...4.. ,


Dams, dikes
.!%" A mh nlm ntc


Subsoil and substratum have fair stability anM compaction cnaracirTl-ril.


Terraces and
diversionsD f__Not applicable.gct
High available water capn, ity; deep soil; moderate water intake


LIMITATIONS FOR SOME URBAN USES

Sanitary land fill SEVERE - high water table.
Sanitary land fill
SEVERE - high water table.
Disposal fields
SEVERE - moderate permeability; subject to frequent floodin[g.
Sewage lagoons .

.t-a 'A n the 'is. o'f 4.7soi
Tli~~~soil~ is evaluated... onlto a .et01j1C i ,


The soil is evaluated only to a aepth or ) leet or tess. ou b011 ..c. ...L.LCU UL . ..*,
suitability and limitation classes. In the following definitions the suitability rating is
listed first and limitation rating listed second:
Good, Slight - The soils have no limitations or limitations for a given use that are easy to
overcome; Fair, Moderate - The soils have limitations for a given use that can be overcome by
average management aind manipulation; Poor, Severe - The soils have limitations for a given use
that are difficult to overcome; Unsuita'.ie, Very Severe - The soils have limitations that
generally preclude their use for a given purpose.
2 of 2
VIDA-$CS LINCOLN. MISS. Ite 1 5,N-271 II


i r. !r-l













Soil Series

Map Symbols


B-1

MARSH LRA All Date 1/14/70

Name


SOIL INTERPRETATIONS
BRIEF SOIL DESCRIPTION: Miscellaneous land areas that are inundated most of the year,
including flowage margins, sloughs and very shallow lakes.


INTERPRETATIONS FOR CROPLAND, PASTURE, AND WOODLAND AND OTHER LAND USES
Cropland - general and
Cropland - geeral ad VERY SEVERE - generally ponded.
specialty farm crops


Pasture VERY SEVERE - generally ponded. .

Woodland VERY SEVERE - generally ponded.

Other May be suitable for wild rice for wildlife food.

Land capability unit and yield predictions (crops, hay, pasture)
. Corn-Grain Corn-Silage Oats Alfalfa-Brome Bluegrass
Slope e oCapability |(bu.) (tons) (bu) Hay (tons) Pasture (AUD)
Class Eros. Unit A B A R A B A B A B

0-2% 1 VIIIwl5 not uitable for crop production.







LIMITATIONS FOR WILDLIFE HABITAT ELEMENTS
Picnic s.. ... .... ...
Grain and VERY SEVERE - no species suited; flooded most of the year.
Seed Crops ....
Grass and VERY SEVERE - no species suited; flooded most of the year.
Legumes
Wild Herbaceous VERY SEVERE - no species suited flooded most of the year.
Upland Plants _ .

y Hardwood VERY SEVERE - no species suited; flooded most of the year.
Woody Plants __...........

Conifers VERY SEVERE - no species suited; flooded most of the year.
Wetland Fooc and
Cover Plants SLIGHT
Shallow and Deep
Water Developments SLIGHT

LIMITATIONS AND SOIL FEATURES AFFECTING RECREATION
Tent and Camp
Trailer Sites VERY SEVERE - flooded most of the year.
Picnic Areas, Parks, &
Extensive Play Areas VERY SEVERE - flooded most of the year.
Playground, Athletic
Field, and Intensive VERY SEVERE - flooded most of the year.
Play Areas . .. ._____
Bridle Paths, Nature VERY SEVERE - flooded most of the year.
and Hiking Trails __
VERY SEVERE - may be used as ponds, hazards or source of water for
Golf Course Fairways irrigation.


1 of 2


_ .









.ESTTMATF.I PHYSICAL AND ClHEMICAL PROPERTIES


C i ' Percent of Material Available
Classification Passing Sieveoil Srinc-
______~__ ______.........____ ss hi__ -ev - Permoca- water Soil Shrink-
Depth Uni- No. 4 No. 10 No. 200 bility capacity reaction swell
Inches fied 5.0 nmm. 2.0 mm 0.074 mm in/hr in/in p t pot e ia

layer
varia le
Subsoil

Underlying
material.... . . ... --

INTERPRETATIONS OF ENGINEERING PROPERTIES Hydrologic Group D

Suitability as a source of:

To soil UNSUITABLE - ponded most of the year.

Sand and gravel UNSUITABLE - no sand and gravel present.

Road subgrade and UNSUITABLE - poorly drained; low stability and bearing capacity.
highway fills

Limitations and Soil Features Affecting:

Hi ghway Location VERY SEVERE - flooded most of the year.
Hi hwa Locat.ion
Foundations for
low buildin. VERY SEVERE - flooded most of the year.
low buildings

Corrosion Metal Variable
hazard

Concrete Variable

Pond re.rervoir areas Flooded most of the year.

Dams, dikes VERY SEVERE - variable characteristics; flooded most of the year.
and embankments

Waterways Not applicable._

Drainage Drainage generally not feasible or practical.
Terraces and
diversions Not applicable.

Irrigation . VERY SEVERE - difficult to drain.

LIMITATIONS FOR SOME URBAN USES

Sanitary land fill VERY SEVERE - nearly continuous high water table.

Disposal fields VERY SEVERE - high water table; usv1^, i y flooded.

Sewage lagoons VERY SEVERE - usually flooded.
.~~~~~~~~ . i ~


The soil is evaluated only to a depth of 5 feet or less. Soils are rated on the basis ol 4 soil
suitability and limitation classes. In the following definitions the suitability rating is
listed first and limitation rating listed second:
Good, Slight - The soils have no limitations or limitations for a given use that are easy to
overcome; Fair, Moderate - The soils have limitations for a given use that can be overcome by
average management and manipulation; Poor, Severe - The soils have limitations for a given use
that are difficult to overcome; Ulnsuit.-a)e, Very Severe - The soils have limitations that
generally preclude their use for a given purpose.
2 of 2
5.N-271 II


B-1


VIODAICI LINCOL#, #I! Ils






B-2


The UNIVERSITY of


WISCONSIN- LA CROSSE


LA CROSSE, W SCONS I N 54601


(608) 784-6050


LAC WUtiE


FILE


May 12, 1978



Lawrence E. Rice, Architect
Campus Planner


RE: Preliminary Environmental Report
North Campus Development
University of Wisconsin - La Crosse


Dear Mr. Rice:

The borings made by the Wisconsin Department of Transportation illustrate
the cyclic nature of floodplain-marsh development. Subsurface sands and
gravels imply active cycles of erosion and deposition while the black
organic layers suggest passive cycles of stable vegetation accompanied by
tranquil, seasonal overflows. A glance at the plate entitled "Test Borings,
North Campus Development" shows that several cycles are recorded.

Filling in the marsh with materials of high permeability such as a mixture
of sand and gravel should have a minimal effect on existing infiltration
rates. It is likely that the ground water table will rise somewhat
depending upon capillary attraction of the fill and annual precipitation.


The black organic material should not be a problem in terms of
if the overlying fill is limited to a height of several feet.
of major buildings with considerable mass, however, may result
and eventual subsidence.


compaction
Constructi on
in compaction


In terms of functional significance, the La Crosse River marsh serves as a
site of sediment collection as well as an area of water storage during times
of high river stages. Artificial filling of the marsh should be considered
detrimental since it accelerates the fill process and reduces flood storage
capacity.


Edward J. Weinzierl
Professor of Geography


AN EQUAL OPPORTUNITY EMPLOYER 1- 00% RECYCLED PAPER


I - Is I I I -.


I.





B-2










UNIFIED SOIL CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM SYMBOLS

GW Well graded gravels; gravel-sard mixtures
GP Poorly graded gravels
G M Silty gravels; gravel-sand-silt mixtures
GC Clayey gravels; gravel-sand-clay mixtures
SW Well graded sands; sand-gravel mixtures
SP Poorly graded sands
SM Silty sand
SC Clayey sands; sand-clay mixtures
ML Silts; silty, v. fine sands; sandy or ciayey silts
CL Clays of low to medium plasticity; siity, sandy or gravelly clays
CH Inorganic clays of high plasticity; fat clays
Mli Elastic silts; micaceous or diatomaceous silts
OL Organic silts and organic silty ctays of low plasticity
OH Organic clays of medium to high plasticity



UNCONSOLIDATED MATERIALS

F^~71^.:-x:.7:~~ I-,~~!I" ~ silt..~ /~:c]-obbles,
1j gravel j sand l silt clay D;oulders

gravel, ' sand Jo silt, , >clay, , .
sandy . gravelly L 2-Jgravellyjgravelly 3
h [ gravel, SjF sand, t silt, F7clay, [ ]gypsi-
I4foo~sily _j silty ti sandy sady EL".ferous *
gravel, s/ sand, t1 silt, jclay, F calcar-
_ clayey " : clayey I'clayeysilty ---eous *
[' gravel, F1 s7 [i ' ial i]organic organic
t _ silt,
Yiccay
* to be added to Standard Symbol when significant amounts of dispersed gypsum or
calcified zones are present in the section.


Figure 1-19 Soil symbols for soil and water conservation
engineering maps and drainage











































-J
0


0~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~l


LLJ
0. I- I - I-t - I-
z < 0 LuIJ uJ LU Lu
. - . L. 0 LLIJ LUJ IL LlJ
,Q r, w LL . . LL LL LLL

P , C) r-i Csi r) -:- Ln


t


i

V)


-J
0


--J
0


0
L


V)


\\ K \~\ X\ \.\ I*. -
N '\ \ \ \


LU
< 0 W W LW W
LL. 0 LU LWU U LL
OC: LL LL LL LL LL
U) r-1 C. N -3- L1


B-2


I _ _ _ _


_ _ , v _ _ _ Y- _


i---- -- i--- L- I


l I .


--


-1 -


I --.- I. ,.


I i:I- i -" t I


. 4 , - , v , '- -- , - I


I - - -- ---I ... .. . I . . . .. I
I. , - " -, . , .
I- -- --i ". 4. " I. . . - . 4

I


- - - - - .. , . .. . I . 'k.
. . . I i . . I. I . .-. . . . .
. , % I .
-- ---- I


\ I \


I





B-2





0,,)loc_ : - - - 1 \ j (n _:-o.










Wl|i ,\\' o e- L| -.' 8..'' ~-l'










I--

0 o







|0 _ l i X \ \ m \ \ \ \ \ \ g \ \ \ \ & \ \ \1 l9 _ \ \ X ' ! 1 : - . I \ o~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~30

, o
-^^^^^^^ ^.^J l^^^^^J^^^^^ I. *; -^~7~| \ I~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~






W Z
(U) U)
02z


2:4
C




(,0


U





APPENDIX C: FLOOD DATA

C-1 Table: Highest Ten Known Floods in Order of Magnitude at
La Crosse, Wisconsin
C-2 Table: Mississippi River at La Crosse, Wisconsin, Flood Crest
Elevations Above Bankfull Stage, 1873-1969
C-3 Table: Mississippi River at La Crosse, Wisconsin, Flood Crest
Elevations Above Bankfull Stage, 1971-1976
C-4 Table: Dates When Flood Waters Were at or Above Culvert Elevation
of 635.1
C-5 Table: Dates When Flood Waters Were at or Above Proposed Field
Elevations
C-6 Table: Frequency of Flooding in Last 94 Years; in Last 10 Years
C-7 Map: Proposed Project Location
C-8 Rice letter and report re April, 1978, north campus flooding:
6/7/78



C-1


HIGHEST TEN KNOWN FLOODS IN ORDER OF MAGNITUDE

MISSISSIPPI RIVER AT LA CROSSE, WISCONSIN


Date of Crest

April 20, 1965

June 19, 1880

April 20, 1969

April 20, 1952

April 19, 1951

April 7, 1967

May 8-9, 1888

October 17, 1881

May 7, 1954

April 2, 1920


Maximum
Stage
feet*

17.9

16.5

15.7

15.32

14.93

14.6

14.5

14.4

14.33

14.2


Crest
Elevation
feet

644.2

642.8

642.0

641.64

641.25

640.9

640.8

640.7

640.65

640.5


Peak
Discharge
cfs

273,000

190,000 (Est)

220,000

196,000

184,000

180,000




166,000


* 1933 Adjustment.

+ Lang Drive Closed to Traffic (Lang Drive was also closed to traffic in
August of 1935 because of flooding by the La Crosse River as a result of
a 6-day period that produced 6.43 inches of rain).











(Table from flood plain study by Department of the Army, St. Paul District
Corps of Engineers, St. Paul, Minnesota - April 1970.)


Order
No.


+ 1

2

+ 3

+ 4

+ 5

+ 6

7

8

9

10








MISSISSIPPI RIVER AT LA CROSSE, WISCONSIN


FLOOD CREST ELEVATIONS ABOVE BANKFULL STAGE


1873 - 1969

The table includes all known floods above bankfull stage of 12 feet at the
Mt. Vernon Street gaging station in La Crosse, Wisconsin at Mile 697.78 above
the Ohio River. Drainage area = 62,800 square miles, approximately. Stages
before February 1933 are adjusted to present gage zero of 626.32 feet, MSL
1912 Adjustment.


Date of Crest


Maximum
Stage*


Crest
E levation
feet above
sea level


Peak
Discharge
cubic feet
per second


June 19, 1880
October 17, 1881
May 8-9, 1888
April 10, 1897
September 20, 1903

June 12, 1905
April 28-29, 1916
April 2, 1920
April 17, 1922
March 27-28, 1936

May 23, 1938
June 5, 1942
June 22, 1943
June 22, 1944
March 19-26-29, 1945


May 15, 1950
April 19, 1951
April 20, 1952
May 7, 1954
April 20, 1965


April 7, 1967
April 20, 1969


16.5
14.4
14.5
13.7
13.3

12.4
13.6
14.2
13.7
12.11

12.27
12.94
13.32
12.35
12.30


12.56
14.93
15.32
14.33
17.9


14.6
15.7


642.8
640.7
640.8
640.0
639.6

638.7
639.9
640.5
640.0
638.43

638.59
639.26
639. 64
638.67
638.62


638.88
641.25
641.64
640.65
644.2


(}40.9


*Bankfull equals 12.0 Stage 0.0 equals 625.83 feet above
**Outflow from Lock and Dam No. 7.


190,000 (Est)


_i
_I

--

100,000

101,000
123,000
137,000
124,000
121,000


125,000
184,000
196,000
166,000
273,000


180,000**
220, 000**

sea level.


Table taken from the St. Paul District Army Corps of Engineers Report, April 1970.




C-3

MISSISSIPPI RIVER AT LACROSSE, WISCONSIN

FLOOD CREST ELEVATIONS ABOVE BANKFULL STAGE

1971 - 1976

This information was obtained from recorded water levels at the Mt. Vernon
Street gaging station. The readings are approximates. The 0.0 gage indicated
on the chart equals 625.83 elevation.

Maximum Crest
Date of Crest Stage* Elevation
feet above
sea level

April 17, 1971 12.7 638.5
March 19, 1973 13.0 638.0
May I, 1975 14.6 640.4

*Bankfull equals 12.0. Stage 0.0 equals 625.83 feet above sea level.







DATES FLOOD WATERS WERE AT OR ABOVE

CULVERT INVERT ELEVATION OF 635.1 (River Stage 9.3)

AT THE LOCAL MISSISSIPPI RIVER GAUGING STATION FROM 1971-1976


March 31 - April 26

March 25 - April 03
April 17 - May 06
July 29 - August 07

March 11 - April 01
April 17 - April 22
May 02 - May 14
May 27 - June 02

April 15 - April 25
June 12 - June 23

April 21 - May 19
June 27 - July 12

No flooding above 635.1

No flooding above 635.1

April 11 - April 20


(27

(10
(20
(10

(22
(06
(13
(07

(11
(12

(29
(16


days)

days)
days)
days)

days)
days)
days)
days)

days)
days)

days)
days)


(10 days)


1971

1972


1973



1974

1975

1976

1977

1978


_ __ I__ I ___





C-5


DATES FLOOD WATERS WERE AT OR ABOVE THE FOLLOWING ELEVATIONS


(Proposed Elevation of Fields)


APRIL 12 -
APRIL 14 -

APRIL 22 -


APRIL 22 (10 DAYS)
APRIL 19 ( 5 DAYS)

APRIL 26 ( 4 DAYS)


MARCH 13
MARCH 15


APRIL 25 -
APRIL 27 -

APRIL 3 -
i,


MARCH 25
- MARCH 22


(12 DAYS)
( 7 DAYS)


MAY 14 (20 DAYS)
MAY 11 (16 DAYS)

APRIL 9 ( 6 DAYS)


1971


1972


EL 637
E L 638
EL 641

EL 637
EL 638
EL 641


1973


1974


EL 637
E L 638
EL 641


EL 637
EL 638
EL 641


1975


1976


1977


EL 637
E L 638
EL 641

EL 637
E L 638
EL 641


EL 637
EL 638
EL 641



C-6


January 23, 1976


FREQUENCY OF FLOODING IN LAST 94 YEARS

USGS Elevation
UW-L Plans Corps Elevation
637.8 638.4

639.0 639.6

640.0 640.6

641.0 641.6

642.0 642.6

643.0 643.6

644.0 644.6


FREQUENCY OF FLOODING IN LAST 10 YEARS

USGS Elevation
UW-L Plans Corps Elevation
638.0 638.6

639.0 639.6

640.0 640 6

641.0 641.6

642.0 642.6

643.0 643.6

644.0 644.6


No. of Floods (Years)
25

16

11

4

2

1

0








No. of Flood Years
5

3

3

1

0

0

0


NOTE: Mississippi River Flood Stage is 12.0 feet.


River Ht.
12.0

13.2

14.2

15.2

16.2

17.2

18.2








River Ht.
12.2

13.2

14.2

15.2

16.2

17.2

18.2
















0

a
4


s
Q

I.

0

10


O
xU&
w
a
2
0
li
0 w
p 'm
4 <
Jr
In
" a
rc
. 0
'L Sc
2 ,
D
9L>
I
'a<
I z
"I
tw-.-j
0..9
0
. a
a 0
. 0
a


f-. -
t'
11 I

.14 -
-

-

All

, S
.t:
i.
3


CD
cc
&
rr
i


W}
f-

2
Q:

LJ
33
5

L
VO



C-8


The UNIVERSITY of WISCONSIN- LACROSSE

LA CROSSE, WISCONSIN 54601 (608) 60y 8C .
785-8019

June 7, 1978


Mr. Donald Gerhard
Director, Environmental Affairs
University of Wisconsin System
1930 Monroe Street/P.O. Box 8010
Madison, Wisconsin 53708

RE: NORTH CAMPUS CULVERT AND FLOODING OBSERVATIONS
UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN-LA CROSSE

Dear Don:

The attached Table No. 1 is our record of notes taken during
April 1978 when flood waters were entering the project area.
The table describes conditions as water entered the project site
for eleven days through the culverts under Gorder Road and Lang
Drive. The notes show that at Lang Drive there was at all times'
at least 9 inches difference between the surface of the water in
the project site below the culvert and the surface of the water
in the culvert east end.

The Lang Drive culvert invert at its west end is generally flush
with the surrounding grade. When flood waters reached the west
embankment of Lang Drive theyimmediately entered the culvert and
within the same day emptied water into the project area. It was
estimated that the culvert base slopes up to the project site
about 4 inches judging from observation of the water when it was
extending halfway into the culvert. In a phone call Mr. Robert
Von Ruden, an engineer for the Department of Transportation,
District #5, advised that the probable purpose for the original
culvert installation as a normal engineering requirement was to
equalize hydrostatic water pressure on both sides of the road.
This would preclude the need for required dike reinforcement of
the road that might be otherwise necessary for periods of high
flooding. It would appear that the project culverts are adequately
serving this designed function. (The higher flooding in the 1975
season substantiated their effectiveness to equalizing the waters.)
Therefore, if the recommendations of the Master; Plan were followed
to fill the project site all the way to Lang Drive at a substantial
height, no culvert would be required by the Departmmnt of Trans-
portation for this area of abutment. However, my observation of the


AN EQUAL OPPORTUNITY EMPLOYER



C-8

Mr. Donald Gerhard Page 2
North Campus Culvert and Flooding Observations 6/7/78


flood waters approaching Lang Drive from the west and a check of
the contour map show that if the Lang Drive culvert were lowered
as recommended by DNR and the marsh area west of Lang Drive channel
dredged, or the culvert extended, it could bridge the natural
sediment barrier which keeps low water flooding from entering the
University property. Additional shallow flooding would then occur
in the lowest areas of the University property. This lowest area
is also the area the project site proposes to be left undisturbed.
Additional shallow flooding around the proposed project field area
may make it necessary to provide de-watering drain tile through out
the project site or to add additional fill for efficient utilization
of the fields.

Since ely


6tLaence E. Rice, Architect
Campus Planner X

LER:mb

Attachement

cc: Chancellor Kenneth E. Lindner
L. L. Lebiecki




C-8
Campus Planning
University of Wisconsin-La Crosse

Table 1. River Stages at Riverside Park during April 1978 with
observation notes of the flooding at culverts in the
project area.

1978 OBSERVATIONS OF FLOODING AT CULVERTS
IN PROJECT SITE AREA

River
Stage
Date (feet) Observation Notes

4/8 ,6

4/9 8.6


4/10


No water in Lang Drive culvert into project site/water
i 2" below culvert invert on west side of Lang Drive/pro-
ject site surface water in pot hole below culvert east
end is 2'-8" below invert.


9.5


4/12


9.9


4/13 10.2

4/14 10.4


Water started flowing in Lang Drive culvert into project
site (water 7" above culvert invert west of Lang Drive
and 2" above culvert invert at east end) - project
site surface water 8" below east culvert invert.

Water 13" above Lang Drive culvert invert west and 7"i
above invert east end. Project site surface water 2"
below east culvert invert.

Water started flowing in Gorder Road culvert (see Fish
Lab Study Report May 15, 1978)

Water 9" above Lang Drive invert east end. Project site
surface water flush with culvert invert elevation.
Gorder Road culvert south invert 4" below water in
culvert and in marsh at this culvert.


4/.15 10.5

4/16 10.4


4/17 10.2


At Lang Drive culvert (east invert) surface of water in
culvert 10" above water in project site at this culvert.
Gorder Road culvert south invert 5" below water in
culvert and in marsh at this culvert.


9.8


4/19


9.6


9.5


At Lang Drive culvert (east invert). Surface of water
in culvert 8" above water surface in project site at
this culvert/water flush and stopped flowing under
Gorder Road culvert.


'4/21 9.2




Table 1. Page 2

River
Stage
Date (feet) Observation Notes

4/22 8.8

4/23 8,7

4/24 8.6 " depth of water entering project site from Lang
Drive culvert east end. Project marsh water 11"
below bottom of east culvert invert.

4/25 8.5 Water stopped flowing in culvert under Lang Drive

5/15 Water in project site 1'-6" below Lang Drive invert
east end. Dead carp in project site water hole below
culvert.







APPENDIX D: FISH AND WILDLIFE

D-1 Frankenberger memo and reports re La Crosse County fish survey:
3/28/67; 4/6/66
D-2 Faunal List of Myrick Park: 1973
D-3 Initial report re marsh wildlife value survey: 7/30/74
D-4 Progress report re marsh wildlife value survey: 1975
D-5 Nicklaus final report re wildlife value survey: 8/22/75
D-6 Harris research report re avifauna of Myrick Marsh: 1975
D-7 DNR report re northern pike spawning in regional marsh areas:
December, 1975
D-8 Smith report re natural area inventory of La Crosse County:
November, 1976



%Viscon.'sl Concrvalon DI)cp;artmlnent
%,
INTRA-DEPAllTMENT 1
MEMORANDUM

lJ.gk..River Falls
i5 ~ta ion * ;. : ............
Dae ......2arch .28, 1


TO:. The Files

FROM: Ludwig Frankenberger

SUBJECT: Survey, La Crosse River, La Crosse County

An initial shocker survey was started on April 5,' 1966. Area
surveyed was from Highway B downstream to the Mississippi River. An
attempt was made to locate spawning concentrations or spawning locations -.
of northern pike. Fish were scarce and hard to shock because of turbid
and high water. The attempt was unsuccessful -

Later on during the year (starting on May 6) the entire stream was--
shocked with a 230 volt A.C. boom shocker from Lake Neshonoc Dam domwn
to the Mississippi River. Data was recorded by station on Fi-242's and
Fi-278's. The forms we use are inadequate for describing a warm water
stream . ..-.....

Carp and other' nongamie fish are quite'abundant throughout the -length'
of the stream. : . *

Northern pike are found throughout the stream but thiere see ems to be
an early concentrat on of fish at tile dam. The entire stream supports a
very good channel catfish population Many of these fish were missed
because of an inability to effectively shock the brush and debris in which
these fish are found. Several extremely large catfish were missed this
way. . -. -.. .....

A total of 32 different species of fish was captured during the
survey. .. -.- ,..

The stream is navigable in its entirety. Boat landings or access
places are definitely needed on this river. One good access place would
be in the Kinney CouleeeglOn.: o Another is in the vicinity of lemorial
Park Pond. - - .. .



LI%; .
L Ludwig/Fr,.nlcen berger /,/.,
LF': ermo


NOTIJD:


DatekL




WISCONSIN CONSERVATION DEPARTMENT FI:
Madison, Wisconsin 53701
"D-1
UNIT FISHING RECORD\

-,r ..... XP. . Z..z 30. .... ............................. Waers .......... . ..... ..... ...............,

Doate.......P..fn.i..l f..T......./ Time............... -............

Site Fishe. (station ond hab.itat) ......... ............... T ime .......... ................................... ............................
Site Fished (station arid habitat)....

Gear:

Boom Shocker (hours)..ayim................. Drkness
' .* . D a k e s.
Visual Hours .................. . Tlme .................... Haul oSeine (length) ........ ........... Ar ... . Mesh ..***.

Anin (hours) ............. ....................... Trp Not (dimnsions) . ................. Moshh

Minnow Solne (l!ngth) ....... Distanc .............Gill Not (length) .................... Mesh .... .. Depth ..

Other ............................................................................................................* ..******... ........................................................**.********.*..*.*

Fishing Conditions (describe) W...9..... .................................................



Fishing ResultsIpcles No. | Estimoted Modal LengthEstimated Size Rcnge


Channel Catfish ._. . 296. _ 1Q ... . _...

Flathead C"8 | _____ ..... _..

Jiorhac il_){. \ - aZ-3aa.la

____a___lley. a- _ 87;tl /h.l __ 0 _6_51.1... .

Sauger _______ .... | 17 0__ | 9.. 1..__.

Brc.rn Trout l -t 74 7,0 0.l

White CraoPia53A. 65 3O_8._ _4,

Black Crappe |___9 49 7.0 102 ___|

Perch ___5 5_. ..0 __.__9_

Whjbte c1S3 _ ______ ___3 _9 rBL _ _g___


Observations:..-n! r.. ...d,
/
.wa e t urbid , p.r.q........gv.q...by..tp.a.y....~rp...p..pla...io . .........................................................................

.......' .. ..........(.o... i... D.t..e



Sln-rf .. /,:.^ (C m ilr D..t ... .......? .<.-. ..D e ^............_..........................
s,...,~~~ ,~.,~r~z,;. .....



WISCONSIN CONSERVATION DEPARTMENT Fl.32
- Madison, WIsconsin 53701

UNIT FISHIIING RECORD

^n...ty.. L-1.............,.... -* . . .,,..................................... W ,..........._.

Oate. .. ..........Tim................ ........im..

Site Fished (station and habitat) "...:'.................. ..................... .....

Gear:

BoomShocker (hours) .............................................Dayrime............-...........Darkness .....

Visual Hours ....... ...... Time ...................... Haul Seine (length) .................. Area ................ Mesh . .

Angling (hours) ...Ti me........ .... Trap Net (dimensions)...........Mesh ... Depth

Minnow Seine (length) Distance .............. N (ngth) ............................ Mesh Depth ............ Depth .

Other. ... ................

wishing Conditions (describe) ... ......................................


:ishin Results; ... | E . . ..E o S c Rv t.
-'ishingesulpci No. Estimoasd Modal L'on Estimotod Size Rongo


Spotted Sucke _ i ... 16J1Q _ __ . 187







GC 6Q. 0.. ..


oJaiL.c.riV - s _ ......l. ,t
Bliegijmi__1_r 3 ! 8_ Q___ 7fi9__6____











^Dolfsh ______ 1 t___ 22^0 _____ __________


A)bservoiions:..'...Zr.. .... ? ...1.,


............
);servorions: .........t.. , ^ ?^ .^~r.,,,,,,?4,@v4,2.,,;./7D@.SV ........................... - ..... a..?......................................................



Si51e.Qnf4,.u- <<....<. ' j " -.... M '........'. s , ^/../ .
. *- s o-. !




DISCONSIN CONSERVATION DEPARTMENT * f 1322
D-1 MoadIson, /1iscon:in 53701

UNIT FISHING RECORD

.....,..... ' ". A -.........................................................................Waters ............._. _ . .

Dote .................b-*J.-.................... ........ . ....... ...Time__ _

Site Fished (station andc habitat) ..................................................................... ..............^ ..........

Gear:

Boom Shocker (hours) ...............ar..okness..

Visual Hours. ... ... Time ................Haul Seine (length)............ Are. ... Mesh...

Angling (hours) ........... ....... Time...................... Trap Net (dimensions) ............. Mesh ....... Depth ....

Minnow Seine (length) ............. Distance .............. Gill Net (length) . .............. Mesh . Depth .........

Other . _ _ _ _._ _..,............ . .._. _.. .............. .

Fishing Conditions (describe)...... ........x-
F i.sh i.ng C o n d i.t i.on s (d e s c r i b.e) ..................,, . ....... .. .............._... ..................... ......... .............


Fishing Resultsp
Specios3 | EstimotolJ Modal Length Estimotod Size Racin

_whit,_. Ser________ .. . , 9.0 - 1L9


1+r^Cj~m~r __ _2 I ,___Z








....Sh..rtnfr|. ' ........____I


._SJ2,.rLhul2. - C . _.


.SipQlinjrjh C 1 ---____________ ____________

erotions: ..... ................................



Ignc3..f. f /.. g!j....'"'s.....J^ ./ ..... z/:/..f..........((*;1 iIc -, ."..
_.........../??/x<:^r7'^^.......^A-<^....7^.,....v e

IgncJ~ ~~~~~..................... ..... ^ l<./^ : <......... -..'''..*.. '..-'*.. .n -../..*.. ....................


...vvr i-| ^^'or2 Ir v 1 JUt^ Ul:r /\( 1 tAtNl F1.322
Modison, Whiconsin 53701
D-1
UNIT I ISHIING IJICOII)

to~~~~e~~~~Wntt~~~fy~ . L(Ct~~~~~~~XWaters..

L^orc t<....^**-- *,/. .7..............'i.............................................................

Site Fished (station and habitat) .. .......... .................. .................. ......... ..... .......... .......

Gear:
.
Boom Shocker (hours) ................. ..............................Daytime ............. . ...................Darkness

Visual Hours .......................... Time .............. Haul Seine (length) . ........... Area ................ Mesh ..

Angling (hours) ................Time ... Trap Net (dimensions) .............._ Mesh ......... Depth

Minnow Seine (length) .............. Distance ............. Gill Net (length) ............................ Mesh... Depth

Other ... . ....... ...........

Fishing Conditions (describe).... .... .

.' .... '. .. .. *........................ ..

Fishing Results .
Fishing R peceis| No. , Estimated Modal Length Estimotod Size Rong'o -

SmallhaoutAL2Ž? | Bi __2_ 19 -_ __

Blue Sucker |_____1__._|220__ ._-







O ervot ions: . ......







ro ............................
__eS kr............ .. 2I I...............:......... :

i ......... .


,s;,, .d~v..... o. ~.,S ....-. . ... .... ......... .... ..... .......... ....



...Signed... .. . ... . ....^......^. }f...(.or iI r .....^.*....^..<........................,, .. . .............. .........
' 17) I* \-'
. -:~ --,co-




D-2


F'aun1l List hof 0 ic. Par




Protozoa

Po r'era
Spo:gl2a

Sz * a-?u st rZs

C oe lente^-ata
;2-^o1n Hydra
CS2. LI

[i ^*5-;> - 1 -' 9^7 f??A ' ij .,; , t ^

-'?A , !;..r' t' r

-'as) ,tX"'of t r2,t-:.ha

Kotat',.

N2iK t ta cI.(u;^o:,s)t












we:; :.. .;1,,b,-^> ..-6- ,





Cop;poda

- .,tra :
I . 3sopo @dt





D-2
H ~i-v:'ra ^True bugs)
Go .cridaa (Wat r stxiders)
Cori;cidae (Watez Boatman)
Coleoptera (B etles)
Gyrinidae (Whirliig g)
;2yst isc idae (Dv ing)
Dipte~a
Tipulidae iCrane flies)
CuLicidae (Mosquitos)
Tabanidae (Biting l y)

Mollusca
Gastropoda (snails)
Prlecypoda (class)




Fish-

.orthr1o Pl 'k




A.'-.,:l.e7ican T,:~oad
- . -.' ": , . ,a

G .rid<,-....





Pa i.ed T ule -
De..ay s Snae
Ga:terS"nake







v' A'.....-j


re:.;-,-; -

:....^. ";...!_. ;




D-2

- ', , * 3

L3tsi3? S tcSup
(Thx.f GolAdeneye


Hooded

-Rd.-tailed
ted-.shouldc, rcd
oughh-legged
1ar sh
Sparrow



Scra

00oot









. Cc'^^on,Sp1
So.itary


GulXs






0 ^.3 b Ae


i. r..,1- I





Dt
Chi ~ey

Humnnrinqbnrd
b 9

* Be'] t ed

Fli cker
Pileated
Red-bbe !n d
Red-headed
Yel b. S'^,sucker
Hairv
gowny'

Fi vcatchers
EzaSt ,.i lnqbi 'rd
Phoebe *
Least
Wood Pe^weea

Horned



t'Sl } i ff.-r

PuD, oe ''rt' in

Jays.






qut'hatchesZ

Re'!-b'reasted



:-',rens

-ttton q ''ib . 1 E' '9?.


. ,;.,,.1, :" .





D-2







Tihrusihes
Robi n
He~*mi t












Cedar

Shrikes




















E S
e'olden-t roared






..ycrone
Waxtwi igs















oe ' ..er....h

, ifla3h
YeTt'So ,,e itUSY

* S- f o gte !



)ba . 3 C^











Si~2.v 'Z" P '


- 'e S , 'l o w
'.' rtl S'i;e















Sptar } t jow


r, i
:+
t
,c *
'-' *.-"?
r-!
'"' '
 r

i..' . 1. .r ,
;'''
Ir r15
I
.-
i.
1 ,.
g
`t
; 1 .. .I ,. ii i








Pin Siskin n2
I-. di nch
R-sideld Tobjhnee

Sva 1`0,43s
Vesu r
STate-co . Junco
Tree
Chli p'i n q
Field
Hiarris'
White-crowned
'nhi te-throated
Fox
Lincoln's
Swam,
Song*

arn,1ial s:

:O'3oss iu1
'9ask ed e Shrew
c.,oto -taied }Shrel
Litt'e :. Bron Sat
Red Faox
Trav, Squir rei

'.h i t-footed Coiuse
ea dow., Voe

io ray Rat
1-Iuse -,3.e3 ue
,um ;tni nq , ouse
Cottonta l . I bb: t



o svs3te;at c saim'i g of .the m. arsh fauna has ben carried out. The
*,N S YS" -I C S Ta m n a ri




au^t ist i s cnrm l ed, from sevoeral i lve.;ti -n."tors durinq class
afid tio-s and proic ts.
t, nd spro.. t J


' ' Breedi n.g j Irds








SUMMARY: Wildlife Value Survey - La Crosse Marsh, Summer, 1974

DATE: July 30, 1974

WEATHER: Partly cloudy, 80F, wind SW 5-10

INTRODUCTION

This is the first of a four-part series of reports dealing with wildlife

values of the area known as La Crosse Marsh. This summary accounts for observations

made in summer. Others following will be taken at three other seasons. The final

report will combine four seasonal summaries.

METHODS

Documentation of wildlife value and habitat changes is done through

photograph'- at seven fixed camera points. One to four directions were photographed

at each point for a total of 16 camera angles. In addition, personal observation

of wildlife habitat and abundance were taken while walking along Lang Drive,

Gorder Drive, and the dike system in the marsh from Myrick Park to the La Crosse

River.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Waterfowl observed using the La Crosse Marsh were mallards (Anas platyrhynchos),

blue-winged teal (Anas discors), and wood duck (Aix sponsa). One brood of

mallards and three broods of teal were seen.

Non-game birds using the marsh were tree swallows (Iridoprocne bicolor), rough-

winged swallow (Stelgidopteryx ruficollis), barn swallows (Hirundo rustica), great

blue heron (Ardea herodias), green heron (Butorides virescens), and assorted

flycatchers of the family Tyrannidae.





2.

D-3
Evidence (tracks, droppings, etc.) of the presence of animals not seen

indicate use by muskrats (Ondatra zibethica) and raccoon (Procyon lotor).

Habitat potential is present for probable use by raptors, additional

furbearers (mink, beaver), and other songbirds.

The proximity of this area to urban La Crosse makes it a unique spot

for summer wildlife observation. The natural walk-way on the dike system allows

one to walk deep into the marsh.

This area has high value in regard to wildlife in summer both in terms of

wildlife production (numbers of animals living and breeding there) and visibility

(opportunity for wildlife observation).




D-4

PROGRESS REPORT - WILDLIFE VALUE SURVEY - LA CROSSE MARSH - SUMMER, FALL 1974

Introduction

This is a summary of summer and fall findings of wildlife values attached

to the La Crosse marsh. Background data collected during this time are also

included.

The La Crosse river marsh (Figure 1) has an area of approximately 600 acres.

Ownership is by 12 parties with the bulk of holdings by the city of La Crosse,

Northern States Power, San Katz, L. M. Beck, Nilson Corporation, and the

University of Wisconsin - La Crosse.

Methods

Summer observations were made July 30, 1974, between 1:00 and 3:30 p.m.

with weather partly cloudy, 80F. and wind SW 5-10. Fall observations were

made October 21, 1974, between 9:30 and 10:45 a.m. with weather clear, 40F.,

S wind 20 mph. Additional fall observations were made October 23, 1974, between

1:30 and 3:30 p.m. with haze, 55F., and wind 5 to 10 mph from the southwest.

Documentation of wildlife value and habitat change was done through

photography at seven fixed camera points in summer (July 30, 1974) and

9 points in fall (October 23, 1974) for a total of 16 cameraangles in summer and

20 in fail. The added fall camera angles were to give better coverage of the marsh.

Personal observations (aided by 7 x 35 binoculars) of wildlife habitat

and abundance were taken while walking along Lang Drive, Gorder Drive, and

the dike system in the marsh. Discussion with the University of Wisconsin -

La Crcsse personnel gave valuable added information about the study area.




2.
D-4

Results - Summer Observations

Waterfowl observed using the La Crosse marsh were mallards (9 adults)

(Anas platyrhynchos), blue-winged (Anas discors) (15 adults), and wood duck

(one adult) (Aix sponsa). One brood of mallards (six young) and three broods

of teal (four, six, seven young respectively) were seen. All but four of the

adult teal, one wood duck, one adult mallard and her brood, were using the open

water area west of Lang Drive. The remainder used the water filled borrow-ditches

along the internal dike.

Non-game birds using the marsh were tree swallows (Iridoprocne bicolor),

rough-winged swallows (Stelgidopteryx ruficollis), and barn swallows (Hirundo

rustica). These were seen in numerous locations along the marsh dike in mixed

groups of greater than 25 birds. In addition, one great blue heron (Ardea herodias),

and two green herons (Butorides virescens) were using the borrow-ditch area along

this dike. Two eastern king birds (Tyrannu tyrannus) and five red-winged

blackbirds (Agelaius ploeniceus) were using the dike area for feeding and perching

sites. Three short-billed marsh wrens (Cistothorus slatensis) were seen using

the grassy, wet meadow of the marsh along the dike.

Raccoon (Procyonidae) tracks were seen at four locations along the dike.

Muskrat (Ondatra zibethica) evidence (trails to bank dens or feeding areas

in water) was seen at six locations along the dike. Other evidence of muskrats,

not readily quantifiable, was seen in the wet areas along Gorder Drive and

Lang Drive.

Results - Fall Observations

Most summer residents have left the marsh by fall. The usual throngs of


songbirds were conspicuously absent.



3.


Raptors seen hunting the excellent small mammal cover were one red-tailed

hawk (Buteo jamaicensis), one rough-legged hawk (Buteo laopus).

Other birds using the marsh were one belted kingfisher (Megaceryle alcyon),

eight unidentified sparrows, two crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos).

Presence of beaver (Castor canadensis) was evidenced by one dam and food pile.

Tracks of raccoon (Procyon lotor) were observed at six locations. Three road-

killed muskrats (Ondatra zibethica) and one road-killed skunk (Mephitis mephitis)

were seen on Lang Drive.

No accurate count of muskrat houses could be made at this time due to

concealment by vegetation. On November 30, 1973, 400 muskrat houses were counted

(Charles Craig, U.W.L., pers. comm.).

Results - Summer and Fall Habitat Observations

La Crosse marsh may be divided into four habitat types: (1) deciduous

woods; (2) grass area; (3) wet marsh; (4) open water including ditches.

The bulk here is wet marsh with sedges (Scirpus spp.) predominating. Other

types and dominants in order of decreasing area are; grass with reed canary

(Phalaris arundinacea) dominant; deciduous woods with elm (Ulinus spp.), silver

maple (Acer saccharinum), cottonwood (Populus deltoides); and open water with

mostly submerged vegetation. Exact acreages of these types are yet to be determined.

The quality of these vegetational types in the configuration presented

in La Crosse marsh is variable, depending primarily upon available water. There

is no question that the area receives considerable water annually, ergo vegetation

present. During summer, aquatic and semi-aquatic wildlife was in abundance (see

wildlife observations, summer). As fall progressed, the area was deprived of

water end open water areas virtually disappeared by Octobepu 7, 1974, (fig. 2.).


D-4




4.

D-4
By the time of the fall observation period habitat quality had seriously

declined for aquatic based wildlife. Waterfowl and muskrats are affected most.

Many muskrat houses being constructed at this time were abandoned. The area

as a whole declined from a vigorous aquatic community to one with severely

restricted water areas. Only raptors may have benefitted as the dry grass areas

made excellent small mammal hunting fields.

The question of water in the La Crosse marsh is problematic. Investiga-

tions are continuing into sources, supply, longevity., etc.

Wildlife Related Human Use

Human use of La Crosse river marsh includes photographers, hikers, trappers,

and fishermen. While no precise quantitative data exist for these categories

of human use, individuals were observed engaged in these pursuits during the

summer and fall observation periods.

Local educational institutions make use of the marsh as an outdoor

laboratory. Emerson school, Viterbo College, and U.So La Crosse respectively,

use it for 120, 40, and 300 student-days (a student day equals one student using

the marsh for eight hours) annually.

In addition, anywhere from 25 to 50 U.W. La Crosse graduate and undergraduate

research projects are conducted on the La Crosse marsh each year.

Discussion

Any assessment of wildlife value attached to an area is limited by

observation time and space. A particular day will find phenomena not necessarily

observed on any other day. Therefore, it is necessary to accumulate information

from other sources to add to and support data already collected. Appendix A,

The Avifauna of Myrick Marsh by Paul A. Harris (Myrick marsh is a common synonyum



D-4 5.

for La Crosse marsh) reviews the bird life in some detail. Appendix B is a

faunal list of La Crosse marsh compiled from field observations of U.W. La Crosse

zoology classes.

The wealth of animal life present in La Crosse marsh testifies as to its

value to wildlife and the people of the city of La Crosse. The uniquiness of

this viable ecological community in close proximity to a city of 50,000 + cannot

be ignored. A mandate for preservation is called for.

Future Plans

This report is the first half of the planned investigation of La Crosse

marsh. Work will continue as stated in the project proposal with winter and

spring study periods.




D-5.

Final ERport: Wildlife Value, La Croso iHarah

submitted by

Ronald H. Nicklaus
Wildlife Biologist
Misasisippi River Work Unit
Wisconain Department of Natural Resourcoe
La Crosse, Wisconsin

Introduction

Thi is a final report and sumary of all obserrations taken on La Crosse

Marsh July, 1974 through Hay, 1975.

'he La Crosso River Marsh (Figure 1) ba an area of approximately 6CO acrea.

Cmnoerhip i. by 12 parties with the bulk of holding by the city of La Crosse,

Northern States Power, Sam Katz, L. HM Back, Nileon Corporation, and the

University of Wisconsin - La Croaseo




MHthoda

Documentation of wildlife value and habitat clanga wan done throulg

photography at seven fixed camera points in lmo% (July 30, 1974) and 9 points

in fall (October 23, 1974) for a total of 16 casera angles in oummer and 20 in

fall. The added fall camera angles were to give better coverage of tho marsh

and were continued throughout the study.

Personal observations (aided by 7 x 35 binocul3are of wildlife habitat

and abundance were taken while walking along Lang Drive, Gorder Drive, and the

dike system in the marsh. Discussion with the University of Wisconsin-

La Crosso personnol gave valuable added information about the study area,



2.


Summer obsoefvations and habitat photos were taken on July 30, 1974,

between 1:00 and 3:30 p.m. with weather partly cloudy, 80F. and wind SW 5-10.

Fall observations were made October 21, 1974, between 9:30 and 10:45 a.m. with weathe

clear, 40F., S wind 20 mph. Additional fall observations and habitat photos

were taken on October 23, 1974, between 1:30 and 3:30 p.m. with haze, 55.,

and wind 5 to 10 mph from the southwest. Winter observations were made March 13,

1975 from 1:30 to 3:30 p.m. with weather clear, sunny, and 18F. Early spring

observations were taken April 16, 1975 between the hours of 1:30 and 4:00 p.m,

Weather was sunny and 55 to 60F. Early spring habitat photos were taken

April 24, 1975 from 1:00 to 2:30 p.m. Late spring wildlife observations and

habitat photos were taken May 27, 1975 from 2:00 to 4:00 p.m. Weather was

partly cloudy and 65F.


RIsults

Habitat Observations

La Crosee Marsh may ba divided into four basic habitat types: (1) deciduous

woods; (2) grass area; (3) wet marsh; and (4) open water including ditches.

The bulk here is wet marsh with sedges (Scirpus spp.) predominating. Other

types and dominants in order of decreasing area are: grass with reed canary

(Phalaris arundinacea) dominant; deciduous woods wei i elm (Ulmus spp.), silver

maple (Acer saccharinurn), cottonwood (Populus deltoides); and open water with

mostly submerged vegetation.

Acreage associated with each of the above classifications is variable

according to time of year and weather. Habitat photos, especially 1E, 1W, 2S,

2N, 2E, 3S, 3N, 6, 8E, 8W, 9S, and 9N, illustrate these chariges throughout the

year. Water iPh the key to determining habitat type present.





3'.D-5


Wildlife Observations

Twenty-five species of birds and four species of maamals were noted

directly or indirectly during four observation periods at La Crosse Marsh.

Many of these, including waterfowl, use the marsh for breeding. The majority

of wildlife species observed used this area for resting and feeding. Table 1

lists wildlife species observed during one or more of the four observation

periods. A complete list of birds using the marsh at some time is given in

Appendix A, W.S.O. Research Report: The Avifauna of M rick arch by Paul A.

Harris. Mr. Harris lists 124 species seen on the marsh with 48 known to nost

there. Appendix B gives a faunal list of La Crosso Marsh compiled from field

observations of University of Wisconsin, La Crosee, zoology clanses.


Wildli fo-Related Human Use

Human use of La Crosse River Marsh included photographore,hikers, trappers,

and fishormen. While no precise quantitativ data were collected for these

categories of human use, some individuals were observed engaged in one of theso

pursuits during all observation periods.

Local educational institutions make use of the marsh as an outdoor
2/
laboratory. Eaeroon school,-1/ Viterbo College,- and University of Wisconsin,

La Crosse,2/ respectively, use it for 120, 40, and 300 student-days (a student

day equals 1 student using tho marsh for one class or learning session) In

addition, anmywhere from 25 to 50 University of Wisconsin, La Crosse, graduate

and undergraduate research projects are conducted on the kL Crosse M^arsh each year.'

/ Ellon Puent, Esierson School, pers. cornm 10-74.

2/Le Ia Senff, Viterbo College, 10-?74.

;'/ Stuart Mdackbrace, U. Wi. La Crossc, 10-.7f4

4_ i.bid





4.


Discussion

It is a generally accepted principle the quality and quantity of habitat

iS a basic key to wildlife abundance. In my opinion, the areaof La Crosse

Marsh is sufficiently large (600 acres) to comprise a viable wildlife unit.

Habitat quality in La Crosse Marsh changes with water supply. The attached

habitat photos amply demonstrate the drastic changes when flooding occurs and

the marshis charged with water. Vegetation present indicates that water

persists throughout most of the growing season. Runoff from rains or an

occasionas unmer flooding of the La Crosse River servos to roplenish water

lost through evaporation. The importance of water can be seen when comparison

is made of summer (sufficient water) and fall (exceptionally dry) wildlife

observations and habitat photos. Waterfowl and furbearers wore affected most

drastically.

Wildlife value attached to La Crosse Marsh is a question of suitable habitat

and this hinges upon adequate water. Without further alteration, La Crosse

Marsh can remain a usable and important wildlife uBit with a unique setting

in the confines of the city of La Crosse. Management practices designed to

insure a water supply and control water levels can enhance this area considerably.

Alteration to deprive La Crosse Marsh of water will destroy it as a natural area.







tab

8-22-75




F\I"' ' ) f c I- "
17i ( .*r -T.-i t - (2'- IJ\ *k) > ,i'v. Fl V j. )FC 1 :ic\ - 'L f \1-'(. i V,.
Table1.ido rh - Jy, 14 tu.h


Table 1. Wildlife species observed at La Crosse Marsh July, 1974, throughh
Mny, 1975.

SIGGHTING S


Birds Common Nnme


Mallard
Blue-winged teal
Wood duck
Scaup
Ringneck
Tree swallow
Rough-winged swallow
Barn swallow
Great blue heron
Green horcn
Eastern kingbird
Rod-wingca blackbird
Short-billed marsh wTen
Great horned owl
Red-tailod hawk
House sparrow
Crow
WChite-th'roated sparrow
Purple grackle
Cardinal
Rough-legged hawk
Belted kingfisher
Slate-colored junco
American egrat
Black tern


Genus species


Anas latyrhyncho
Anas discors
Aix sponrsa
Aythya affinis
Aythya coll aris
Iridonrocn0 bicolor
Stelr fidoot eryx ruficollis
Hirundo rustica
Ardea herodias
Butorides viresc-ns
Tyrarnus t-y3-:nnus
.4lius Ž hoi3 niceus
Cistothorus pTlatensis
Buibo vir, nianus
Buteo ej~,naiconOis .
Paisear domtsticus
Corvuis brcach'-rhynch os
Zonrotrichin albicoK.i.LS
Quiscalus cuiscula
Richmondena c.ardinalis
Butoo laopu3
~McF;a ccryle alcyon
Junco hv e t.al s
Cascmerodius albus
Chllidoni a n3i ra


D-5


Number


27
46
.1
11
ii

3
725
725
725
1
2
2
19
3
1
2
725
4
4
6
2
I.
1



13





-D-5


nmmnals


Skunk
Muskrat


Mammals Common Name


ac coon
B-3aver
Fox
Cottontail rabbit


Mphitis mephitis
Ondatra zibethica




EVIDENCE (tracks, droppins, etc.)
Genus species
A _ _~~~~~~~- f


Procvon lotor
Castor canadensis
Vulpe spp, or Urnoc_2 spp.
Sylvilasl floridanus


tab
8-25-75


I

3


Number


6


1
4

2


D-6



W.sS.o. ' SSEARCH afPORT: The Avjur a ofr lrlok ,

By

PAul A. !earrit

Thls tud..y w'n iiniertxken In order to Invest gpate the

Flp-cltes conrpoIritlon of M.yrick Fiarah. This study atarted In

th' fAll of 197 ^ Rd will ^ conoluded In the sprlng of 1975,

Jnforratlon on tht utll7lztlon of the marah by the varlous

np^el-- ." l. r..^*dd for a record of the Area ndr for the

po.fltbl- u:'.e. o0 .uch dit. ' to hl1p ,ave the rnarsh for future

enJoyvnnt s nt.^tWd oo hln' V r^troy':do

Study Arer.

The rtudy ir - nCover. 700 cnreB of rmrrah within the

city llrltn of La CroMne, Wisconsln, The m^zin Bource of water

for the mrrrsh I.m t1 I Crose PRiver which for.ms the northern

and weetern bounr": !-- 1't h- . ttiid( t rea. The Burlinzton ond

Quincy Rallroad '; '-r, t 'rn arTsh on t c~^1 eaat sitde and the

Myrlck Park znd tr- ' ro^te Cerneter.: form Itn sout.hern

border.

The mrnrah Itnslf' 1s composed of various plant conmmlinl[t.l,

The wet n.rsh consl.its chifCly of p.fdles, cottell, - nd arrow-

h'od. Th- upl'nd PreCt oWr then arrsh ronta I sn a mixture of

declduou1s pclen .uch n^ o.kl, mpl)le. elm,, cottonwood arnd

willow-z. Thet thlrd ,i. nor community l1 p graens.nd with timothy,




D-6
nuxcu, rerd c<r ry ind other Frarn speclte (see FIp: 1).

Thme romrsh 1 ubJect to oeanonal fluntiuot lonn In rivor

mt.rrPs which caUc porraepond in fluctuations In th; w ter

1-vel of the zmarch.

M-t. hd'3 and Materlals

Virloun routet. w"re establlihed following boundarles

and crosaing large are-o so that repreaentative habitat areas

of the marsh were covered (see P1g.2). Obnservatlona of

spcles 3seen wre rtcqrded along with numbers of Ind lviduls

s-en. Ther temperature, sky condtlsIon and tlmre ?ip^nt In the

flld w-re also not^4 ^

Aloro lIth spec ls componition of the arsh, on atterot

wa mrade to det<rmnln what M.p-cles use the m.rsh asB nest in.

are:xo Noetst were located mnainly from the flushing of the

nertll nP. bird and fror. tht collection of oinpty ne.:ta. The

enpty n-ats were Identified and keyed by rieann of Heedstrom,

1970.

Mlst nets, furnnrl trapm and potter traps were used to

captilre A nd bahn' , 'r'. N^t tlng s and loc ls w^re banded

whPn found In ne' r vlcinity. Through the ufe of banding

techniques, fltur^ 'iundle. may determine the per cent of

hbnded blrds that return-d to the marsh.

Rle itn

At the tl Is of writing, 121 rllffer-: nt apeclosh ha;ve been

s^.n within the confrln.r - of the .;t;dv area from November 1,

1973, to AtUu.t 2h;, 1971. Of thc 1?l4 .p.olItn Ide:ntifl-^ to

datec, 48 mpecler : nrr known to ne.t In the study area.


2







D-6









ILL LL
4LL'^\ /11
6.ilk I r -

/ 1U ',,, v -------^0,D ..:.. L ,
..-;/ / / '

/ - ! "/^: ;C f '/-. ''<- . ' ;









Fi1. X.T- V.pret'itlon-l Dl-t'rlbutlon Of' l.:',rrtk J'zr.ih

: : Wet 4 ar- Ih

.. De cid uoun Wood v

.... Gran, Area a




D-6


Ft;l 2: Varlous Routes Followed ThrnuTah the Study Area
!{oute Follolw , la







A 11t. o o obOa-rvatlonrs gpthe.red from flald r trips ant D-6

clfirwork In the rrmr..h ntow that thn White-breaatod Nluthstoh

(Sltta cOrolnen ti:) and the Black-capptd Chickadve (Parrus

.strlc. plluss) alo nent in the study areas althoigh none were

found nestinr durlng thti etudy.

A nctnlng staudy waa Initially lnoorppoated Into the re-

nearch proJer-t. A total of 21 nests werera mnrked and obhervod,

The s.pec es Involved were Red-wlnged Blmckblrds (Anrel I.li

photnlcel9s), CatbIrd (Dumetella carollnensla) and Y-llow-

he^ded eBlckblrd (Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus), During the

latter half of June, there waa an Increase in wz*ter vol)ue In

the mnar.h and 90o of the ne-st In the study wpre lo.t, Hipgh

water remralned In the nrarsh for two we.eks befor, a decrease

In water allowed the. blrrt1 to attcempt rene.tlnt:. With the

lo.ns of he orlrlInal ne.sts, no further attrlept at a ne.stinr

stcdy wa ut ,ndcertm k,^n.

The btndlnng data (Table. I) for the- study are^a showB ten

species of blr,1i . barw^pl. A total of 7^' IndivIduals were

'banded. Next w'r'^r "' trlna more tr^pplinr will be done to

see If any bander ' -'a. rq v- returned to the same are a

The conponltl cn nf the study area (TxblII) for winter,

aprln., and summer are rated at thl time accordlng to frequency,

The total hourse Dent In the field wer^ ivlded Into tht total

number of Indlividural of A ap.%cles to tgc; the number of bird.:

per hour per sefson. The cumltlltiv relts .t t thit. tlme ares


3



















SPECIES

Tree S. rrow

American Goldf Inch

Common Grsckle

ReHd-wlmned Blackbird

Y.llow-h'o.ded BlBckbird

C tbird

C r nol

Robi n

SonPr Sparrow

Swamp Sparrow

TOT.L: 1V0


T" ble 1:


NUMBER BANDED

12

3

12

22

2

19


2
I

1

77


--'ra e- Reord Frori January 1, 1974

' Auiu.*. 24, 1974


D-6







Tnblce IX: \burndpnctne of SpmcIn 8at Dlfferint Snanonr


Sp'e e: ~

Pied-h2.Ie d G re a

Great Blue Heron

G;re"'-n feron

Common Egret

American Bittern

Canrnda Goos3e

Snow Goone.

Y,; I1s'rd*

Greo-n-wwnp~ed TPA1

Blu~'i~rned Teal*

Shovt Iler

Wood r)uoktt

1ng~flnC1<^d Duck

Le~ehr SCRtUp

PBuff 1 fhe) d

Ruddy Duck

H1 o od e. d M ea rw u r

Ped.-t;b~e P1A w!tr

Brovud -w I nged I -a W

0sprety

Ke~Ltre1l


B3obih I te

n 'n,- r, ri tPtrn9nIl

K I 'H (A I I'


D-6


c oam on

common

or~nmon
S rrtt '







el on~ ~ ~, non



catrcce

c o prion


,c ommnon


1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

I,

13.

14,

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

22.

23.

21.

25.


Win t r

A -0- - Nt


common


common


c-rcce

SC A 0 e

common

----_ -


c, ommon

c common




.cat rCe




t(I" .
Act ac' .


Spring


common

common f

comnron

san rce.


aO rcee

common


nommon

common

comm on




common


c ol~mr o n





s c iP r 1-eI
nC l nrC~ I

nnvA rc t

r c 3 ei

01 V r' O


corrlqOnr


g. (M ,IIIV~,)fl,


n r rc a









26. VirFitnia Roll*

27. SorA Ra11*

28. Coamon Gallnule

29. Coot*

30. Kllldeer*

31. Convon Snlpeo

32. Spotted SAndplpor

33. Solltary Sandplper

34. Greoter Yellowlegs

35. Lesnsr Yellowlega

36. Least Sandplper

37. SelpaMltAted Sandplpar

38. Black Tern*

39. Rock Dove

40. Mournlrs Dova*

41. Yellow-billed Cuckoo`

42. Black-billed Cuckoo

43. Great HIorned Owl

44. Cortnon N1Iht wk

45. Chlaney Swift

46. Belted Klnpflsher

47. Pllck:r*

48. Red-bellled Woodpecker

t9. Red-hpedrd Woodpck'"r

50. Yellow-belllPd Sj p 4punk r

51. HtIlry WoodpckY.er*

52. Downy Woo d)Pckl--r

53. Crc..-ted Flycntchfr


D-6


o orEma on

ticarec
~ "a.. W&~i~f


C.U - .0 -I -
c g)73 r-a onT~


am - &w "- 6Y

c olt3gi ra f.)

v- ub- ru -

-- 4 C" ,u --u


o o4'a mr ) on







C' Cr~)41Ofl)


co~son


5ati re a





C oumon









C 0!P f




s e. i rc e


c or i': on


co~rmon


aC r, Co






c Om a onl

,r C. a


o 0,iz' on

sca~rce

0 O 'U11= o

CcOi2;ton



ae rc 0

o om zon
0~ ne'.O






comion
C o) etwor 1







c o~rn ed



r

e D. r c




C~ O ?i~ 1OflS





coa o on


Ic Al '
llP c a " C C1


~4 u0-O- aw

O's 0 W s - -O*







PBh oi~ M 2b *

Acrd ar. PFycsktcher

Tr.11l' Flvcatcher


Wood Pevele*

TreCe 5wvj11ow'

.York -Swal T ow

Routgh-wnn;ed S3llowt*

Barn Sx11omrl

ClhTJ Swa.1of

Blue Jay*

Crow

D2a.ck.-cpp~cd ChlckradeeI~

Wh1ta bre Zu ted Nuth tch4

led-briaateM 'vth:teh

Drown Cr eptr

Houne- Wren*

CarollnA Wren

Lonp,,-bllld rhWrenl

Crhtbird*

r ro wn MhranherO

flob In'

HicrrIdt Thru~h

Gray-cheeke~d Thrush

Coldern-crowned- Klinglet

Rlubty-crownted J1rI~t

Cesdar Wiaxxwinpg

1Northprn Shr4:e

5trar l tngc


c omlln c3 nl

a a~ar p e.0


D-6


54.

55.

56,

57.

58.

59.

60.

61.

62.

63,

64.

65.

66.

67.

68.

69,

70.

71.

72.

73.

74.

75.

76.

77.

78,

79.

80O

81,

82.


orlri on


onon~







o om'nton




o oyll" on


o OlUrV oflI
c on~~, n o



















X~e~t c c

04 0 0 li 3 r

co P~zmona

-i t,, o

c onmon ~


Ic se.%rco






c rci on

-so -ire fn

c ommf on
a c a rb"c a




comrmon

orl rn on
onI r. on


BP, a r fI l


scarc~t


f~ crce


11 Cl r c ~
I~~~S~. I eF




o esi on
5cbrce


o O~ 1&i ~" f


c omrnon

commron


o osmzorn
r c0=r0e l

cc -l n


s ca, roc


,s t re c P.

c orw amon


coivron
- - - - --s H ~

c o ,, . , m o n





Wixrblflr- Vir. c

B)I.ck orAi W h Ie t z-b ,r

Pr cV honnet.. ryv W.% r'-.r



fe.ll ow WA r'l-.r



Ye I 1 ow - r ur: : Vc s r t t r



PAht W a rb r

Ove, nl- I rci

1NorthTrr W't.erthrunh

Loul ipr* Water r Lrush

Y&-. I ON/throlp 1:

R d -'3tt' rt*

ROuSe: Slpt~rr H~

Eslg-ern Mi-ocowlvrk*
Yrllow-h,*POrd n i ol o Y. % I ro

Rt-d --wln, r oltd M o~ (.

Baltimore C*

Rilmty WI1eAck



Cormrmon Craicklov*

C owD I~ rd

C2r1 r.-I In-.4*

Ro~ge-brra' ,tc d G~rooit1k~*

In -.1 I -W- o AP r. t, nT,7:

Piirplin Flnch

Cor ry ion3 Fr d p

Coramon Re-.0, po)


c crirn on

S C r


v I 0 -N P~ n0. 1 "



comrqon

comr mon
C 0 )14 M., rl

C, I-A rA O r


iac~rce



scarcco



scarce

ooriron



scArce
s3 c vt re r,~







Cormiror.

Sa nA rcet
~PC Om, no "I




SCAc C e

cO wi flonl

C o r I r- OZ'







vI C 0i-ln~Ofl

n, o ri o n

c cri -mon

vcormvon
CP ONO on3



c on 4 L-) n


Cornorl



-. to 1 B B Br W.C m


C- Oi' TA O-l-
e on ra on

83s c s, r c









C o m--,jnon
w- - -.0 - W. -









o omrA on




o orprmon
C3 O~Pi-dOfl







c 0o r ,i- a o n


I Co-mon


n c P raC.e

ir. org yj on~9


D-6


n3*



P .

86.

87.

88.

89.

90.

91.

92.

93.

94.

95.

96.

97.

98.

99.

100.

101.

102.

103.

104.

105.

106.

107.

108.

109.

110.

111.








Ptne Slaktn

Anrrlc'an Cold finch*

Savannnah Sparrow

Ve per Sparrow

Dark-eyed Junco

Troe Sparrow

Chippnlg Sparrow*

Fl-ld Sparrow

Whitem-throAted Sparrow

Pox Sparrow

Swarnp Sparrow*

Song Sprrow*

L pla nd Lonxspur


Total Speclecn

Total IndIv d 1

Total hours


c o ' wa on

C c),r ir n n




Y c OM rI O




sc~rco






cAr 0 on
mcarce P ~BBB


45

3139

50 30


COMAOfl






c O:~iBI~ qo p

BC~A re e

corranon

cc rna n on

am ) - Ofl I


100

8348

,7135


(ey c c t.carc *1... vr/n hour /on

conrion- Irds/ranhour/se- -lon


a., Bretinpg Bltrd

Winter: Nov'raeer I19173 arch 2t 1974

SprInt: Yzt rc h 22,197L4 Junn 21 1o,

Sur7ncr: JUr~ ??,197 4 - A ug un f 2 4,1 I


D-6


112.

113.

1134.

115.

116.

117.

118.

129.

120.

121.

122 .

123.

124.


, novrc e

sevirce
we QaI-amq






ftcarce!

scar c
----.0-G .


c orA " on


79

7407

57:20






D-6


Tqtsl In-i \^lrual , - 10
Total Trip- 103
In1hlt n lrlui p -r Tri p - 183.hL7
Indclv'ual.-s per Hou - 105. 1
.pceI?. pet Hour - 59
Spoctle. per Trip 1.2
Total Hour 179,42

The derlvatlor of a scarce, etc. In shownnIn the key at

th- bottom of Tlt;e I. Autumn data I now betn gathered,

Dl icus.I ton

The reniult.' of the project to date are lgpnliflcsnt In the

fSct that thi i .t the hbe.t recorrd to date of the m.nrah. In

rervrd.r to T~ble 1T, one muet keep in nind that even If a

Decl^e t 1. l. 1.tted scmrc., this doe.n't reflect the bburndnce

of thp .pecle ,. It almnply staten that of all tht birds snen

In that ?canon, they were scarce In comp:trison to other

s!pocles. Al.o, .or. e blrds siuch t the Redtalled H}ak (Butco

jamaice'n.l l) are carce becanuu- predstor% . dOcn't toPlrrte. hlgh

densaty populitions. Ont hwk . mny cli Im the mrhrsh aP hta

territory, At t.ho- onnrlu.tlor of t h' -r.-'dy, more Informatlon

will be Ffsth-Pr-' * * ,)e *':l^- . epnrt on the

Avifauna of v' ':' '- ^' an be e.' .-rnhied rnd etudled,









ii t.d trom, .ne,;ar-i A Ccr':".,r"- "\,. " . . Ne t.a tJ hsf- Inte-t
^.ct5\ -r. s . ': * ?^ ^.a rn, InnC N^w Yor'F






D-7


WISCO{SINI DKPARTKMT OF NATURAL AESOUES


WEST CEOTRAL DISTRICT


BUEAU OX FISH ANrD VWLI I1 ANA.Oia
Management Raport Number





Dicomber, 1975






NORTHERN PIKE SPAWNI;o IN t4MAHES OF TE LUCROSSE AND

BLACK RIVRS IN THE VICINSITY OF LACROSSE WISCONSIN








SICHARD GS RmAHM
Mioaissippi River Biologist




a EDWAR Aos Sdis
Natural Resources Speoialist





'D-7










TABLE OE CO TETS

Page

Introduction 1
Methods 1
Results 1
La Crosso Marsh 1
Wittenberg Marsh 4
Car Stroet Marsh 6
Mar- North of I4 Crosse Marsh 6
Doaice Fill Marsh 9

Figures
3
La Crosse Marsh
Wittenberg Marsh
Car Street arsh 7
Marah North of La Cross Marsh :
10
Domke Fill Marsh 1

Photographs
La Crosse Marsh
Wittenberg Marsh 17
Car Street Marsh M
Marsh North of Ia Cros^ Harsh 2
21
Domke Fill Marsh 2

Discussion and Conclusion
22

cLitrature Cited 23
L ltsrature Cited 2
24
Acknowledgments





D-7








INTRODUCTION

Pressure for industrial, residential, and agricultural expansion into the
floodplains of the La Crosse and Black Rivers has resulted in the elimination
of considerable marsh area in the La Crosse vicinity, and continues to threaten
destruction of the wetlands still remaining. These marshes are the spawning
habitat of northern pike, a major game fish in local Mississippi River and its
tributaries, and therefore are crucial to maintaining the population of this
species.

METHODS

Three specific marsh areas were investigated; Wittenberg Marsh on the Black
River west of Onalaska, Car Street Marsh on the Black River west of the C, HM.,
St.P,, and P. railroad terminal, and La Crosse Marsh adjacent to Lang Drive.
Investigations were conducted from March 12, 1974 through May 6, 1974 and April
15 through May , 1975. Netting the second year was expanded to include areas
not accessible for spaening in 1974, due to lower water levels that year. A
small area south of Wittenberg Marsh and separated from it by the Lauderdalo
Addition housing development was netted for the first time in 1975, as it was
being threatened by filling for another proposed housing development,

Spawning activity was documented by the collection of adult fish in a ripe
spawning condition (readily extruding eggs of ailt), free eggs on sub-surface
vegetation, and fry and fingerling northernm the first season. Successful
collection of all three from the same localities in 1974 indicated that the
presence of ripe adults alone was sufficient evidence for establishing spawning
activity in 1975.

Adult northern pike were captured with fyke nets and the pelvic fin was
clipped. Eggs were collected with dip nets and fry were captured by eeining.
Population estimates were calculated with Sahnabel's formula Pm(u ir)/~r
(Lagler, 1959). This estimation involved the summation of the capture and re-
leaeo of a number of marked fich (m) into the population; second, the subsequent
recapture of marked fish (r) along with the capture of unmarked fish (u) from
the population.

That northerns moved in and out of specific spawning marshes was apparent
from the appearance of clipped fish in locations where none had been previously
marked, The inaccuracy of the population estimates would increase with the
incidence of such immigration and emigration, and therefore the population
estimates should be taken as more general tn precise indicators of spawning
run aize.




D-7
2.


La Crosse Mar _ sh

Netting Adult Spawning

Operations began in 1974 on Harch 14 and continued until March 28 when
a cold snap halted operations. Netting was resumed on April 9 when water
levels increased and ice began to melt, This operation was terminated on April
11 when the majority of females were found to be spent. Operations in 1975 began
on April 15 and continued until april 297 Locations of the fyke nets in the
marsh areas for 1974 and 1975 are recorede on the accompanying map (Figure 1.

One-hundred and forty-nine northerns were netted in 1974, 50 (33.6 percent)
of which were returns. Calculations indicate a population of 144 northern pike
utilizing the marsh for spawning in 1974. The La Crosse marsh was not totally
inundated in 1974 as in other years during the spring flooding. Consequently
the number of northern pike utilizing the marsh may have been low. Ripe feales
were first noticed on March 18, 1974 with observations continuing until April
9, 1974.

During 1975, 95 northern pike were netted, 11 (11.6 percent) of which were
returns. Calculations indicate a population estimate of 451 northern pike
utilizing the marsh for spawning in 1975. Ripe males and females were observed
throughout the netting period. One northern pike captured during 1975 operations
had a pelvic fin clip and was believed to be a return from 1974 netting operations.

Marsh water temperatures ranged between 33F and 52F during netting
operations in 1974. In 1975 marsh water temperatures ranged from 51F to 540F.

Egg Sampling

On March 20, 1974 eggs were collected from one northern pike during
netting operations and preserved for comparative purposes. Also during 1974,
five northern pike eggs were collected on April 9, west of Lang Drive; 20 yards
east of the C. and N.W. railroad and 150 yards south of the Northern States
power line (Figure 1). These eggs were discovered at the base of a muskrat house
in 3.0 feet of water among decaying cattails.

Fry and Fingerling Netting

The search for northern pike fry was expanded from the original netting area
to east of Lang Drive in 1974. During the month of May weather conditions caused
extended inundation. The following fry capture locations are indicated on the
map (Figure l):

May 6, 1974 - 6 fry, west of Lang Drive in the middle pool.

May 6, 1974 - 13 fry, northeast shore of pool next to C. and N.W, railroad,
west of Lang Drive.





D-7
4.


1ra 7, 1974 - 1 fry, 70 yards northeast of La Crosea Zoo building.

tyay 7, 1974 - 4 fry, 270 yards northwest of Gorder Road and East Avenue
intersection.

I/a 7, 1974 - 1 fry, 75 yards north of Park Drive and Hill View Avenue
intersection.

//ay 7, 1974 - 2 fry, northeast of the Gorder Road and Lang Drive intersection.

Wittenbur Marsh

Nottin Adult Spawning Fish

Netting operations during 1974 began on March 12 and continued through
April 8, Water levels dropped on March 23 and nets were removed except at the
entrance to the marsh,

In 1975, netting operations began on April 16 and continued through April
25. Net locations on the map indicate where nets had been set during 1974 and
1975 operations (Figure 2).

A total of 246 northern pike were collected in 1974, 67 (27.2 percent) of
which wore fin clip returns. Calculations of the population estimate indicate
398 northern pike were utilizing this area for spawning in 1974. This marsh uwa
not totally inundated until late April when spawning activity was observed in
the marsh. Ripe females were first observed on March 16 and observation con-
tinued until April 14, 1974.

During 1975, a total of 180 northern pike were collected, 19 (11.9 percent)
of which were fin clip returns. Calculations of the population estimate indicate
635 northern pike were utilizing this area for spawning in 1975. Two northern
pike captured with pelvic fin clips were believed to be returns from 1974 netting
operations. Ripe males and females were observed throughout the entire netting
operations.

Water temperatures varied from 35F to 540 during 1974 operations, DTiring
netting operations in. 1975 water temperatures ranged from 49,5 F to 54F

Egg Samplinfl

Eggs were discoverod in the netting area on April 15, 1974 (Figure 2). A
sample of 16 oggs was collected 160 yards north of the sand fill and 200 yards
east of the Black River channel. Eggs were found lying in 2.0 feet of water
among the flattened cord yrass. Another sample of 15 eggs were collected 100
yards north of the marsh entrance along the tree line bordering the Black River.


To verify that the eggs came from northern pike, more intensive netting of
the marsh on April 16, 1974 yielded 200 eggs collected and placed in a screen
box and incubated in the marsh. These eggs were checked periodically for develop-
ment and mortality.





6.
D-7

Fxr and Fingerlin Sampling

Approximately one week after eggs were placed in the screen box, two
northern pike hatched. On April 25, 1974 a Sac fry was collected from the screen
box and preserved, and on April 30 a awim-up was collected and preserved. The
sac fry was verified as a northern pike on April 26, 1974 by Dave Ostergaard,
hatchery manager at the Genoa National Fish Hatchery. The swim-up was obviously
a northern pike. The following free-swimming northern pike fry were collected
in the marsh by seinng.

May 7, 1974 - 6 fry, 100 y&'ds north of marsh entrance along the tree
line bordering the Black River.

May 9, 1974- 5 fry, 160 yards north of sand fill and 200 yards east of
the Black River Chanrnel.

The above locations are indicated on the map (Figure 2).

Car Street Marsh

NettinK Adult SpawninK Fish

Operations in 1974 began on March 12 and were terminated on March 23 when
water levels dropped and nets were frozen in the ice. Netting operations were
resumed on April 2 and continued through April 14, 1974. These operations
were limited to the northern portion of the marsh in 1974 (Figure 3). Only the
portion south of the Car Street fill was netted during 1975 operations. Northern
pike are limited in utilizing this southern portion of the marsh by the water
level of the Mississippi River. Access to this area for northerns occurs when
the Mississippi River level reaches 7.6 feet, elevation 633.42 feet. Netting
operations in 1975 began on April 21 and continued through April 25. Locations
of 1974 and 1975 not sites which were successful in capturing northern pike
are indicated on the map (Figure 3),

Through the three week sampling period in 1974, 108 northern pike were
netted, 25 (23.1 percent) of which were returns. Calculation of the number of
northerns spawning in the marslh indicated an estimated 228 individuals. Ripe
females were observed from March 17 through April 14, 1974.

During 1975 netting operations in the southern portion of the Car Street
marsh, 23 northern pike were captured, Four of these pike (17.4 percent) were
returns. A population estimate indicates 34 northern pike utilizing this portion
of the marsh. Ripe females were observed throughout the netting period*

Water temperatures in the marsh area in 1974 ranged from 34F to 54F.
During the sampling period in 1975 the temperatures varied from 49F to 53F.





-. 9D-7

Egg Sampling:

Egg sampling in 1974 began before netting operations terminated in April.
Eggs were discovered throughout the northern portion of the marsh (Figure 3).
The following information ie given for the different egg find localitiest

.April 9, 1974 - 17 eggs, 65 yards south of C. M. St.P. and P. railroad
and 233 yards east of the Black River.

April 10, 1974 - 4 eggs, 15 yards south of C. H. St.P. and P. railroad
and 100 yards east of the PF.ack River, in sedge grass.

April 10, 1974 11 eggs, east of island between second and third pools.

Fr and Fin orlin NottinS

The eining operation in 1974 was extended to both portions of the marsh,
because late in April the southern portion was flooded. Fry were discovered,
however, only in the north portion of the marsh (Figure 3). On Vay 1, 1974, 8
fry were collected off the east end of the island between the second and third
pool08

Marsh North of the La Crosse Ma, h

Netting Adult Spawninp: Fiah

This marsh is located just east of the Ideal Ready-Mix Company on Lang
Drive, north of the La Crosse River. Nets were set in this area on April 15,
1975 and were taken out on April 18, 1975. Net locations on the map indicate
capture sites of northern pike during 1975 operations (Figure 4).

Twtelve northern pike were collected in this area, 1 (8.3 pereQnt) of which
was a return. Calculations of the population estimate indicate 43 northern pike
were utilizing this area for spawning in 1975, Ripe males and femalos were
observed throughout the notting period.

Water temperatures ranged from 520 on April 15 to 54F on April 17, 1975.

Marsh Adjacent to Domke Contractors

Netting Adult Spamwnin Fish

Netting operatiohs began in this area on April 21, 1975 and continued until
April 25, 1975. Successful netting sites are located on the map (Figure 5).
Sixty-three northern pike were netted, 11 (17.4 percent) of which were returns.
A population estimate indicated 154 adult northern pike utiliging the mareh for
spawning. One northern pike captured during the netting operations had a healed
pelvic fin clip and was judged to be a 1974 return. Ripe malen and females
were present during the netting period. Water temperatures varied from 50QF on
April 23, 1975 to 56 F on April 25, 1975.






D-7 11.

PHOTOGRAPHS

1. La Crosse marsh - April 17, 1974 - Site of egg find (loft of muskrat house),
20 yards east of C. and N.W. railroad track, 150 yards south of power line,
water depth 3.0 feet, looking northeast toward Northern States power lines
(same site as photo #2).

2. La Crosse marsh - April 17, 1974 - Site of egg find (right below muskrat
house), 20 yards east of C. and N.W. railroad track, 150 yards south of
power line, water depth 3.0 feet, decomposing cattails, looking east toward
Lang Drive, Grandad Bluff in the background (samd site as photo #1).

3. La Crosse march - April 16, 1975 - Looking north over La Crosse marsh from
Gorder Road, net in the background.

4. La Crosse marsh - April 16, 1975 - Looking northeast over marsh from Gorder
Road, nets in the pool just west of the dike,

5. La Crosse marsh- April 16, 1975 - Site of northern pike capture looking
west toward Lang Drive with Northern States Power Company relay station in
the background.

6. La Crosse marsh - April 16, 1975 - Site of northern pike capture (from both
nets), looking south toward Gorder Road, with a new university physical
plant in the background.

7. Wittenberg marsh - April 17, 1974 - Site of egg find (lower center of picture),
water depth 2.5 feet, cord grass, looking south toward houses on ILauderdale
Place, 160 yards from sand bank in the background, 200 yards east of Black
River channel (same location as photo #8),

8. Wittenberg marsh - April 17, 1974 - Site of egg find (lower center of picture),
water depth 2.5 feet, looking east toward Erickaon's lumber mill (same loca-
tion as photo #7).

9. Wittenberg marsh - April 17, 1974 - Site of egg find (lower center of picture),
100 yards north of marsh entrance along tree line bordering the Black River,
water depth 2.0 foot, dead vegetation, looking northeast toward Second Avenue
South, Onalaska (same location as photo #10).

10. Wittenberg marsh - April 17, 1974 - Site of egg find (lower center of picture),
100 yards north of marsh entrance along tree line bordering the Black River,
water depth 2.0 feet, looking northeast toward Second Avenue, Onalaska (same
location as photo #9).

11. Wittenberg marsh - April 17, 1975 - Site of northern pike capture, looking
southwest toward highways U.S. 53 and Wis. 35, with the Erickson's lumber
mill in the background, pool located in the extreme northwest corner of the
marsh Just east of the main channel of the Black River (same location as
photo #12).




D-7
,5

12. Wittenberg marsh April 17, 1975 - Site of northern pike capture, looking
southeast toward highways U.S. 53 and Wise 35, with the Erickson's lumber
mill in the background (loft center), pool located in the extreme northwest
corner of the marsh, just east of the main channel of the Black River (same
location as photo #11).

13. Wittenborg marsh - April 17, 1975 - Site of northern pike capture (both nete),
looking south toward Lauderdale Place, pool located uest north of the marsh
entrance, just east of the main channel of the Black River.

14. Wittenborg marsh- April 17, 1975 - Site of northern pike capture looking east,
with Erickson's lumber mill in the background.

15. Wittenberg marsh April 25, 1975 - Site of northern pike capture looking east,
with Erickson's lumber mill in the background (so80^ ^d of fill).

16. Wittenberg marsh- April 25, 1975 - Site of northern pike capture, looking
south, with Erickson's lumber mill in the background (Pertzsch fill).

17. Wittenberg marsh - April 25, 1975 - Site of northern pike capture, looking east,
city of Onalaska and C. and N.W. railroad tracks in the background (extrese
northeast pool of the marsh), lumber piles are part of Erickson's lumber mill.

18. Wittenberg marsh - April 25, 1975 - Site of northern pike capture, looking
southeast, Onalaska and Erickson's lumber mill in the background (extreme
northeast pool of the marsh).

19. Car Stroet marsh - April 17, 1974 - Sito of egg find (lower center of photo),
15 yards south of C. M. St. P. and P. railroad and 100 yards east of Black
River channel, water depth 3.0 feet, sedge grass bed, looking north toward
Texaco storage tanks.

20.1 Carr Street marsh - nril 17, 1974 - Site of egg find (lower conter of photo),
east end of island between second and third pool in marsh, weed bed, w ,tor
depth 2.0 feet, facing east toward railroad round house located at the end of
Car Street.

21. Car Street marsh - April 25, 1975 Site of northern pike capture looking
east, with Schilling Paper Comrany (122 Buchner Street) south of Car Street
fill.

22. Car Street marsh - April 25, 1975 Site of northern pike capture looking
east (not was set in the trees in the middle of the picture), Car Street fill
in middle left side of photo.

23. Car Street marsh - April 25, 1975 - Site of northern pike capture looking
north, Texaco storage tanks (white) and Car Street fill in the background.

24. Car Street marsh - April 25, 1975 - Site of northern pike capture looking
northwest, Texaco storage tanks (right center) and Car Street fill in the


background.





D-7 19,

25. Marsh north of the La Croea marsh - April 16, 1975 - Site of northern pike
capture, looking west toward Lang Drive, with the Ideal Ready Mix Concrete
Company on the right and the La Crosse Insulating Company on the left.

26 h Marsh north of the La Crosse marsh - April 16, 1975 Site of northern pike
capture looking west toward Lang Drive, with the Ideal Ready Mix Concrete
Company on the right and the La Croess Insulating Company on the left.

27* Marsh north of La Crosse marsh - April 164i 1975 - Looking east over marsh
where nets captured northern pike, marsh located east of Ideal Ready Mix.
Concrete Company and just n rth of La Crosse River,

28. Marsh north of La Crosse mars - April 16,,1975 - Water connection between
La Crosse River and marsh east of Ideal Ready Mix Concrete Company (same
site as photo #25).

29. Marsh north of La Crosse marsh - April 16, 1975 - Entrance of water from
La Crosso River into marsh located east of Ideal Ready Mix Concrete Company
(same site as photo #26).

30. Domke Fill marsh- April 25, 1975 - Site of northern pike capture looking
northeast, fill in the background, marsh located between fill on the north
and 1-90 to the south.

31. Domke Fill marsh - April 25, 1975 - Northern pike spawning area,

32. Domke Fill marsh - April 25, 1975 - Trap net set for northern pike.

Tyype of camera used: Argus 260 Instamatic
Kodacolor X CX 126-12







22. D-7


DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION

The results of this study indicate that the remnant wetlands in the La Crosse
Onalaska area contribute significantly to a quality sport fishery for northern pike
in the area by providing the necessary reproductive capacity to maintain the popula-
tion. The marshes also function as valuable sediment traps and water storage areas,
as well as providing essential habitat for many other fish and wildlife species
dependent on wetlands for survival. Economic expansion in the La Crosse vicinity
should be directed into other localities to avoid destruction of this valuable
natural resource.

SUMMARY

Substantial spawning runs of northern pike were documented by investigations
of marsh areas adjacent to the La Crosse River in the vicinity of Lang Drive in
La Crosse, adjacent to the Black River west of Onalaska, and west of the C., M.,
St. P., and P. railroad terminal at the end of Car Street in La Crosse in the
spring of 1974 and 1975. Fortunately, a side range of water level conditions were
encountered in the two study years, low in 1974 and high in 1975.

The marshes adjacent to the La Crosse River yielded about 100 adult northerns
in 1974, indicating an estimate run of about 150 fish. Netting over the more
extensive area covered by water in 1975, and excluding the area sampled in 1974,
yielded about the same number of fish. However, a much lower incidence of recap-
tures resulted in a considerably larger estimated run of about 500 fish.

The marshes bordering the Black River produced catches of 260 northern pike
in 1974 and 240 in 1975, for combined run estimates of 625 and 825 fish,
respectively. Again, areas netted in 1975 were different from those in 1974.
Fish movement between areas is known to take place, but its extent is uncertain.
Therefore use of the areas sampled during both the spring runs is probably some-
where between the sum of the individual areas, for both years, and that for either
year taken alone. In summary, runs of at least 500 to 1,000 adult fish are
estimated to occur in the marsh areas investigated on each river system. Successful
collection of northern pike eggs and fry from marshes where adults in spawning
condition were observed in 1974 further verified that successful spawning did occur.

The study indicates that wetlands bordering the La Crosse and Black Rivers are
critical to the maintenance of the northern pike population. This large gamefish
provides a popular and high quality sport fishery, which would be detrimentally
affected by loss of reproductive habitat to filling for development.




D-7


D-7


Literature Cited


Lagler, K. F., 1959. Freshwater Fishery Biology.
Iowa* p~2%A21


Wmi C.O Brown Company, Dubuque,





D-7


ACKNO}LMEDM NTS

The following peroonnel of the Wisconsin Depsrtment of Natural Resourcos
contributed to the planning and successful completion of this report:


Willis B. Fernholz

Kenneth J. Wright


Supervisor, Micsissippi River Work Unit

Area Fish Manager


The following personnel were involved collecting and suwmrizing field


Qreg R, Mathson

Vernon E. Crawley

Roy Schumacher

Terry Loran


Conservation Technician I, Fisheries

Conservation Technician I, Fisheries

Conservation Aid I, Fisheries

Natural Resource Specialist I





D-8


NATURAL AREA INVENTORY OF LA CROSSE COUNTY*
A Preliminary Listing of Native Biotic Communities and Features


Compiled by

William A. Smith
Scientific Areas Preservation Council
Department of Natural Resources
P.O. Box 7921
Madison, Wisconsin 53707


November, 1976


INTRODUCTION

This La Crosse County natural area inventory is another in the series of county or regional inven-
tories compiled under the direction of the Scientific Areas Preservation Council (SAPC), Department
of Natural Resources. A listing of other inventories which have been prepared to date can be found
on the inside cover of this publication.
Natural areas, as used in this inventory, are tracts of variable size which in some way have main,
tained or regained their presettlement features. Primarily these natural areas include plant communities
as described by Curtis (1959), plus outstanding archeological and geological features. In addition,
other areas not qualifying as natural areas, but containing rare or endangered plant or animal
species, and areas which are important wildlife habitats, have also been included in this inventory.

The purpose of natural area inventories is to locate and evaluate the remaining presettlement plant
and animal communities in the state. Only as these native communities are identified can preser-
vation efforts be implemented.

A natural area inventory has its greatest value in the hands of the land-use policy maker who
can integrate the findings and recommendations into the decision making process. Also these inventories
are useful to teachers and naturalists who utilize natural areas for scientific, education, and/or
aesthetic appreciation purposes.

METHODS AND EVALUATION

This natural area inventory differs from some resource surveys in that all areas included have
been field inspected to verify the presence of significant features. Field analysis for this
report was done in the summer and autumn of 1976. Field reports for the high quality natural
areas can be found in the files of the Scientific Areas Preservation Council in Madison.
The areas included in this inventory were located by several means. Files maintained by the SAPC
were examined, local DNR field personnel were interviewed, teachers and naturalists familiar with
La Crosse County were contacted, and pertinent U.S. Geological Survey topographical maps and Agri-
cultural Stabilization and Conservation Service aerial photographs were inspected. By these means,
portions of the county which appeared to have no natural area value (i.e. croplands, pastures,
plantations, etc.) were eliminated in the office, leaving relatively few areas for field inspection.

An attempt was made to rank the quality of each natural area inspected. Criteria used in ranking
a site include: 1) the ecological integrity of the dominant vegetation type, 2) extent of man-
induced disturbance factors as grazing, logging, draining, landscape alterations, and presence
of non-native elements; 3) uniqueness of the community type in the inventory area; 4) diversity
of community types and diversity of native species within the community; 5) size of the tract;
and 6) potential educational value of the area. The plant community types represented at each
site were determined by qualitative comparison to the presettlement communities described by Curtis


(1959).

*Partial support for this inventory was provided by a U.S. Army Corps of Engineers contract with the
SAPC to study aspects of the flora of the driftless area.





-2- D-8

Based on the criteria described above, each site was ranked as follows:

SA State Scientific Areas - those outstanding natural areas, geological sites, or archeological
sites which have been-desqinated by the Scientific Areas Preservation Council. Currently,
only one Scientific Area, Midway Prairie, 1s located in La Crosse County.

NA-1 Natural Areas - tracts of land and/or water so little modified by man's activity, or sufficiently
recoveread, tat they contain nearly intact native plant and animal communities believed to
be representative of the presettlement landscape. They are at least of statewide natural
area significance.

NA-2 Natural Areas - tracts of land and/or water slightly modified by man's activities and insuf-
ficiently recovered from past disturbances such that they are of less significance than NA-
1 areas.

NA-2 areas--qenerally of county to multi-county significance--are valuable assets to the
local communities as outdoor education sites, passive recreation areas, and as "ecological
zones" which maintain a relatively high degree of naturalness. Some of these sites, depending
on their fragility, may be suitable for county or local park development, but caution should
be exercised to avoid degradation of their primary features. Protective zoning could be
a method of protection.

If maintained for a sufficient period of time in an undisturbed condition, NA-2 areas may
increase in their degree of naturalness. Scars of disturbance will gradually disappear,
although some types will never fully recover. Some recovered areas may be viewed in the
future as being worthy of state significance.

NA-3 Natural History Areas - tracts of land and/or water modified by man's activities, but which
retaln a moderate deoree of native vegetation or important features. These areas are often
suitable for educational use, such that exclusion from a natural area inventory would be
an oversight. Two or more of the identifying natural area criteria may be substandard in
natural history areas, but in time and with protection most natural history areas will increase
in "naturalness." Natural history areas may reflect patterns of former native vegetation
of local significance. Some natural history areas are quite scenic. An important value
of some of the larger NA-3 sites is their role in watershed protection and as environmental
corridors.

RSH Rare Species Habitats - sites where the primary natural value is the presence of one or more rare,
threatene?, or endangered species of plant or animal.

GEO-1 Geoloqical Sites - these are quarries, mines, caves, outcrops, and structural and glacial
-2 features of geological interest. The number followlng the designation indicates state significance
(1) or county significance (2).

ARCH-1 Archeological sites - Major areas of activity by prehistoric man, such as mounds and village
-2 sites, are included, as state (1) or county (2) significant.

PHYSIOGRAPHY

La Crosse County lies entirely within the western upland geographical province, as defined by
Martin (1965). A portion of the "driftless area," an area which escaped glaciation during the
last ice age is contained within this geographical province. In the driftless area, topography
was shaped mainly by weathering and stream erosion, rather than tnie grinding, leveling action
of ice sheets which covered the rest of the state.

La Crosse County can be divided into two distinct regions. North of the La Crosse River is a
thoroughly dissected plateau with a maze of ridges and valleys, known locally as coulees. This
area has been characterized as being in a mature state of erosion with most of the dolomite upland
areas eroded away. South of the La Crosse River much of the dolomite upland remains, although
the area is also well dissected. Hence, this area is characterized as being in the late youth
or early maturity state of erosion (Martin, 1965).

Another important physiographic feature of the county is the series of sandy river terraces in
the Mississippi Valley. In La Crosse County, some six different terrace levels exist, the La
Crosse Terrace and the Onalaska Terrace being two of the major ones (Martin, 1965).


PRESETTLEMENT AND PRESENT NATURAL AREAS

The best representation of the presettlement veqetation patterns of La Crosse County to date are
given in the state maps prepared by Finley (1951) and by the Wisconsin Geological and Natural
History Survey (1965). These maps were based on the notes of the original land survey crews,
taken in the mid-1800's.






D-8

-3- D-o
As shown on these maps, La Crosse County was predominantly an oak savanna community. This com-
munity occupied much of the central portion of the county. Large portions of the county, espe-
cially in the northeast and northwest corners, consisted of southern oak forest that often bordered
the savannas. Lowland hardwood forest occupied much of the floodplain of the Mississippi, La Crosse,
and Black Rivers. Southern mesic forest, consisting of sugar maple and basswood, was found in
the northeast and southeast corners of the county. Two small sedge meadows were found in the
county, one at the present site of Lake Neshonoc and the other near the site of the Highways 53
and 35 bridge over the Black River. Extensive sand prairies existed on the farmland areas known
today as Brice Prairie and Amsterdam Prairie. Dry bluff prairies could be found on many of the
steep south and west facing slopes, particularly those bordering the Mississippi River.

For a description of one of the few described archeoloqical sites in La Crosse County, see Gibbon
(1970).

Although La Crosse County is well known today for its scenic bluffs and rural beauty, the alteration
or destruction of its native plant and animal communities as a result of settlement have been
as thorough as in other heavily populated portions of the state. After initial settlement in
1841, large-scale lumberina was begun, which was the first important source of alterations of
presettlement plant communities. Often areas were burned over after being logged. With the opening
of a U.S. Land Office in La Crosse in 1853, settlement of the county took place relatively rapidly.
As a result, prairies and savannas were converted to farmland, marshlands and sedge meadows were
ditched and drained, and terrestrial communities of all descriptions were grazed. The construction
of the navigational pools on the Mississippi River by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in 1937
flooded vast areas of river bottom forest and emergent aquatic communities. Recovery and stabilization
of these flooded areas is not yet comnlete.

CURRENT LAND USE

Two interpretations of present land use are currently available for La Crosse County. The break-
downs for each are as follows:

(From U.S.D.A. Soil Conservation Service From Wisconsin Department of Natural
drawing No. 5,P-35,082 entitled "Major Resources - "Surface Water Resources
Land Uses" - La Crosse County Soil and Water of La Crosse County," 1971).
Conservation District, 1975).

Woodland ............ .34% Farmland ....... .......54.8%
Cropland ..............32% Commerical Forest .........40.5%
Pasture ............ ..16% Right-of-Way ....... .... 2.2%
Urban, Transportation . . . 11% Cultural .... ......... 1.8%
Federal Land ......... .. 4% Marsh .. ........... 0.6%
Other (Farmsteads, etc.) ...... 3%

From these breakdowns, one may understand the degree of land use change which has occurred since
presettlement times. Although over one-third of the county is forested, some 49% of the total
forest is subject to heavy grazing (Klick et al., 1971) and field observations by the author suggest
that most of the woodlands are grazed to varying degrees. Grazing not only destroys the natural
area value of forests, but it also reduces the water-holding capacity, compacts the soil, and
hence increases runoff and erosion.

In La Crosse County, the most important tracts of natural area significance are held by the U.S.
Fish and Wildlife Service and by the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. Portions of the
Black River bottoms on federal land are proposed for wilderness designation, but much of the land
in public ownership is managed for game animal species, which sometimes limits the natural area
value of these tracts.

Some county and regional studies pertaininq to natural characteristics of La Crosse County are
available to which the interested reader is referred: Beatty (1960) - a La Crosse Soil Survey;
Hartley (1960) - plant communities in the La Crosse County area; Hartley (1966) - a flora of the
driftless area; Nontelle (1973) - The flora of La Crosse County; Sohmer (1974) - a checklist of
the flora of La Crosse County.

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
..... - _~......


A summary of natural areas listed in this inventory can be found in Table 1. Fourteen plant community
types (after Curtis, 1959) were represented in the 42 sites inspected. Four sites were judged
to be of scientific area quality, all of these being on publicly owned land.

Some attention should be given to the many areas ranked NA-2 (county level significance) since
these sites comprise the bulk of La Crosse County's remaining natural area resources. Nearly
all of these NA-2 areas are threatened by continued logging and grazing, along with housing develop-





4 -


Anyone having corrections, deletions, or additions for this inventory is encouraged to send this D-8
information to the Scientific Areas Preservation Council, P.O. Box 7921, Madison, Wisconsin 53707. D-8
This inventory is necessarily a dated publication since new areas will be found and some listed
tracts may be destroyed. To Insure any new information is Incorporated in future editions
the reader's cooperation is sought in forwarding information to the SAPC office.

GUIDELINES TO THE USE OF THIS INVENTORY

The areas included in this inventory are grouped by township and are listed by tier from east to
west, from south to north. Each area has been assigned an arbitrary name plus a unique map location
number. Other information included are the approximate leqal description, acreage, community type
represented, natural area rating, name of U.S.G.S. quadrangle map containing the site, ownership,
and a brief description of the most important features of the area. A La Crosse County map is appended
which locates the sites by their assigned unique number. A detailed description and map of the
county's only scientific area (Midway Prairie) is appended at the end of the listing.

The community type(s) represented in an area is denoted by the following code:

AQE - Emergent Aquatic SC - Shrub Carr
AQS - Submerged Aquatic SD - Southern Dry Forest
AT - Alder Thicket SDM - Southern Dry-Mesic Forest
CLE - Exposed Cliff SM - Southern Mesic Forest
CLS - Shaded Cliff SS - Southern Sedge Meadow
ND - Northern Dry Forest-Relic SW - Southern Wet Forest
PD - Dry Prairie
RSH - Rare Species Habitat
SB - Sand Barrens

In publishing the locations of valuable plant and animal commtinities, some of which are extremely
sensitive to most all types of usage, it is requested that those who use this inventory and visit
particular sites will exercise respect toward the listed areas by not abusing their natural character-
istics. Please exercise discretion in duplicating or distributing these inventory findings. Above
all, respect the property rights of owners of privately held sites by requesting permission to visit
them prior to entering them.







D-8


D-8


TABLE I


SUMMARY OF INVENTORY FINDINGS
DPr4mavu r'avmmnmn tv TUvn


Ais.a* NaJrme and Invstnrv Number


Ownershio or Land Control


*RANK SA - Established Scientific Areas

Dry Prairie ............. Midway Prairie (29)


*RANK NA-1 - Potential Scientific Areas


Emergent Aquatic .......... Lake Onalaska II (30)
Submergent Aquatic . . . Lake Onalaska II (30)
Dry Prairie . . La Crosse Airport Sand Prairie (19)
Southern Dry Forest . ......Coulee Experimental Forest V (16)
Southern Wet Forest ......... Black River Bottoms (34)


*RANK NA-2 - Natural Areas of


U.S.F.&W.R.*
U.S.F.&W.R.
City of La Crosse
DNR
U.S.F.&W.R. .. . .Total 4


County to Multi-County Significance


Emergent Aquatic . .


Submergent Aquatic .

Shaded Cliff .

Northern Wet Forest
Dry Prairie ....

Rare Species Habitat


Shrub Carr .....


Southern Dry Forest


Southern Dry-Mesic Fc


Southern Mesic Forest


Southern Wet Forest.


........ . Brice Prairie Marsh (36)
Sunset Point (31
Myrick Marsh (21
Goose Island (10
e ......... Goose Island (10)
Sand Creek (44)
.. . . . . ... .Mo rma nCreek C liffs(9 )
Saxifrage Cliffs (4)
.... . . .. . County B. Tamarack Swamp (17)
......... Brice R.R. Prairie (35)
Hixon Forest (22)
.. e...... . Smith Slough Floodplain Forest (24)
Interstate Bridge Woods (23)
County B, Tamarack Swamp (17)
......... Myrick Marsh (21)
Brice Prairie Marsh (36)
......... Hixon Forest (22)
Coulee Experimental Forest III (14)
Coulee Experimental Forest II (13)
)rest ...... Hxon Forest (22
Koeth's Woods (5
t ........ Roesler Coulee Sugar Maple Woods (7)
Saxifraqe Cliffs (4)
Bohemian Valley (1)
1......... Van Loon Wildlife Area (43)
Smith Slough Floodplain Forest (24)
Interstate Bridge Woods (23)
Myrick Marsh (21)
Goose Island (10)
West Channel Woods (8)


U.S.F.&W.R.
U.S.F.&W.R.
City of La Crosse and UW-La Cross(
County & U.S.F.&W.R.
County & U.S.F.&W.R.
Private
Private
Private
Private
RR.R
City of La Crosse
U.S.F.&W.R.
U.S.F.&W.R.
Private
City of La Crosse and UW-La Crosse
U.S.F.&W.R. & private
City of La Crosse
DNR
DNR
City of La Crosse
State Highway Commission
Private
Private
Private
DNR & private
U.S.F.&W.R.
U.S.F.&W.R.
City of La Crosse & UW-La Crosse
County
U.S.F.&W.R ... . .Total 19


RANK NA-3 ......... . e
*Rare Species Habitat ....... .


*U.S.F.&W.R. = United States Fish and Wildlife Refuge


......... . Total 21
.......... . Total 6

Grand Total 51
Dual Listed Areas 6
Corrected Total 43


Total 1


rt-Illia~ ~ ~ ~__ _ milmo IMAMIG oulm Allr~b ~-2-. - _-fluF_- -4-'


_ _ _ _ __ _ ---I ---- --- I---- -- -----------------------------------cl~


5-L--PYPIY-EM II L-l- C-lrr---- --ollL--D-sPIIPPP-LIBs-
- - ---rxl- - -- - ---- - - -- -^P-YIUIPPIlLliu;Yr;





-6
D-8
LITERATURE CITED
Beatty, M. T. 1960. Soil Survey - La Crosse County, Wisconsin. U.S. Gov. Printing Office,
Washington, D.C. 91 pp.

Curtis, J. T. 1959. The Vegetation of Wisconsin. Univo Wis. Press, Madison. 657 pp.

Finley, R. W. 1951. The original vegetation cover of Wisconsin. Ph.D. Thesis. Univ. Wis.

Gibbon, G. E. 1970. The midway village site: an orr phase oneota site in the upper Mississippi
Valley. Wis. Archeol. 51:(3)79-162.

Harris, P.A. 1975. The avifauna of Myrick Marsh. M.S. Thesis. University of Wisconsin, La Crosse.

Hartley, T. G. 1959. Notes on some rare plants of Wisconsin. Wis. Acad. Sci., Arts, and Let.
48:57-64.

1960. Plant communities of the La Crosse area in western Wisconsin. Proc. Iowa
Acad. Sci. 67:174-188.

1966. The flora of the "Driftless Area." Univ. Iowa Stud. Nat. Hist.
21:(1)1-170.
Klick, T. A., D. F. Gebkin, and C. W. Threinen. 1971. Surface water resources of La Crosse County.
Dep. Nat. Res., Madison.

Martin, L. 1965. The Physical Geography of Wisconsin. Third Ed. Univ. Wis. Press, Madison,
608 pp.
Nontelle, D. M. 1973. The flora of La Crosse County. M.S. Thesis, Univ. of Wis., La Crosse.

Sohmer, S. H. 1973. Preliminary view of the vascular flora of Myrick Park Marsh, La Crosse,
Wisconsin. Contrib. Herb. V. Univ. Wis., La Crosse. 16 pp.

-- 1974. Preliminary checklist of the flora of La Crosse County. Contrib. Herb. VI.
Univ. Wis., La Crosse. 20 pp.

Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey, 1965. Early vegetation of Wisconsin. Map.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

John Zoerb James Warner
Fred Lesher Dale Erl andson
Seiyore Sohmer Adrian Hagen
Robert Read James Melton
Alvin Peterson Raymond Kyro
Steve Swanson Rain Vehik






D-8
-7-

LA CROSSE COUNTY NATURAL AREA INVENTORY

Location
Area Name Size Description, Comments,
Map Number Quadrangle Rank Ownership Primary Feature (Abb.-see p. 4)


Bohemian Valley

0o



Koula Oak Woods

0


Bohemian Creek
Forest and Cliffs


Koeths Woods

Koeth's Woods




Mendell Oak Woods




Roesler Coulee Sugar
Maple Woods

0
West Channel Woods



Mormon Cree Clffs

Mormon Creek Cliffs


T15N R5W
Sections 23 & 24
400 acres
Sparta Quad.


T15N R5W
Section 29
NW~ NER
40 acres
Sparta Quad.


T15N R5W
Sec. 33 SESE
Sec. 34 SWSW
20 acres
Viroqua Quad.

T15N R6W, Sec. 34
NWSW4 and SW4SWW4
45 acres
Stoddard Quad.

T15N R6W, Sec. 34
NW4SW
8 acres
Stoddard Quad.

T15N R6W, Sec. 36
NE%
40 acres
Stoddard Quad.

T15N R7W, Sec. 6
WNWN
40 acres
LaCrescent Quad.


T15N R7W, Sec. 26
NNW
5 acres
La Crosse7.5' Quad.


NA-2


NA-3


NA-3





NA-2




NA-3


NA-2


NA-2





NA-2


Private An extensive area of sugar maple forest on a
north facing slope along upper Coon Creek. Area
also includes oak woods, prairie, floodplain
forests, rock outcrops, and a stream. Under-
story is quite diverse with over 30 species of
sedges recorded and a total of over 400 species
for the entire area. Species list available. SM

Private A red oak-white oak forest on a moderately
sloping upper portion of a ravine. The dominant
red oaks approach 23" DBH. Shagbark hickory
and bitternut hickory are important reproducing
species. Understory dominated by gooseberries
and blackberries. No recent grazing or logging
evidence. SD


Private A nice but small series of cliffs in a sugar
maple woods. The dripping cliffs and much of
the understory are covered with a cliff saxifrage
(Saxifraga pensylvanica) plus a variety of
other mesic to wet-mesic species. Area has
been grazed and logged; has high scenic value,
however. SM (CLS)


Department
of Trans-
nortation


Formerly one of the best quality red oak
forests in the state. A series of encroachments
and logging have greatly reduced the integrity
of this fine woods. A few small areas of
good quality woods remain and are utilized
by UW-La Crosse ecology classes. SDM


Private A small red oak-white oak woods with tree
sizes up to 20" PBH. Understory shrubby,
being dominated by blackberries. Selective
logging has taken place. SD

Private A fair quality sugar maple-basswood forest.
Grazing and logging have occurred in peripheral
regions but the center of the tract retains
much of its integrity. SM

U.S.A. A good quality river bottom forest island
just inside the Wisconsin state line. Silver
maple, American elm, and green ash dominant.
Varied understory contained catchfly grass
(Leersia virginica), wood nettle (Laportea
canadensis), poison ivy (Rhus radicans), etc.
Some slough areas present in interior portions.S-

Private A very scenic series of shaded cliffs bordering
Mormon Creek. This area has an excellent
variety of wet to dry cliff species including
slender rock brake (Cryptogramma stelleri), clif
shooting star (Dodecateonraditum, and cliff
goldenrod (Solidago sciaphila). Bluff above is
covered with white pine and white cedar, both of
which were planted nearby and evidently spread
here spontaneously. A tunnel exists in one of
the cliffs which may be natural or the result of
the state's first gristmill pond established by
the Mormon,. Adjacent lowland is managed as a
park by owner Robert Swing. CLS












Description, Comments,
PLD-mAkvU CFaA+IIfra eAhk -^Cm n A \


IrtArlr% vwvr laI II I III 5 -Y. F t' a L Uv


Goose Island









Coulee Experimental
Forest
(General Oescrin-
tion not manned
--snecific sites
below)


T15N R7W, Sections 32,
33, 34, and 28
600 acres
Stoddard Quad.


NA-2


T16N R5&6W
Sections 13, 18, 19, 24,
25, and 30
2,900 acres
St. Joseph Quad.


La Crosse A large area of floodplain forest, grassy
County sloughs, open marshland and grown-over sand
prairie in the floodplain of the Mississippi
River. Parts of the higher ground are mani-
cured parks and campgrounds. Roads dissect
much of the island proper and thus it has rela-
tively little natural area value. The aquatic
conmunities are high in quality featuring locally
unconmon plants like sweet flaq (Acorus calamus)
and comnnon bladderwort (Utricularia \vuFa-~'s-T.
SW-AQE-AQS


.DNR


(


Coulee Experimental
Forest I
(Coulee Prairie)




Coulee Experimental
Forest II, Coulee
Successional Forest



Coulee Experimental
Forest III (Coulee
Successional Oak
Forest)

CG"lee Experimental
st IV (Coulee
Successional Oak
Forest)

(15


T16N R5W, Sec. 30

25 acres
St. Joseph Quad.


T16N R5W, Sec. 30
SWaN'I'AN~W4 and
T16N R6W, Sec. 25
SENENEN
20 acres
St. Joseph Quad,

T16N R6W
Sections 24 and 25
SESE of 24
NENE of 25
60 acres
St. Joseph Quad.

T16N R6W, Sec. 24
NWNE
20 acres
St. Joseph Quad,


NA-3


NA-2





NA-2





NA-3


DNR


DNR





DNR





DNR


This large tract came into public ownership
as a result of an agreement between the State
of Wisconsin and the U.S. Forest Service in
1960. The aim of the research conducted by
the Forest Service was to determine how to
reduce floods and siltation, how to improve
stream flow, and to "determine what land
management activities are compatible with
both good watershed practice and forest com-
modity production." The federal project is now
completed and the land is managed as part of
the state forest system. The topography here
can be described as alternating flat ridge tops
divided by narrow valleys or coulees. The
forest is generally located on the steep slopes
of these valleys and occupies about 1,740 acres.
Oak-hickory associations are dominant with
lesser stands of basswood, sugar maple, butter-
nut, and white ash. Alt stanas are second or
third growth with the larger trees up to
25" DBH (red oak). The understory is recovering
from former grazing with some areas of good
quality and diversity. SD-SM

A formerly grazed dry bluff prairie with
southwest to southeast exposure. Grazing
was heaviest near the bottom and on the top.
There is a pine plantation on the middle of
the southeast facing slope. This plantation
is part of the experiments which have been
conducted in this area by the Forest Service.
The natural area value of this bluff has been
greatly reduced. PD

A fair quality red oak forest on a sandy north
facing slope. Dogwood is excention-
ally cormon in the shrub layer. Much poison
ivy was found in portions of this forest. This
is possibly a nest woods of the Cooper's hawk-
a threatened species in Wisconsin. SD

An open oak woods with good species diversity.
Oaks are up to 36" DBH. Reproduction is mainly
hickory and butternut, with an occasional sugar
maple. Probably grazed in the past. Upper part
of ridge shows signs of past disturbance by
experimental uses. Preliminary species list
available. SD

A transitional red oak forest on a sandy north-
west facing slope. Understory is quite
shrubby with much blackberry and coron juniper.
Shagbark hickory is the important seedling-


- Name
Aumber


Location
Size
Ouadranale


D-8


- -- **- -1 - - --- I - ------ ,___  C -- _ _ _ __ _


Rankl


wumporch i n







Di-.


- -


Location
Area Name Size Description, Comments,
Map Number uadrangle Rank Ownershi Primary Feature (Abb. -see p. 4)
sapling species. Heavy to moderate
logging was noted and signs of grazing persist.
SD


Coulee Experimental
Forest V (Coulee
Successional Oak
Forest)





Highway B Tamarack
Swamp







Swamp Road Sedge
Bog

(


La Crosse Airport
Sand Prairie








South Kinney Coulee
Road Tamarack Swamp




Myrick Marsh /

(I)


T16N R5W, Sec. 18
NW4SW4
40 acres
St. Joseph Quad.





T16N R6W
Sections 18 & 19
E2SWi & WSE of 18
NENW of 19
160 acres
La Crosse 7.5' Quad.




T16N R6W, Sec. 19
NENE
10 acres
La Crosse 7.5' Quad.


T16N R7W
Sections 5, 6, 7, & 8
SW4SW of 5
SEhSE4 of 6
NENE of 7
NIWNW of 8
140 acres
Onalaska & LaCrescent
Quad.


T16N R7W, Sec. 12
ESWW4SW4
30 acres
La Crosse 7.5' Quad.


NA-1








NA-2








NA-3


NA-1









NA-3


T16N R7W NA-2
Sections 28, 29, 32, & 33
SW4 of 28, SSE, of 29, \
N of 32, and NNW4 of 33
- 690 acres
La Crosse7.5' Quad.


DNR


A very good quality mature red oak forest on a
steep northeast facing slope. The exceptional
tall and straight red oak (to 21" DBH) and the
relatively open understory give this woods
a fine appearance. Shagbark hickory is the
main tree species in the seedling and sapling
class. Also in this tract are a dry bluff
prairie (somewhat grown over by paper birch)
and both exposed and shaded sandstone cliffs.
Preservation is desirable. SD, CLS, CLE, PD


Private A large and diverse wetland on a terrace of the
La Crosse River. Tamarack dominates much of th
area with lesser numbers of paper birch, red
maple and black ash. Sedge and grass-dominated
openings feature a good variety of understory
species and include showy lady's slipper
(Cypripedium reginae). Some cutting has taken
place, wilth tese open area edges dominated by
bog birch (Betula pumula), poison sumac (Rhus
vernix), red-osier dogwood (Cornus stolonifera)
Preliminary species list available. NW, RSH

Private One of the few remaining sedge bogs in La Crosse
County.' Drainage attempts and the small size
limit its quality. This is the only known
station in La Crosse County for hoary willow
(Salix candida). Tamarack swamp borders much
ofthe bog. reliminary species list avail-
able. SS

City of A high quality sand prairie on the north end ot
La Crosse French Island. Somewhat weedy along its edges
adjacent to the airport runway and Fisherman's
Road, but of good quality towards center.
Species of interest include poppy mallow
(Callirhoe triangulata; about 1,000 plants),
false heaher (Hudsonia tomentosa), sand club-
moss (Sneagnela rupetris), and larkspur
(Delphlnium virescens) plus clay-colored and
grasshopper sparrows. Upland sandpipers have
nested here for several years. Preservation
desirable. Species list available. PD, SB, R'"

Private A tamarack-red maple swamp on a La Crosse Rive,
terrace. Much of the area is shrubby with
dense growths of red-osier dogwood (Cornus
(stolonifera), alder (Alnus rusa), and poiso
sumac (Rhussvernix). Area has been logged
and edges are grazed. Water arum (Calla
palustris) is present in large numbers. Pre-
aiminary species list available. NW


City of
La Crosse
and UW-
La Crosse


A variety of wetland communities located within
the La Crosse City limits. Area has high educa-
tional value and should be preserved. See Har4s
(1975) for a list of bird snecies inhabiting t ;
marsh, and Sohmer (1973) for a preliminary lis.
of vascular plants. Disturbance factors are
high and include a series of roads, dikes,
and filling. River bulrush (Scirpus fluviatil
is dominant over much of this marsh. iqE-S-


D-8







D-8
- 10 -
~~- - ---R


area Name
a 'mber

Hixon Forest















Interstate Bridge
goods





Smith Slough Flood-
plain Forest




La Crosse River
Marsh I (Bangor-
Lake Neshonoc)




La Crosse River
Marsh II (Rockland-
_ Bangor)


La Crosse County
Chestnut Grove





West Salem Tamarack
Swamp

(


Location
Size
nOuldranale1


Rank


T16N R7W, Sec. 34 NA-2
SN4 and SWiBNE
120 acres
La Crosse7.5' Quad.












T16N R8W NA-2
Sections 13 & 14
WI of 13, NE of 14
500 acres
LaCrescent Quad.


T16N R8W NA-2
Sections 24 and 25
SPSE of 24
NEINE of 25
300 acres
LaCrescent Quad.

T17N R5W NA-3
Sections 31 and 32
S of 31 and 32
200 acres
Sparta & West Salem Quads.


T17N R5W
Sections 33, 34, & 35
SE4 of 33, S^N of 34 &
N of 35.
980 acres
Sparta Quad.

T17N R6W, Sec. 14
SENE
5 acres
West Salem Quad.



T17N R6W
Sections 27 and 34
SE SW of 27
NW4 of 34
West Salem Quad.


NA-3




NA-3






NA-3


Owners hip


City of
La Crosse-
Parks


Description, Cornnents,
Primary Feature Abb.- see p. 4)

Purchased as a permanent natural park for the
City of La Crosse by citizen contributions in
1909, this area contains some good quality
natural areas. Forest types range from oak-
hickory to sugar maple-basswood associations with
scattered paper birch-poplar stands. Upper
portions of south facing slopes have small dry
prairie openings with such plants as ladies'
tress orchid (Spiranthes cernua) and compass
plant (Silphium lacirT aum) . A self-auided
nature traiT has been estcbli shed which, along
with the proxinmity of this forest to La Crosse,
makes it a valuable education area. However, a
road exists along the valley bottom and bull-
dozing has altered the ravine. Scattered pine
plantations in the lower portions also limit
the natural area value. SD-SDM-PD


U.S.A. & A floodplain forest of averaqe quality but large
Private acreage. Silver maple is dominrnt. Swamp white
oak occurs in size up to 32" DBH. Proximity to
the interstate and lock and dam No. 7 severely
limits aesthetic quality oF area. Poison ivy
(Rhus radican.s) in large portions is tile dominant
un-ers:ory s-:ruh. Red-shouldered hawks nest in
this woods. S4, RSH

U.S.A. A fair floodplain forest within the La Crosse
city limits. American elm-silver maple dominant
with a varied understory. Woods has been
selectively logged. An old house or barn'
foundation indicates heavier usage in the past,
Red-shouldered hawks were heard in this area
and probably nest here. SW, RSH

Private A series of wetlands ranging frcm aquatic
emergents near Lake Neshonoc to shrub-carr and
floodplain forest to the east. Grazing occurs
along the edges, but the area remains an impor-
tant wildlife habitat. AQE-SC-SW


Private--
Some
leased as
public
hunting
area.


An area of open marsh, shrrb-carr, and shrubby
sloughs along the edqgs of the La Crosse River.
Area is of value mostly as wildlife habitat.
SC-AQE


Private This grove of American chestnut is reportedly
the largest spontaneously reproducing one in
the state. Although not a pre-
settlement community type, this grove is one
of the few remaining ponulations of a formerly
important eastern forest species. One tree is
believed to be a state record (39.7" DBH,
78' Ht.). RSH

Private A somewhat varied area on a terrace of the
La Crosse River. The tract is mostly wetland
types ranging from tag alder-boq birch thickets
to open marsh tamarack swamp. Present are water
arum (Calla palustris) and purple fringe orchid
(t{abena a ps.yco . Irrigation pipes cross
tle swampe. ih AT


11'.4*A- 9 AI ,j. 0rf 1. - r





D-8
- 11 -

Location
Area Name Size Description, Comments,
Map Number Quadrangle Rank Ownership Primary Feature (Abb. - see p. 4)


Midway Prairie i
Scientific Area

Lake Onalaska II







Sunset Point-
Sommers Chute Area










Price Prairie

(32


Rosebud Island




Black Rver Bottoms


Black River Bottoms

(


Brice RR Prairie

(3,


T17N R7W, Sec. 30
Holmen Quad.

T17N R8W, Sec. 22
SWhNEh and NSE
100 acres
iolmen Quad,




T17N R8W
Sections 27, 28, 33, & 34
SW of 27, E of 28,
NE% of 33, & Wh of 34
500 acres
Holmen Quad.







T17N R7W, Sec. 30
NWNW and SW4NW,
10 acres
Holmen Quad.


T17N R7W, Sec. 31
NW4, WNE, NOSW4, and
NWl4SE4
300 acres
Holmen Quad.




T17N R8W
Sections 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
8, 9, and 10.
2,200 acres
Holmen, LaCrescent Quad.


T17N R8W
Sections 14 & 15
St^ of 14
NEh of 15
10-20 acres
Holmen Quad.


See form and map at end of this listing.
PD


SA

NA-1







NA-2











NA-3


NA-3








NA-1


NA-2


U.S. Fish
& Wild-
life
Refuqe




U.S. Fish
& Wild-
life
Refuge


This area is one of the better quality aquatic
communities in the region. The water is quite
clear and supports rooted submergent plants to
depths of twelve feet. Scattered stands of
pickerel weed (Pontederia cordata), stiff arrow-
head (Sagittaria rdiga), lotus (Nelumbo lutea),
and bur-reed (Sparganm eurycarpon) are fquent
Other than in flood staqe, te Black River is
the main source of water. AQE-AQS

A series of islands and sandbars intermittently
inundated and exposed by fluctuations of navi-
gation pool #7. Marsh species cover the larger
islands while the smaller ones are often
devoid of vegetation. When exposed, these bare
sand islands are extensively used by summering
gulls, shorebirds, and ducks as roosting areas.
Several unusual records of water birds have
been noted in this area such as summering caspia..
terns, Forster's terns, white pelicans, Wilson's
phalarope, parasitic jaegers, and the little
gull. Commercial fishermen and recreational
boats may be a serious source of disturbance to
these birds. AQE , RSH


Private A small, low quality sand prairie on a railroad
right-of-way. Despite low quality, this area
has most of the dry prairie indicator species
plus populations of larkspur (Delphinium
virescens), rock jasmine (Androsace occidentalis'
and poppy mallow (Callirhoe triangulata), and
has some educational value. SB , RSH


U.S. Fish
& Wild-
life
Refuge





U.S. Fish
& Wild-
life
Refuge


R.R.
Right-of-
Way


A low relief island in Lake Onalaska formerly
grazed. Sandy areas have several prairie
species, but bluegrass is common. Black
locust and sumac have encroached on much of
the prairie acreage. Bur oaks are among the
several floodplain tree species and grow
to 33" DBH. Edges of the island range
from sand beach on the southwest to marshland
containing a variety of emergent species on the
north. Preliminary species list available. PD

A vast acreage of floodplain forest at the
mouth of the Black River. Includes oxbow
sloughs, open marshland, sand banks, and
excellent quality floodplain timber. Quality
of the understory is excellent with poison ivy
and prickly ash occurring uncommonly (unlike
many other floodplain forests). Many old-growtf
trees are present. (Only section 9 field in-
spected.) Plant species list is available.
(See Hartley, 1959 for a list of rare plants
found in this area.) SW (potential wilderness
area)

A narrow strip of sand prairie between the
tracks of the Burlington Northern and Chicago
and Northwestern Railroads. Probably burned
accidently by sparks generated by passing train
Northwestern end grades to dense sumac stands.
PD







D-8


Description, Comments,
Primary Feature (Abb. - see D. 41


Brice Prairie Marsh





Davis Creek Marsh
and Sand Dune






La Crosse County
Cactus Area


Hoeth Forest Sedge
Bogs
(3



Black Oak Cemetery
Woods

o
Woodsia Rock

(41


Black River Cliff



Van Loon Wildlife
Area


T17N R8W
Sections 14 & 15
NW, NE4, and NSkW of 14
NNEk of 15
400 acres
Holmen Quad.

T18N R5W, Sec. 9
SNW and N2SW4
220 acres
Melrose Quad.




T18N R5W, Sec. 9
SW4NEk
5 acres
Melrose Quad.

T18N R6W, Sec. 3

20 acres
North Bend Quad.



T18N R6W, Sec. 8
NWNE4
20 acres
North Bend Quad.

T18N R6W, Sec. 25
NW4SERSW and
SE4NWlSW4
5 acres
North Bend Quad.


T18N R7W, Sec. 9
SWNNE and SENW,
5 acres
Stevenstown Quad.

T18N R8W
Sections 2, 3, 10, 11,
14, 15, 16, 21, 22, 27,
28, and 34.
4,000 acres
Galesville Quad.


NA-2





NA-3







NA-3


NA-3






NA-3


NA-3


NA-3


U.S.A. & An extensive area of cattail marsh and
Private alder-dogwood shrub carr in what probably was
an old channel of the Black River. Situated
between Brice Prairie and Amsterdam Prairie,
the northwest portion of this march is con-
tiguous with the Black River Bottom Forest,
Area #34. AQE-SC

Private A boggy wetland bordered by active sand dunes
at the source of Davis Creek. The water table
has been greatly lowered due to recent
drainage efforts. As a probably result a
number of orchids previously known to
exist here could not be found. Sand dunes
contained some Indian artifacts and a
population of the rarely encountered tiger
beetle (Cicindela lepida). SC, SB

Private A formerly grazed sand barrens included mainly
for its population of prickly pear cactus.
SB


La Crosse A series of sedge mats on a terrace of the
County Black River. Species of sedge (Carex,
Eriophorum), and several ericads dominate the
sphagnum- ased meadow. Potholes which have
been created artificially in the past few years
are perhaps the cause of a greatly lowered water
table and some species of orchids can no longer
be found here. SS

Private A fair stand of native red pine overlooking
Black Oak Cemetery. Half of woods has been
grazed. Fame flower (Talinum rugospernum) is
common between the woods and cemetery. ND-Relict

Private A small area of water-carved sandstone cliffs,
with a good variety of cliff plants including
long-leaved bluets (Houstonia longifolia), sand
club moss (SelaginelTa rupestris), and a large
population of rusty woodia odsia io a i ensis).
CLE


Private A series of sandstone cliffs and overhangs topped
with white pine and bordering the Black River.
The cliff face was quite dry and supported few
plants. A house has been built in the pine
woods CLE


NA-2(1) DNR & An extensive area of floodplain forests,
Private surrounded by two channels of the Black River.
Exceptional for its size and public ownership,
this area also has a few pockets of old growth
forest of scientific area quality. American
elm (to 34" DBH) and silver maple (to 35" DBH)
are dominant. The presence of several access
roads crossing the area as well as periodic
cuttings for wildlife management, however,
limits the natural quality. SW


T18N R5W, Sec. 2
Ws, creek and bank
west of Sommers Road
3/4 of a mile lonq to
Monroe County line,
Melrose Quad.


NA-2 , Private La Crosse County's only class one brook trout
stream is medium hard, alkaline, clear, and
flows over a bottom mainly composed of sand.
East of Soumrers Road there is little natural
vegetation remaining along the stream's banks,
but west of the road thin woods persist along
most of its length into Monroe County. AQS


Area Name
r 'imbher


- 12 -


Location
Size
Ouadranole


Rank


Ownershin


Sand Creek




I - - -- -- - --- - - - I - I -- -


- S-C -r --- -- C-


~~lr~~~tVrr i _ r~~~~_-A% - I %Ila I%.II SAI I% T.9&%Iqo t


I,









Location
Area Name Size Description
Map Number Quadrangle . Rank Ownership __Primary Feature (Abb. - see p. 4)


Fleming Creek-Black
River Lowlands




Red Cloud Shrub
Carr


Tl9N R7W
Sections 34-36
34: ENEMk,
35: N 3/4,
36: Nh
ca. 1000 acres
Stevenstown 7.5' Quad.
T18N R7W
Section 6, between
Black River and upland
terrace.
100 acres
Galeville 7.5' Quad.


NA-3





NA-3


Private Large riverine forest in the floodplain of the
Black River. Small stands of white and red
pine are intermingled among the typical lowland
species. Because of logging over much of the
tract, the lowland's chief natural value remains
its large contiguous size. SW

Private Mosaic vegetation types consisting of
riverine forest, shrub carr dominated by
hardhack-dogwood-wi lows, and sedge meadow.
Former grazing is suspected, but the tract
needs further field evaluation. SC (SW,SS)


D-8


- 13 -










14-

NATURAL AREAS OF LA CROSSE COUNTY


4.


R-W


Tom o Gale


A
EB


a
T-lUI 5
3
TREMPEALEAU CO. '


Tom of Cabdoni


TREMPEALEAU CO. -+


R-7-w


JACKSON CO.


R-6.b


Town of North Bend


I.so.000o
JACKSON CO. +
MONROE CO.


R-5.W


Town of Melrose


4~

Cal
w
0
w
0
a:
I
a:


T7-I-N


rwIc ---------






-TwRw-----
Fro
-. --------










blosm i Frvua…
us oan ~d

a* iligheIe ----------



----------- ----- '-



- - on day -----









La he Tom s


c PK % t W nn o v . tc o .. E
%ft rows -------- e. m-




anmno, enanow .tw...t
--------------- - -- + 4

FS% lickIMI ------- -----


u~momp. Ville" -------------


14000ow----------------



PAN, Cw*& Pi.* nk. - -- - - -




0,- c 4 c )bl aftl-,_,, .A?
Comofor :I "Ita ---

Sw t,"4 fee& so #me


8


T-15M


Tam of i


Tm of Coo


R-6-v


i .al


VERNON CO.


INLV ES OIFUAB

ITATE ............................ 1
COUNTY........................ m
LOCAL ROADI.............. MI
MOTR DAN.......c.............I
TOTAL fIlt MUNTV ................. W


R-5-W
1t.VE
VERNON CO,


LA CROSSE

BIVIUM Or OmKHAY$
STkit OFFtICE amomn




4Z- JAN. 1975 R04b,
Oc BOSOm U.&.OJ. o.* hgw
bow mt Mvlef n1s1ewq


l k. ....... ............l.. C. .
'w ,m" ........,,..... ..... .. I
Cue . ................. ,L CfO=


D-8


1976



D-8
- 15-
FORM 2800--8 1 Scientific Area No.
SCIENTIFIC AND NATURAL AREA REPOR "
Wisconsin Scientific Areas Preservation Council



NAME OF AREA Midway Prairie I SPECTION ,ATE Latest:15 June 1976

QUARTER __ COUNTY La Crosse _ TWSP. 17N RANGE 71_ jS0s_ 29 30

BOUNDARIES ANDACREAGE of Parts of the SW0 of geceion 29e, cai the S1 Ngg of section 30,
proposed or established area and buffer: east of the railroad track and_ wegt_ of ogut:y trutmk OT
Size: _3.06 acres ( hectar)____ _________

ACCESS TO AREA: Follow Highwy 53-3S5 north from LaCrksEt ian.%1ak to county truLnk OT-Z,
then west about oae block past Z on OT "airie le between Burlington
Northern railroad tracks and OT on _ wet facIn o deig n

DESCRIPTION OF AREA: Outstanding features, primary and secondary biotic communities, domdirlants, ilnderstory and rare species, topography, soils
geology and archeology. idway Prairie is a small dry-uesiec prail. re ant lying on the steep
edge of a Mississippi sandy terrace, and its west-outhwest -paore overlooks the wide
river valley's wetlands. Although the area was originally stablished to preserve the
early spring show of pasque flower, the prairie remnant contains over 60 species of prairie
plants. Representative forb species include lead plant puccoon (2 species), poppy mallow
(Callirhoe triangulata), silky aster (Aster seriteus a s, purle p tairie clover (Petalostemum
purpureum), while the isportant grasses consist of porcupint gras (Sti a rtea), switch
grass (Panicum virgatum), june grass (Keleria Scrantha) bi:g luest (Arono n rardi),
and little bluestem (A. scopaius). The prairie soils consast of Sparta, Plainfield, and
Sparta types.







HISTORY OF LAND USE AND LIMITING FACTORS: H[ao CongtrMt^ nb ~Ott tk highway has
encroached on prairie in recent years, and may ake fiea aagnaee- ~e di~ficlt. Aea
is partially fenced.

ADMINISTRATIVE INFORMATION: Landowner and administrator, existing and propo:,.:d man-iSm,,i~,l, Q Jire6 of sientific, educational and
recreational use of area, adjacent lands and compatibility. _ ed by the La CCro@ _ f cen / , , ,'tlrk Department (Courthoues,
La Crosse 54601) through a transfer froo the La Crose _t-;:Y-ty li-g-i:e' S--part-ent--l 953-[1
The preservation profect was initiated in 1951 by the Lja L e "'S ( 5tid t -he
interest of Katherine Martindale, Conservation Chaim a. ;.gieta conits o-7occasiona
fire to maintain open condition; the adjacent railroaed is probab'l epnsible for sporadi
unscheduled burns. Midway Prairie is used by UW-La Croee LI C:oeC s Auadubon Society, and
Viterbo College


REFERENCE INFORMATION: Person recommending area, references quadrangle and other pubtiiaars aid date of action taken toward
designation of area. _ReCO endedy Koatherine Marta eof a Crosse, l T. Curtis.
Quadrangles ._ olen L (1973) and Onalasik 7.5 19 ' 74phaotso i ___
References: Plant species list__color tr arenci availablen ,APC files; see
Thomson _J.W., Jr. 1940. Relict pirie areas in central Ws., @o Sel HMono. l0:685-7 7;
and La Crosse Tribune Sunday, May 6, 1956. Establishe a& 8ath ?cietnific area 12 July 1955.

REPORT BY: W Tans; rev. R. Read DA^TE . T Jar1977
- _-----.----- - _- -_ -_ _ . _ _ _ ____.....A_


RFV 6-75





' 16 -


D-8


HOLMEN


MIDWAY PRAIRIE


SCIENTIFIC AREA


LOCATION MAR, LA 6'OSSE CO.







' ^-~, , - ' .. ., '- ' " : '--- '".



c ., '/
0
vi -



..: >,
~'~. ', .,.../~~~~~~~~~~'. :-. ,_:'.


-~L-----MILES -


SCALE


N MILES







APPENDIX E: TRANSPORTATION DATA

E-1 Schneider letter re transmittal of Lang Drive research data: 3/23/78
E-2 Various maps, tables, graphs, and study summaries re Lang Drive
traffic volumes





E-1


State of Wisconsin \DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION


March 23, 1978 PECEIVED; UW-LACROSSE
tC A PUS PLA' N :;,^




Mr. Lawrence E. Rice ' I ILE
Campus Planner
University of Wisconsin-La Crosse
La Crosse, WI 54601


DIVISION OF HIGHWAYS
DISTRICT 5
3550 MORMON COULEE ROAD
P. O. BOX 337
LA CROSSE, WI 54601


Dear Mr. Rice:

Attached is the information you requested from us to assist you in
preparing your reply to the Corp of Engineers, reference their
letter to you dated February 28, 1978.

I hope the information is satisfactory. If we can be of further
assistance, please feel free to call us.

Very truly yours,

L. G. SCHNEIDER, P.E.
District Engineer

By.( gz-Ad.*

C. D. Anderson, P.E.
District Chief Design Engineer

DRM: es

Attach.


214 L.










Lang Drive, City of La Crosse


1. The load carrying capacity of Lang Drive is restricted to 12 tons because
of the deficient bridge over the La Crosse River. Other restrictions on
Lang Drive (STH 35) would be governed by state statues,
No restrictions as far as we know are on Gorder Road. Load carrying capacity
on Gorder Road would also be governed by State and city statues.
The number of vehicles on Lang Drive is regulated by the traffic signals on
La Crosse Street, these signals will control the number of vehicles that can
get onto or off Lang Drive. With the present street configuration, the street
has a capacity of 15,000 ADT. With an improvement of the intersection as
proposed by the city, the capacity can be increased to 20,000-25,000 ADT.

2. Number of Vehicles on Lang Drive: ADT (1975) = 19,060
Gorder Road: ADT (1975) = 950
Attached are 16-hour traffic counts taken at the following locations:
(a) La Crosse St., West Ave., & Lang Drive Intersection - Taken on 3-4-76
and 3-10-76.
(b) Lang Drive & Gorder Road (12-hour count) - Taken on 6-13-72
Cc) Lang Drive & Monitor Street - Taken on 9-5 & 6-73

Also attached is a graph showing hourly traffic volume distribution plotted
from 1971 traffic data.

Peak hour volumes are difficult to determine because we would have to count
continuously throughout the year to obtain them. Normal highway engineering
practice uses a percentage of the ADT for determining peak hour. This per-
centage is found in Table 3.12, page 40, Highway Capacity Manual, 1965,
Highway Research Board Special Report 87. From this table the percentage is
12% for Lang Drive, and 13.4% for Gorder Road.
Peak Hour Volumes: Lang Drive: 12% x 19,060 2287 vehicles
Gorder Road: 13.4% x 950 = 127 vehicles

3. Need for Lang Drive (STH 35): Lang Drive is a section of STH 35 in the city
of La Crosse that has as its termini La Crosse Street (USH 16) on the south
and St. Andrew Street on the north. It is one of two direct connections
between two urbanized sections of the city of La Crosse, the "North" and "South"
sides. It is, at its southend, an extension of West Avenue and, similarly an
extension of George Street at its northend, all of which, while enjoying different
names, make up STH 35 through most of the city.
Need for Gorder Road: Gorder Road provides a connection to Myrick Park and
another route to the southeast side of La Crosse from Lang Drive. It also pro-
vides a parking area for people who want to enjoy the La Crosse Marsh.

In the future both roads will provide the same services. Lang Drive is proposed
flr reconstruction in the near future which should make this roadway wider and
floodproof; therefore, providing better excess between the north and south sides
of the city.






E-1

The future traffic volumes for Lang Drive as estimated for 1995 by the
La Crosse Area Planning Committee are included.

4. Accident Data: See attached aerial photo for a summary of reportable accidents
on Lang Drive for the years 1968-1976. We have no accident data on Gorder
Road, this could probably be obtained from the City of La Crosse.

5. Structural Conditions of Lang Drive and Gorder Road.

LANG DRIVE:

The existing roadway pavement varies in width from 42 feet at the La Crosse
Street-Lang Drive intersection to an average 30 feet throughout most of its
length. The bituminous surface is patched and irregular over the entire length
of the project with variable shoulder widths throughout, as no specific road-
way width was adhered to during its construction. A 4-foot bituminous side-
walk now exists on the west edge of the roadway, separated from the edge of
the pavement by guard posts spaced 20-feet apart, to which there is attached
a single steel cable. Mercury vapor street lights 400 to 600 feet apart over-
hang the roadway from existing power and light poles that parallel the road-
way and serve to illuminate the roadway during the nighttime hours.

The existing horizontal alignment of Lang Drive (STH 35) is relatively straight
throughout with the exception of the area around the Chicago and Northwestern
Railroad bridge and Monitor Street, where three horizontal curves were utilized
to bypass the railroad structure over the La Crosse River.

The existing roadway profile is relatively flat with the exception of the grade
transition from La Crosse Street to where the highway encounters the marshy
area and begins its way across the wetlands until it connects with the so-called
North Side. The existing facility is about ten feet above the flood plain.

The existing bridge that spans the La Crosse River is a 230-foot timber trestle
structure supported by timber piling and has a 29.5 feet roadway width. There
is a 5-foot wide sidewalk attached to the west side of the structure for cyclists
and pedestrians. The superstructure's load-carrying members and the floor are
in good condition, having been replaced in 1957. The timber piling, however,
have been severely weakened by ice action and fire. Some of them are completely
split, and the fire damaged ones have been reduced to only two-thirds of their
original diameter. The bridge is posted for 12. '-ns

GORDER ROAD:

Gorder Road has a bituminous road mix surface that is heavily patched and
irregular throughout its entire length. Its horizontal and vertical alignment
is straight and level. It has a variable roadway width, with approximately 32
feet of it surfaced.


E-2


*


1975
CITY OF
LA CROSSE
LA CROSSE CO.
APRIL-MAY
AVERAGE WEEKDAY VOLUME


I


m


-- - -.-.- - ' -- - II, 111, I -- -- --- - --~n -~~rr--- ---- - - n lml- i I- - - --- ) i-- - ipipm - o


-----


_ _ __ _ ___ __ ,_ I _ _ -- _ - ---- - - -- I - --


-WgIIIIIIIII analillm WIMPORM Ill-IN- i - ; IN
i mwp;310 a











"ti
, I,


/-


Al;Nr'c1 2,400


INTONT
,C L,4iiN; ST
, !3,400 .


i)


LIJ

CI)
<--
n
o .


Li'
ci
2


i
'i "I/j 1


'i

I I


LA CROSSE AREA TRANSPORTATION STUDY I

' ! D., '" \: ; :-. ':Ft ' ; ,'AFFIC VOL. i..ME.S FOR' 1995


0:
.;
. ( .


,1.^
10,I^
USo


E-2


~i







E-2


HIGHWAY CAPACITY

TABLE 3.12-PERCENTAGE OF AADT IN PEAK HOUR FOR ONE DIRECTION
AND BOTH DIRECTIONS BY PEAK HOUR, 30TH HIGHEST HOUR,
AND 200TH HIGHEST HOUR, BY TYPE OF FACILITY


TYPE OF FACILITY




Rural:
Freeway
Expressway
Highway with more than 2 lanes
2-Lane two-way highway
Urban:
Freeway
Expressway
Street with more than 2 lanes
2-Lane two-way street


PERCENTAGE OF AADT IN PEAK HOURS
_ ONE DIRECTION IQTH..IECTION
ONE DIRECTION BOTH DIRECTIONS


30TH 200TH 30TH 200TH
PEAK HIGHEST HIGHEST PEAK HIGHEST HIGHEST
HOUR HOUR HOUR HOUR HQIRR HOUR
..1- . i "I ,....I


23.6
21.5
21.2

15.0
14.6
13.8


15.4
14.1
13.7

12.7
11.4
11.1


11.4
10.6
10.3


18.3
19.2
16.4
19.7


13.5
12.7
12.7
13.6


10.7 13.6 11,0
8.9 11.6 9.5
9.6 12.0 10.0
- -'ir 10,6


10.9
9.7
9.9
11.2

9.6
8.3
8.7
9.0


_ - I --- -- - -------------






Ir _- ' -E - 1tII- -- OIr-I--ir II--f - .__.


1 ,!..1 !, ! I~ .- ILTwl ..I ori 0 ! o': 0.d, H






Wl | r ^0H 10HCmt-( rn o0 [l (:)I
I _ _ __ JI I I I I M lvld l I " o Ci'lNl V %j r l ollH toH i 1 'I1
I I I~ ri1 1 I
||| I I U. cJl t ll,.i I.,.


__I____ _ _j_ ____ __ _
- --- ___


*-- --" --- ------ - - --- f- --I - I" .I
I I i. Il-II I


-.


__ ! J. I _. ' ... . , :: * o r~ -', D ;i N.....!...i ! I
I! _I . I . X /I Ie , 'ie I_ _ I tI i I I r ,


,,_r, - I I111 ! ,f -.----I
. _. !( 1O 1. 1 I~ 1,, 1 s I!ho m i olmcol orotr 'Lcci I _t,- !
So j 0. 111d 1 1CH r0-[CM oVit 2 CMco\Clco

1C 1111M 1 U!Icr IM I4llYL \>IH rn- i-l
i>lII111 ^^ 11 ! 10!^ !1,lrlif1j I

,,~= O , jooc 0moHoijo.n >jc lc{j ijho
/t --- _IIt. IIoI I. ,N, ,t \
r-4 ,,, !-4 1-4

1. 1IIs I-IIII-tl l4l1 JI \I
|H A I} r4 4
. o-.I iI.I w, I Io I. o'! 1,1 1I ~It-'i'-

0 C'I 0 > - H re j I\ - tl L ! <k l (7 i i {Hr
^~C\OId U% W% t- i-%OCM C- I U|CO rd o !D

I.^j( ~0co !o-o I_ c
I1 -rI. 1I F1II1r4 11 CIn |II1,r H rI |[ 1j.H 4I

-* U5 N co oS 1nl 1 1-t * 0 Cm N r-4 rn 0\ f1 r 0O
!c -t4 'Iv Iq onU.H, I
'S !iivDc oHcI|Io| Iir -i O
cmcmcm cm CCMCM CM- q i^I ^:!rn ( O ;
19' I,1! I. I r- It 1r\ 1 H l l llae oo<cn col t - I cm
3S, cv 11' cs I|111|C^1 ^|nt^ AtI -It
C, . c v OCMCmr C UHIHI enc moJo.lncvlml
,..X..lobl'l ,lI '.!-..ttIII..lt' i!I'}: !,i





-It^^^C- j-4- 00-Krt t-CMCrlnj CMCC-;U.\

LA r % l , C- gn CM * r i, .c . . I
t~jiC l C( CvCC\ cHoC-
ij~j~il rn crIv~ I > ''8l ; ' I

^i f~~~i il^r~~~~~~~n 'Kjin CM0 -- _ | C,.lr C.. in k
^ ^ 1 , _ _____ _ -C J JM CM C\ r- Hjr-~- L~~L~L~~L~L~L~~ r' ->*"' ^Y ' H~I<' ' ' r--( kD . , t
3[,1I^j CM LOL CO {".0{,C0O c-"C"o"C-tlr0. |
1i vIi o 3,, I v
U-% n tn C PI 0 ,, U', l\ to .,



r t1,II.Io.,I1mi ,. ,I*, '.-I1: 11 ~ ,!~ < I io!Iim I cfn 1


-_! ,.(.(.^.,.;,., ,, , ,, tt , ,.. |. |


I


E-2


;II
Of81
Ia!,


I


| t
H \


44
en

0
w
aL


I
I
I

I
I
t
I
i

II


!4-

Ci




IIz


9
^s
oQ


-1


ol
!cn
0
O


L
I


-' -



..

< 1,A




,) l



e.g
-* -*t lX @

l 3


















. j ,.:
Gst ,I .
*t
a* b

BI i~o3
.>Q o


^r
e j^~

s (i ji,


IIII'. i'
%o~u 10 Lr o <d in f~ o& Io.H c- H vt*.i
| , i l o! ol 4 . 4 .I H| ; I..,/
~4i~u\I I!"l IH I!I I I( ; :;!


I


rk \^ enH C^ H[ 0i o o H In[o o o! ! i I


I -n a In I! ,a !! s i Ic-!i I! c I { CO /
H,1r*1HrH. ,< rItI ,.r ,\


I


.14 k0
lr% en
at-


C \rnC> 3HI ol j o ico I| I tI,
coIinH e ,-l\iNo IiI! \.' I
Ir I-4.II1 1
























wfIi




Lii



60
-z E
wk.

~iI
<IW I d
'DIP1 C Ji


0
.w
4
cII
0-1
4A
ws
43


.. -1
.;Vj
C11
0 &~


I I


I


-T-I- t t i. !, t
/ I
ITTiI II


i!__ _. ___ .i

;J !1 1I I II II 1 i I
I I iI I1 1I Ii1 1 i
-liI 11I1i -i I tI II
I


II I


I I


1I 1 lI Ili !I


1


t :D. "enCj tK KILCi % - tIt \0K'IPt-I ri II /
CCCU,tt\enI t tO-iCju~l1 i
IB iI II I


II\^F\ (0 jc\rOO cijw i '0 -O-HIQD rof ! I (
s =,t j _I || {1--r ^i| | cH Hti8j , t
[ ,Si 1 'C^ i ,, 'c' ,.-l -. c , -o1 mi jC C\ | , CY j j ', | , o


,! i I ! I I{ ,1I,.o...i!iI j!e

Ij{ II I I I I"' ml IH.l. o-! i!i cI

} IL1 I I _
1^ / ! jI< Irn I^ ^ !^ Ii r >j< ^ ol( - r \ ro~ pI css i ! 13 1








'I !I!!o - I!1 !
II,, IIiII ij.ii.i tI r) I - j, Iq. j ti
_j H ,,..4 0 O.<*{ ,,..4 ,.--I OJ,-I HO OO H Ot1 CO :j

ii LI I_ i^OrIHI-ljz^i0 OoIoj,! o!loi/o i jJ, I
24[____i ___ ~ ii I--
1jclII I__IIG - ^-I -'' j$ !

co'""' 1 1- ! I -'. '.- '.-!: ...............! t' ,,' !"
. 1 4




Ii |1 _ , I_ ! I ! I ^ ! !ilI ___! L.._._. JI l! jI , t .!
. r.,|! |j'0Cr |_ 0H -j0 |J r-4j| o.,.-' =. ooo -o oio'Q eco

t 1 I >,I:,,i ,t | o I b | 4 $ 0 # t } _ | * & I b I K t nCI o T C , 0 o o 0 t 0 0 C)
I 'J i' II _Li { * _ I t L t l - ', I'c t ,,

I C |j di |0r-4 H00 0


r ! t _ '1 v.1;. ,:i - * -
id. ( 9 $ _ 1, e\1 t I. < c. l {8 I . I : | I N| 1'"! ul ^^ (; \;ts:
II i I I i I i I i Ij lIuo it 8~i ,
V. 0-BfiB INNIr~~I,"1 OOij i i


E-2


I-.I--h~~DU-~~ m-%-V -. Ib# S-. s-- - I-- -


--- r


,. --r--- l-- ,- -. - - I -r~ u Ir- I a - --I-~


IT------- --I II- --- I IIIII.I . I


,_-- I- e -----r-- - -


I


,


i
i


I %1


I


.1


I


I


I


I


I


Im






E-2



m



C5
co \



\ C ITY S
/ QUINCY ST. L.u ./
\ \ \ 2,700 **V /

0,OoOOF Y
-~-^ 0^\ 55 a 4,200
' 10,0 ---- 4,300 4,

0, 700
O/

ONALAS'IA

0O1

TO MINNESOT-A 0 C.TH. /


CITYo 'i / /
~~~~12,~~0 7,900
ro,
CITY

g 0
0 OD 0

CLINTON tSTC ___^ ^ A t
/t
. 13,400 6 OF
% I OF IQ
rr,


0
O ol~~~~~~~~~o
v~~~~~,0 GILT.ST 2 i y i
w0 z,0

00 !
In~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~I
4 0 ~ 1




g 1/ I o c s ! 6/
...!.Eu co o>,e

i, 13-/,<,00 0
-- ^5 ^/A/A/r-c,</ ~~~~~~~Uj 0/Q 0 > __
'o^07 ^
CL to
0no c~j





aC v,~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
US \ ~ 72??^- ^00 ^^ .*
61 N 9 LA CROSS .....







^[^^^'3,500^"^~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~3 9,000 ?~
o


1,,0-'- M'A NST. o ,
\ 1 2100
ius~. 00 1~6.2 LP~ 9,100 ST

\J'""V 16l EL ^ S - \ . t; ,o~ o o
Y~~~ ~~~: ~~ MARKE ST





LO b ^c -,,500 9 w2,,0








,~oo-' " i~
'Xf"'7-tNI
ro ro JACKSOST 0
Lt on r, v
I 0
X 0 19,2 000 25,200~~
0 0u
q ItJ~
REEN BAY S o r ~ r
d o, ~~~4,200 17,400

s oWAD AVE.
9,010,800
6b'0
300/ C0


LA CROSSE AREA TRANSPORTATION STUDY # 4 0

OO0-PROJECTED TRAFFIC VOLUMES FOR 1995 0
-0
toI0











O \ I a"c




C\ :; ^ ^^ Im
Ul \ L1*\
2~3

0 ~



H) 1)O1-

F(%




I~ N
o r ?n 1i
^=1 0 04


S~O Ia //O

a 3~~- a^"cd O N
7~iC1 Q~--




I _


LA CROSSE
CITY POLICE DEPARTMENT
TRAFPIC BUREAU
VEHICLE VOLUME COUNT
GRAPIC SU4MMARY SHEETS


DATED E3- AY ec^ WEATHER TIME6_ TOlTh. O P

INTERSECTION GORDER ROAD AND LANG DRIVE



Ni .




\ / in D H_
'R CO


.J3 t C


















I-m in-ma n








0S3 t ] __ __I
r r l \

^v- V 0 '"
rx), l~A ^0 H
L% f8\<0,n. ^.,n,..,.,...ia^.,,,,.. _____ ^
\o / t0~
^~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~49eursM~~lo ^,r~u41 .L^_^.I~U r1-<-~

^- - ----


%t-gYt~BPLfB6U rPII~~P~~UrPgra B~r -~~r-~~l-- q - ~~UIIZ~()( _C-; ~_AU


c- ~~ Ul~~av~s-gLbP-


sblCrdL


ugHea LLY~ C~- i LY-~ C)--


uar4cs-a-l- ---r--ur-nraL


womtf" n"- .-rafttitlrr M ur i i i i i Y "IT iiiiiii-iiipiixn*ii . ir mjini n1 i <mN







LA CROSSE
CITY POLICE DEPARTMENT
TRAFFIC BUREAU
VEHICLE VOLUME COUNT
GRAPHIC SUMMAiY SHEETS


3- 4-76 Thursday Snowing 6:00 AM TO.2:00 Pi4
DATE _-1-76Y DAYiednesdEATHER Clear TIME 2:00 PQ, TO 10: 00 PM1
_ ~ ~ ~ ~~ tu= a _


INTERSECTION


LA CROSSE STREET


I


P3
H
;M
P
o


Hr

PI
tL-4


U^N
>r
1ic\


AND LANG DRIVE-WEST AVENUE


PED
24

CO
0
g


I
NJ
0

Y
g
0

T


E-2


-- --rrii--i*<r~ -iiiiniLriii mi -ruYbIIdIiiirinii- 0niV


-L"r I ---AICIUlllk-H -LCUB -LQ1L--


---- - --- - --- - - -- - -- -ofts- a


-- --"P---`- IPQC. -


Il~~4 -- --~--~- ~ ~ --UI~~


`----- I---


~~~~~~-- ----ls-ru 1-


hoolov"Wo""4*


-,Ipg~~~ ao "'""""te-Y~.mfI.- ,I*lllklIftQ


C~~s-'~-~srrw-, -~~u~-rrrul--v--~~~-~~--V ---~~ IL)~CIQ


w- LILU--- N 0 WA 0 8 --arr~.re--r~*l-- --- -r-r- lawaom-a-waII~flll~


I


I


I


I


I


I


PAN. Oft motiftor I~-l~a~r~lrJs- ~ -l*sDI~MILIL qC~;Ql~a(


N


39103~


3388










LA CROSST'
CITY POLICE D::EPARTMi'14ENT
ThAIFF C BURIF U
VEHICLE;' VOtLUT1TE COUiIT
GRAPHIC SUIT'IAJRY SiEEITS


DATE I / 25 / 78 DAY WEDS. WEATHMER TITE 6 A.M. TO I O P M
A T L &Y S._[~~ r - ~TI I TO 10 PM,_ _

INTERSECTION LANG DRIVE AWD MONITOR STREET















.. r -_--. .
CDP
















_ !i 74_]____ __--- ___*n_,,
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~Is1asWX~ot~~ _W__ S_[_L<~.,;~


Ih1172


__r ^_ _v_
d4--

_ .__- _._

,ko-_ _- - -


L

1_

(J


I r :. 4,~'T
~ r~-- *" Y ,~l~trP "IDCrar
0 V4.o.-.


'c. ftn" OMpeSONLYW APN'~mk. Wr.
.i


~~r*(LYI~IIIII*(~~~Y(~t0~0~C.~~ Q~tr~ll ~ ~ \*PII~~r~~b~ C~mO*WI.~~Wh~FCI T~-


- -j i..C.....


_ _0 ** _ 9_f ^_ a


~ ~ [[wur -- -II


---I---I- I --I~' --I-~lld~* LCCWrrI


~L: ---- -~- ---____ICU~r\~eI~U IIIWI~YY


*a.r--1o ,--- L-640aft- -Y I--IWW


ICFIQIU~-~-Y' -I<w


rC" --- wI-~Urr -- *-rIr~~~c- 4~~


-toot -,-O - - - - *W^uPrr llYrU*)a l I~*Y 1I y^I~Yw wuI9Ydflt .. wo p . 1CI" I~C~)~A11+PD Y~lLI ~


rlacy

i r







-J

0


w


z

000000000000


000000000000


0 00000000 0000
O OOOO O O OO 0 0 0 0 0
VO OO O


z


0


000 000 00000


___________________I1= I--I-- - -I ti11 i I


0,
0
cH
i-H


7


7


Co
-4

0
I


-J
-J


0
t-o
to


CNi
to


10


r-I
H


\0
r-I
0
r-H


to
10


-t-
H


r:-
I\
i-A
r-i


X


3: (nm C~l \1toNs--tCN N010V1
W]4~~~m ~~OC c 4 4 ]O0 I liiI I 44
- V~-~- -V-4 -Y -.--. -


Z
z


~-(n m\,OON(01--I OG\LI-
N 0C(N\OONO0 C>- I\ CI- (lr\ rNH
toON 3 -1>[-ElONtoON C rlN H
H- H H


m
-,I
C\l
(-i
H(


W


I T
_F _, _ . __ __ , o__..

LL- -"
-J

r~o" 04q '0" d" toLr-\00

o o'"' o-I H H N \" 'C -0t N m


I, M 0 000000000000 0

LiX..__ o < < < n < 9 < 1 o<--o


I Lr\\ C0, -I C\2r--C0C\ rCl 1C\--

- I ' ,. ,, O, O CY, m -co Nr-\
, lOO u r-ILC l -.- ,0 ) ol



D C c-I ,--I \^r- I,--\ r-co\ L,\C C0 O HC'o
OOtO\H \O C(Nto('
MM M M \ N\O\\ L


::\ -,4- "1o:', "--,...-.., - -- - - - - - - - -.- -,,,- - - - - - ,-\0 , , ,,
000000000000 0






0 , i m .N..NH.0 \O 0 0
2 O --OiOr- - DO -d' C' O0


o < oto\OHONtoIC\-' t LLC\O-tC\
Or c LC'\a~^ s-c -tN( C Ctr\
z: \O




o ZM^ OZW rOO(D ~za
-J r i-IC? MCV CM-0 CC^ 0




L~ ddti <<<<<<<< a: a. aa. aC... a .

zCOH l-S iO(o oO- NI Itr-I O2z-I 00 0"- -Oi
O~~~~~~~~~~~r- o~~-I-I ~c ,,o ' -1.e. cO


E-2


C(
z

UJ
cn
LuJ
Co
w


z


Z C


(n
W
CZ
z(1

LLJ *-H
w-I
W

31 Co
(n tf

l3
O G-I


rt
d



F-O
0
C-13


E



W)

nJ


m-
bJ
z

w
o
wJ
_J
9 CO


> 0


0
dFl:


(N
1-


\,0


z


E7
Q-






a:
LC
Lu
01

C
ct


z
ui
z
0
o
(n)

ol.
0
z
0
U)

o- o
- I

( I I

I
M i

< M:
, 0
</ U. L


1
*H



I
I

OJ

I
a I

0

z
0
I
_1l


Cd
H
co




a

4
a


1
I
w
!r


....... .. I7 .. I. .. I. .


r-I


I







I-I,

0

H
w.


(n)

z
I
e--

i :3:


z


r-I


CN


N^


_ _ _ _ _ _ _---I -H - - 4 - i -i --- i- -- 4-__ _ _ 1 -1 -
I I III I I I I I I I I I I # I ,-N


-
-4


0 -4 r-Ln -
0n u_ 0 '--4 0
m m o0' 0 00
-4i


CO,-t.-.

,-4 C
N -ci r>
a' '.- C


t -- r-n o
cN rN- n <-
- r-_ r-r--


fnCD O
0 oTO00


'\
I


c
co


X


- T11 1 t11IN t I'1t\ ht r \ e c1o 0

3:C14r-tc n= %. C IJv--4t4 O0)N-'.0 WW r- 1 0 r-

.l I i --- I I r I


CO
. I
z


0 00 -0
0 CN 00
r--


N C Cr

00O 0


NDN-a 00r. N
C -lc<Cr'
-4--4 i -,I -(


I-0INk
c-'co r^


7 11 01 III c '~ ~4~t LnO N -4 -4 Ln-4 cc, c4 o i cT O
cc1,cc'ccc'14 cc0: 0 0 i N I C K 1
L1 ri ~--( ~ 77'-T-

o ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ I I I

4-j~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~-


LL

cnce) Z;f"I- C).cqCc)




0 0 r-%








:DL
H







o T0





cr
H I













tzLL
cc0~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~C _ Ic)m1- 0Cl-- nC)0

ri CIA("- i C' clj U)c 1 1 ~
0 0 tO) r-07 0 00'0l-Zt L 0C
H r-to - N ) N i-.4N C










0tOn 00L 0 -1V ti n<oo m -, cO~
~3 t0? cc'0?cc-~-~t- 030g '.- 0nf 0cc'

o~~~~~ ~ cK-i oH I 1 I I I I I I I I I l

NTNO N\ 070 0n0 0-10-ci0 '. C- -ci-

0; ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ -:
O03cO ~~-~~~03 dCG ~~C( C? C1 (--C"
xI~ 7h t ~ V n~ fOC !h


(r "1 cq t-t---IC D-I lz' -tC Z CI ilri.'L'tZ
z C 01 Ln (-)~ -I-z t n-r Lr I'Dmi m Cl - r-" \
o -11


-ri


I
ITd


t<

I
1

2j


<.
44-


* t
r )


I)

I:
1r

<
I


i

I)

LO


0 '.0 c 0
C'r -- t
i-


-a: O.-


I

I-


I


I
I




0


-,--1 (CO\.CC.O -) -tL0 ,- C
\.D.0 Dr-- 0.C %ocr-4-."tC-^, -t
C'C- m -- -<t-.r--. uNLUl , -t' ')


I

0


o
0
0
z


4


0-


I
C)


II I
"I. 1 :3
CL,(,
I 1


C.'

I)

ci I


2
--
t4

Q:
(4
I C
I

Lo


0-
i-


C.
(D


a:
0)

I

L
a;


W 0
C-' crl
I LL -

c-c




CLC
cl, I

0 H-

< ~-I C'

tQ


I









CII c I1 .
I II :

C -L I = C'


LoI
.m-.


I

0
I-


_J

0
c-


f-
cc

LL
CL
ci

Li


C)
-J

0
H


z C

C,
a ~w











:D
co
2 co







V)
<
LIJ



0 ~
>:
c -k




CL

D>C CI)




W W

a l


LL











z





LL
0
z

;F
TCD

)- 0
(-I

- -

LO1

Ul)LL.


C'-


C-

ir
c
0:


("
C)


G,

a4
I-C
FJ


C)






Ci
C11

a'.-
1--

I--I



IC
C




llj
I)-


1 I


I--1

0,
r- .
Ic ,

r-)
--4
I Ii
1 ;


rr


I_ I I I


... !... I , I I I_


r t- i -iI i i - i I -


W


i I i I . t ; - ? :


/".I I I I I I


\
r-: 1


T-


I
-4

4


11









- ~-, ,, ,--- -- ; ---t rv I I I I I


[ nN --" ~ C. ~ ~r i








o"^ri lo}a o 0 iC\o (k or ~i Nt ri i
__I



ai11111111111 1111 1 ; III I iiii I

--t r r4._ .....................i........_ 1* >

L^====. == ...... --) I:

'f3--- I;_ -,.-L __illlU~UUIIIIIIIL~*_.._ _ __J _


I v ----I


1_r__ I


I


7/ ) mjfr ' con 1< 1-I lbr ic' 1 1x) C- G c>3l alo 1- L m~ciHq o ,n oireo !
' 4 1,JlCi 'r Ir |(|C\J I. o" !J| (l|C) | li !Lri _
,.o~~~~~~o ~ ~; ~.? ,~,~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~-


t11I 1 1 1 1
. ... . I .
I I f I - - ______ _- ----I I II I i
I!. IL I- _II I_ _IIII


I-(t --- --I--- -._.-- ... -------


__ - ~_ _ _~ __ _ _ _ _ ~___ ~ _


rl- w


'I... .


I


I- III;.;I -,
L


___


;_


rdi ~i ~' ~i ! I I~1~1 ~'1 '~' ~'1 ~! ~1" 1 -r
Ip Lt\ i eP | w I rnD CO H tI c o I X) I I - I ot I0 O I ' . rn | i jLfiN I (C I
^ O~- i H M H c+ o in i\ C ^ c^ 58 O' HY c n rn 4 e~n-jt o ,(o [ o U Nin, I
f^ rJ t __ __ __ __ __ __ H __ __ __ __ __ __rl- HrH |r Ar !
0: !_111I1Ir-I c0 lnC1 0ll 0 t I7 -c01 CtjI tt I Oj Ln(It i c ,,'\
rr) \c0 <^ ^ H '-*o I-- Li^ en ~ o" oo OJ^ rn ^o I o(T in 0) j jy r"iI
ry ) 'o ca H H
i{nl__


E-2


,\/
'A/
'/\;


I


W .


I

i


I fG, k- .c~
S (





~d a,'!.






~,,.J .e _
Ca>










_I
->~
: n <: Cu








C, r 1
Ci,, GJAd

i: 1 ul
*CQ<-*









- , }

Z '
IV)











-.1
'.00-P~L



:iiL, G


9^~ i L'

!^J^ '
h 1;^ 1'
u",; J < >

i^ Ba

>i


q

?-
r-:

I-T-


0
^R


r z 1C' c

V~.:Jux t'--) cOl
, r-::::l
i Fr- d : __ - ^ _ _ _
1C , r -'., -
( !^^ >' '^-
,:1,..' I : 1 , 1 :

:', ' b '". ! :,'; ' ud ' l '\\l
[. . '; F1";'* '< * / '- , >-1 .
^^r^',''. I' I "J
U' 7*^'s!. -..',,-." '<
L L1~ Li i i
t,-


,Ian"' i ; I


l l / l l l l


o - o ! DO
rt-! ! t | I

i"-1 I oo-
?,!-, ,
iInI |
eI -


1-1 r

:'%g EfL/


I

Ir


I - f -


( 0.

, - ' ri ) r( r.( -4 r;-|. i


CM
H


,_-_o ,-Jn L.~,J ,o- d ! - !
__". ,. -. I.., . '


,,.., _ -, .. ....................
f) | |-t o i I | | n 0 H .i r^ IC r Lin I


(Cd0corqin H,
~t 99I C!J
E-reH
L^r


rvh[, kD
\" x)
fu toi


cN c\i C\i


I0rvlI 0T0
r^. rl-i - ^-,4

I
I~


(^c-0 o-iina.L*-oC m
a\i ' r- ',) t / - - ,l c, A d o

!* _t i - ,
!' ! !'


I I
c~j


o! oi


H rI) QN
rH1 I


0 t- l 0 (\I mi C ,M t-
H CJ <0 Hc cI - ^0
. -4


0'I l o tri
O -4 1i


ore| C\jjI L: !I{ HI -)!i t d' rn I
.-A-I-1 I -- .


H
.- . I -..-
!r I :



r .
(1 |rf
-- -_.


-! -i-I I.! i ' |
,'t ',i ~o : ! ~ i n , 1 ,i ,'"q1; tr' 0" ,- " .o
i~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ l
J~: t 'f I 1:' l

_'U ''i<'L,i NI }_,.,I ,.I ,' ',i.,,( ,.,^-- I'''|I
I ,' - i-:!,, :,, :. '..:*: L, .
, --' (r . | '.,.4 |
t~~,i 4) 1~tVI,. C- , ~.
r~~~~~~1 I!I r' ,. ,. I i .
...., ,.f , ,,::
~)JI


r-4
c) tO!0


%n
f}

. /
r
L__


t -"I





:.
- '
#J
* In


L L

[^ 1 ,1 -o | o1oj. [ o |.Jojoo; c o' o;ir. c/,





| ! 1tf-) 1 rl1_X1 l _~~~) I
a i!' 0 0I ol oloCc 0o loloooj olo ! o ! o[ o|Ioj
*~~ *11 1 '1 Iooooolll|9~; ~j~ ol o ojo ' 1_o! 1
II il 00]^c l o jo jojooo0jol3101o oCo o| ! o

_ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~.. ,... .. . ... " . .. ........ ................ .... ...
^ ^.-- ..-r-^ ^li 10 H |[:-. c-) ^ -,jc-.-. [-^^IsC) r-A r (-.n) 1 7) ^i ^
- = J F 'l g ii O ' '_ j ('-)-- - < _- ' (.i -^-- I I. -it -|f lCr } ,5' ~^ --.- ^ ^-- - rl r-

, ' t r4-^|! t^j DI'r'A^ -I^ iLll ' <'\l L J ! c !! ^ ! 1
//, s.,.,, tfi _ - ] _; I r_ * I I ' I i ;Y~

St jI1 o 1"H !I' r' l^-- t^l 0" llj-i, jM; !! |^ 1o r l



>-0 h!>_ _1 ! ]>., ^ y ! i j 1 i
*~~~~{ * i^IN or i\U_.lj'1i I

^^ ~ ~ ~~~~~~~~- 2 | ' j| j____ __ __h O '! - '<\ xI , '-ji .t- tolj-i :ix;ni! j_^^ | l X
f1 _ g~~~~~~Lri err ; ,Icr

(LryD,<'=lr jl~~~lilf-l rl-Jz^'>l'7,--.'<j.-F.--Co ,--l-






II j(/IC lI~~i ^ ii^>i^l<';:-^^^H"-1'' St;
|1! i> llt | n | Z j|Z || |!? !.r = ;n




r "J| I !J , " *i 1"1* " w-...i l '! ". "! ; ".i.7 s | I


La" -; I " ';1 ,* "|*; '. ** *.* ,. ' '.. ' ^
,,;1o s1i** -.',," * -)!-". , ,. *.i. i*" ;* i> i I 'wf t, .^o ' '
[> @ i ;t. t ' r ; ^ -U-- . -I..-.,-- . .-....- j .; .d--- .. ; . ._- . .....-.-.... -I..^ i...
VI
|| ~ ^; ! ^i -Ii *' ;!:^^*!'~~';,||.* ! ;
'*u5 ! , *'1i1.1j.* Ij-i ' j Iri < eC, 9 1= | z; S K;i(' 2
':'i' *,'ir J,i |I,,i,ji!Ji',i i! iI,1i;*i.:,| ,
t I~~~~~~~~~~~~~0I

1 1 i*.,! *'. ,'* * ,'* '"; '- ** ! *<0!- * Qo! i =' *-, i^ '<f , t S NO4.<^*>=] :
it~~~~~l ! o~~~~0 t
i ;I.1 r O:of~~~7Z N'VC~I U
ceZ i i iE
I)~~I ~~ i IgI sEi ~~~1 ~I rI$ibo.'a;ELa~~A















'-i l ~IC t- ~, C~tr o olCC~':4C 1
>Jll I I0 ^~~~~~~~~~~~o -, r.., or- , .< i io.cJ 0| M loS ; |

0 I( i IoI oi|I'""


v -
WL

t~
U I


^i[Qj~~~ r^ 1^ I OJ' C~f~rn C pJ~ r, :
C~~~~~L~~~t-YfT~~~~~~~~-Rt~~~~7-lc~~~ ~ I
Li~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
j|-1^01^,n HC\^,Hr-{ [0.0Ht^)C.)0| CC) c

i~~d- t:: ,,, ;i ^~.,I " O " " ,:*, ' ,.- ; i ( ,.I


!`I I.1I ?\ r- i'Cl n
^ I''"'-, 'T 7, iiIj!'^ ^ l

;,,J lY ~' r - ' ,` (^ 0 (i:.Sl ;f:',( \ C, ' , I :' c 0 . i.r' (-..'1 j ^I
r-~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ rV--!








(jD'ii ; r rr" ^ ~'irnr,-ri 1. ti i I
,jf.' '. i. --- i-~--c^*-T'u- T~"l-c-----);- i' *~~ C~C-* *o i-\I-.;oi *^--t- i -!!m l
i
^ 3[ *! '' ^. /i

Q~~~~~~~jjl~ ~ ~ ~~ ~~~, ,- ! , ^r ri 1.;. .t-.;- | ""[* 'l~~i-" r; I j N


t-I .^'- - i i, o 'Tr'T ^ ^^.\ _^!

I ..Y , j I'C | ll- ' |" j 1 3'* ~| -)!* iM ^ ^^Iv

*rtel~ ~ ~ ~~ ~~~~~~k ~ r" 'h^ 1 "..T ! r^;^ '- * i ***- o "- I' t: i\ I -,
^ I,_ i i . -,j - - - . , '( ,"',i c'i i^ :-^ ,' :. ;o '0'i ::;'~ . ;, -l ,'"





0'!~ jf ! ?T' ^..i J- ; 1^!r I'I t'r
),-. j-- --'.(I ] ..>.......-i*..,." - - "";- --,--..... I j


~ if Y T ~~ 4 ~" c^ ',... *io" ::v ::,-o',", '..c^ i ~. ;.:) ,ci t l -


'~,kl,.-. "' 'r i I I ' . . I ~ , ' *'- :!' ,'" i<': c," ; . . . . D '-.' :,- r- (-1 ' I."'/'; **i I i^ ;
['f~,-"i. 1-I.II. 1 ' -.' ' " '
~!= ; I~)







-3;^;~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~~ :i i ' , ,, . .... .r ' '! L !-'3. L-"', ^J '





|^|;,,j| j i *~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~x - : 'x r'~ I',:, I- t*I. 'i ^ i.C," ,i-.. ; !.i ;': ;
'=.,' ....... ; i ' ''
i, I ~.i
,':j . , "'rV ~,ri ;-",I ~' ;.C:i'5
*~l '*;/.'...'*;-,I,*>!*.'..;sIi ^ !<&O ^ !0 !^ ' 2 ! -!^ ' ^ ;^ "^ 1^ :^.^^ '0.= '

r ''21C :! (."`I;?r-"' '..i '',C
i - ,... . ....

!~:I : II~..1'~.~- ' ~,' -'I. I. ,.~,~,1' ~, ''l. ,I.-,"

,~,",',I~II I I, ,,:I ,,:.ii,:',:....,......',....,,.~

:..~I~~~~~~~~ ~ ~: . II I I I' I : I'': '\' :-'f ''
'r y~ i . ' '_ m ' ";r cuyc'~, ' '. ' ~ - I- "' . ," 'l---r ',r ' i---r ("'r '- ' " "' 'I -u ~ ur- 'r " '-'
I ,.'' , I !!I - ~ I ~.. I
C,~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ !; '.''.' ''g)
' ~..,.... t rc-i I,''.-w. -.- I--I- .~-~-r-- -C*--C-~ ,,.~~'-

,f. 'I .- ' , ~ : i ,' 1'

).:! I I"" ', '~ ' ......
;: .... c
"l"' :'";.'-r~. " - ', . .....~. '-- ','' : ,::. ' : .: -I----- -' '--~CL~
I ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ , ~~
d~~~~~~~~~~~. . I
.'; ~ - ' ~
Yi~~~~~~~~~~~,.- ~"',~','_~ ,I v.
':u.~r~..c- ~.. N~~- - rru- ~ ~ rC - ..... .~ -L-L~-- C ....... ,,o ... ~) ~,,;~ -.----- z - ~ :~ .~, -.~ ,.o-t...~o
I1 I I .-.I (r ~ ~ ~ ~,Z. -


|"

i I-r

iii;i
.^ u^i

n; :

to^ -
jE ^ -^ <
' ^ 9
+-4 *44; ^


c:--1

c-0 I

155,
< ,.,!


:.i
I,1
5! ^


.J

LI)
W

,:i
J 3

;jL

.iL.,


I iir':




I :
, i~., ;I

! 'i

', , 4 :t '

<EI

~; !^;i:


,:

I')
C.)

i i
I .
0)

( I
ri;
I


...................... '-'-T '- .... .......f [* ," *.....--'f-r "r r-;*- ^....
>. r \ I si^(' i: ,/

]~r-tr-i~}.. ... t. r),rq, -I. i
0 1oj,, ^i r- {1--.'\,1... '..' t,-- i' y-t1'1-I.. , , 0 o 0!-... .

****r 0 L- f\'*.;* I .C.; r.-i H J n]i ^ lr ^Vrl ag1r(1 * l ^
"! !'H i^~.Ii i


i . ........

J L--T.....JJ.-,

I. I'J
''i ^ -i




i-n ~ ~ ...t.. _ .......... , , . .._.-__t,,_ ._l l. ,, . .._,. .., ~ , , _ _ ,

I A;T _jiI IL1z 1
,.,I.I.. . -t-'___ ,..__.._..... _.,_...........





- s >--. .... i '" I!!H~t'J! 'iM i!'!l
~ i CN[JC j iIr r
.. s.,__,. _j



*~~ ~~... i i| '-^"^'^a^^^^^^-i|t^"

Irt;'t1 1 <aI= I!! I - -- IIj ^ ,111jjI|: Irr-
'& j ^ |,__ U.:...__ ^ ll ^ i^M
.s *iS r- ^i 4--- ! "'- '....rr -11" o i il
_|.I^^.i..^ 'I'T.' .._ , _C.
~i--'I11 Ji!! r I! !.! i1




.x ~ :'~ -'. '--~' '1 ~'" *___ ^. -^*^-..,L ^,.^' __'I!," I I

_ _ 5 J '5l i ^ I | CVJ H|<0 'i v!)1t-t^11 O.,'1|5E1 -)isoll|r i^]0^ !on j olt-!9CL ^ j j N| -
> I <1^ < ! ! 1 1 'M I' I''I- 4-* ! 'n1 V' I 'ol--! l;'! 4jc j1 1, ! | ! J i
, 1d I ;, ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~-F v- o o ,_- ,.o ...





^Iil ^ i^^--'~^_<*r-^ l*;:r^ tI.,
' '"- I 1 1 ~t ! ' 1 ! ! I I r-.l r-.~ t'!!c!~r tit=l--- -. !x. ,11 I ! " 1









I ? or-~t-%w .L-X-J-v>- . . _ __,,_ '^ rr^"
~l ~~llt I I i!i i oo ,- ~. ,i s|..i.4-, !ooioo jol 1!i i










"' ii :i i ,'" -F-x- i- ' ........i 1--," .... . . ..... -i i -" i:-" -'t*- -j i f ^ . - "; i
~-,~ V l ,W i I Ia~r I < 1 l ' 1 t I ' 0 '-l - - 'i ( ' )-4 CM i t--: 2-g, f - .d I l~l j! ,l ll'-A! ,3: --r, ) I C o .I C

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~C1
a, | f,) Li iI vM ] t>S | (M~~~~~~~~I


I,0}1 4Rrl)()(<tjd I-rll HiriCl! ,1 1 i 8

- >>M Wl|11 1 1 r r Jl |f; : C1(\J
_,_. J ii I
Cri -, Lz 1gl~l 1_ l ] _ ] 1 0_--'!<') >~ tX~l'z'll'tflsf!' '1t21r A
_: ~~~~,,, ! u - -t*_v- ~t ls ,__vt ~ ]



't, r~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~) 044, 0 -

<1 , ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ij i ' '
>} ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ : I 5'14 ir! I) I, ID|u;O

.j t f -.. |j ; f i : ~ (' ' : \ x

it-i.. -.+ - t -F. I0 ,S.i.+ ,,. .,- .'......................................,. _ *, I. I ! . It,!. !
,,Z, I EvltF 1l~l' !.' ,, ,I l .. .. ..!. A. .' ,.,4 , , '.1.'.t.' ..'.'.'.' ',''7 _ ' ':} '' 'i'...

r~~ ~ ~~... ~ :** i IItI I t !~II | i 'I: I |~~,I, i

,~~~~~~~~. i ~.-,, ' ' ' j I [ I I i ~ t l -, '->-l-,l t


: i ( 
r di id d idlS f w .
''
, ( 8 o
(/j I ;I i I
(:I I r. , F Q i LI; 2 IJf I: 9iet rC;s Oj rjdSD S :
r.
r t r
dL d it a'( ai a.
rfll h e. : .g . 9:
 .. I r,l I O
i i
Cj 8
il i.: ,, lo tOi.O;q I pCr nip -  oo
















;i~~~~~~~~~~~i
I^... *'!! t Ima i '









I|;'1)III|I11,~~~1I jV4Et 1 ZI jq1l 1, 1
(! I^ 4/11f( OSI1 ^TCN C\>(^0 \0 ,r-| i/ 1 1 1 t
<! * t - |II<X3 0<0 | r^ l f ^ ON~ t!I-A
:i.... , _....-4 _. !.__I __I_....L-'-4^^' '*"J.','"**........ ,..._















i~~~~~~N
^ \ \' \111 ^U M ^ j-C -jOIl<lQ <?0 | 0O lS ~ i ~ i ' 11 1 ''!' t
^_.~. _ - -^.- _-. *w_ _.. ........!.

















zin~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
21111] 1 t1 ~1]11 , :ll1 , 1



'"i II i>1^n <~ ^ -'t w ! ^ t ^
iI1;1* * 1i,1 II I !, ,11!1
- - Iv-- - i-f_' I ~ __+ I



V| I i.S 1 1 m 0^ <> ^ i 1 XlCsl [ ;4 cs( ti Os > <t1|tQl 0 i j i !\E
I oilI! I I I.mll~llllllNllt~I ! ,4





1S811{1 ?! i I I Cqe\ ^ U<i0 l>]t>-l^ & QQ <^|lx ' ' !< 1 | l
:'"':' 'I,..-W,, I..~.....,_.....,.,S _ _. , , T

| _1 D|.j,'f4||_ _ ||j ft1f _|:,ii',. _.,.1 ,


^l f1 | | 1|w 4i0^i61r l ^ 0t1^4^ -4|\n'^U!<imilo f.4, -


j_ S S _ _ _. , @ _ _. ^s ^q, w___, _.-. +_.-.. __.- _ *_'.-* V j'' 0 ^'' !0 ^g s1|- I * 'I0 1 ] ii1 ' <*i ' -Ij! i* i

il oi l ! -*I0t ^1 I1tIi^ ^ s [t 1 4!i^ !i^ !
i l lj j~III! ii 1iIi!;I! i 1
I ii...i~ ,. .,, - t.. ,..-,.,^,--.. ~^.,~ i! i ,..^i. I




TIN QQ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

.~j',*. - I ,II I 'i"" ' I j
a1--I , i"~ j. .-i,

ISi jII o ^^ ^^ ^^ ^Yrl ^! <^li ^! ^l 's,
5... f".-"----*-7*-" ^^ p r ^i ^ <...................






Q'- - i i ^'i \Wi 0^ k ^1 +i t^ 8 i x j 0sp' p<! NS^! 'S

i J,1-^ ; ;Ii !| j| A|N,_,! \SA1^ ^ ^i 1 b1Is s,54 , tj: ";4 ;vi^

i d,.iii (|^ >W; >t>4Qi^,^- l^| tX>Q $r 8 ;,'S
| ! ', ,,!II ,jIvt7imi ^1^| 1^"| <t|!9 A 1 t1t , 1 ^ !I!az.
j. ^ ".......i'...."* ' " ". i..i.„......,....,. _.......„...>....,...„.-._.-.............................'"........"..-., -.'*;c i

i i31 -!"""!'""' J'"~i T "E~~~~~~~~i "Tc^!t~~~iM ^!^ ^i~~~j~ i^ ;^ i<^i~~~i<^i^ Q; : ;tQ^>{~~~~

I' *: 'I1s i iI' N^!i :^.s I^ u,^! 1 '- ' !


! I| l I I I . ii .

r T|1:;a':C:-;: iililX E $ ' 0j iw zi v c
i~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
i ,~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

li .,. ;; :' i..- ;.! !** - ^ ai S ; ^ ' j. 1^ ir v ^ ,P i^ ^ :2
, ,i: ' i : 'il ;.. ' < a
- i . w , ! 4 9 | > 9, Cab ! ' , 2 l . i t + ! A 4 ' > Aft >
'***~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ^1'-:- ^^'...:-ui~"^^ig~i'j^'
; .. "* .../. .... i .... -*! |r-< |^ ~ . .;.S '-'i '~ ^ j *<o r!" .<"' ~ ^""'
..,1I
,, i i 1 IdiIf 6 ,i '
i~~~~~~~~~~ g '~~,~. ,,.


.,r r -,nr- ^c~:~.~..-r
lid

t '



/') ':.
LIJ




*_*W^*r




~,,..c.
, I








":'
' - -.. .
J ,.. I



I. ,I





/'.i-,' j
<:>1







T"7'7' -
rt. j4.

i; i

.c- 1L
C.'.lIPSt_







i^!li ;
'! ! i -' " '


















:,''. i
i
j.. r.,.. ,
J 1

v -- il

r;


|; ,! $ i'


rj1 I :1

1t ie Ies
i ! In

.; ,,..
: I
, ,,
,4!'' ! .





t. Ir )r - -4 'p4V:

cs~l~- ~ 3

6$gQ (~* ;>
:~3~--, ?
~~~~~r~~
rZ pAi
~~~~~~~~~~~~-


) ( :~s~
~~~~ (%I~ ~ i


ft~ pr


' kj',' F

I, *


ir~ 5~$k V







4:
I-P ~a~- Y










/ 4

0z~
'I'u

1-c~ I~l
0a
LUZCr


(J,
*^,,
Jas
ADZ


k


I I I ~ ~ ~ ~ K L L 1~~~ 0 Y
LI---i 1~ c~~
VFTFVINO

L L~ i~ L L 22J


0c0
'4~~~~~~~w
0









ce, ki









-J C


F.
,.7


E-2

. O./ - a


U-)~~~~~~Y

r d~~~~~~~~~~~~r





0 (n - 0 O

LLJ

o (D~ n c




C~~~~~ ~~~~~O~T



) i


-I)
LO
L (;OjJ

rcr O
DC


K.

'r
IC
r:~C
, ,e
,c 0

.tV`


I;


. I
I,1


his


s

u)
i


I









APPENDIX F: BACKGROUND INFORMATION ON ALTERNATE SITES

F-1 Environmentalist group letter and maps re opposition to Lang Drive
project; 3/25/76
F-2 Rice memo re de-watering costs: 5/15/78
F-3 Burns memo re shuttle bus information: 5/26/78
F-4 Rice memo and maps re necessary data on alternatives: 6/5/78
F-5 Gresens memo re alternatives data requested: 6/7/78
F-6 Follow-up information re shuttle bus option: 6/7/78
F-7 Flanagan letter re alternate site H: 6/14/78
F-8 Chart re student traffic estimates in north campus area



215 South 26th Street
La Crosse, Wisc 54601
March 25, 1976

Mr. I. C. Herried, P.E. F-
Chief of Fa-cilities Development
Wisconsin Division of Highways
4802 Sheboygan Avenue
Madison, Wisconsin 53702

RE: Project M4202 ( )
Project I.D. 5221-1-00
Lang Drive, City of La Crosse
S.T.H. 35
La Crosse County

Dear Mr. Hierried,

The Final Environmental Impact Statement of the Lang Drive
Project will include a recommendation on the source of fill for the road.
Prime consideration is now being given to the dredging of a lake north of
Mvrick Park to provide fill for both the Lang Drive Project and the filling
of the University of W;isconsin-La Crosse marsh property south of Gorder Road.

We are totally opposed to this proposed dredge site. Diking off
the lake from the remainder of the.marsh would destroy acres of floodwater-
storage. The creation of a deep lake would eliminate habitat for fish
spawning and. waterfswl feeding. The removal of the diversity of trees and
shrubs would reduce the varietv of song birds. The destruction of existing
habitat and the creation of an artificial lake would render the area nearly
useless as a nature study site. Moreover, the dredging process tself
would resusrend pesticides and rathogens from the bottom sediments into the
water to be taken up and concentrated by f sh and other aquatic organisms.
Introduction of these -pollutants raises serious question as to the suitability
*of this lake for swimming and boating.

Earlier support for a dredged lake in the marsh came at a time
when other locations were being considered and when the design did not remove
its floodwater storage function.

In order of priority, our recommendations for sources of fill
for the Lang Drive Project are as follows:

(1) The most preferred choice of fill is dredge spoil from
the Mississippi River. Such material could be transported by barge and
stockpiled at Isle La Plume for later hauling to the Lang Drive site. Such
use of this waste material could be explored with the U.S. Armv Corps of
Engineers through the Great River Environmental Action Team, with costs
borne jointly by the Corps and by the Department of Transportation.

(2) If such arrangements cannot be negotiated, the trucking of
fill from other sources is the second choice.


(3) If river dredge material is not available and other sources
are prohibitive! r expensive, cautiousjionsideration of a dredged lake could
be given. While the area has value as a wetland for esthetics, for wildlife,
and for floodwater storage, the university marsh area south of Gorder Road
Cr O _p_................. m_ ...........'1 --C ,~ md I




has already been disturbed by human activity. A lake on that site would do
less damage than would -a lake on any other site in the marsh .

(4) If such a lake must be dredged but cannot be located on
university property, we would suggest a site north of Gorder Road and east
of Lang Drive. While of great value for fish spawning, this area has the
least habitat diverist-r. Such a lake, or preferabl, a series of ponds,
should be constructed so as to provide maximum waterfowl habitat and should
have no diking so that floodwater storage will not be impeded.

Again, the proposed dredged lake site north of Myrick Park is
unacceptable.

The membership of each of the undersigned local environmental
organizations concurs with these recommendations, and we ask for your con-
sideration of our views in preparing the Final Environmental Impact Statement.

Sinc ere lv, /1

Sandra Fletcher, for the
RABBIT (River and Bluffs Bicentennial
Intracitv Trail) Committee
/ ,~ ' -.'

arba rank, Chairperson
Citizens Committee for Environmental
Education ,

/ //.c; ':- o_
-/taro d Kiehne, President
Izaak.Walton League, Great. Rivcr Chapter

?;&^ 'vj^- , iL /
Maurice Lesher, President
Audubon Society of La Crosse

yJ. ji-t /3')' , ,
Glenn Seager, President
SIerra Club, Coulee Region Groun

Dan Weibel, Chairperson
UW-L Environmental Council

cc: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. Department of Interior
Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources
Wisconsin Deoartment of Administration
Universityr of Wisconsin
Great River Environmental Action Team
Mavor Patrick Zielke




4
z
F-1i :
cc


I I
\ l


If
' ;

I '
II

'"

aL


N')


I | LP. _ _. - _, _ __


::













I


/


/


P
I I ,

: I
I
i I
,
o
"u"

"i
m.
U
-t-






 _L-
J

j
1FL17
 AI0








0&
I <
J5

1




:0-





U 1


il i


II-






UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN - LA CROSSE F-2







May 15, 1978


TO: File

FROM: Larry E. Rice

RE: North Campus Development


I met with Dennis Schaitel of Schaitels Trenching and
Drainage Company for advisement on the possibility of
de-watering of the proposed North Campus fields.

A. Normal Farm Cost (slow de-watering):
$400. to 500. per acre
(29 acres $11,600 to $14,500)

B. UW-L North Campus Fields Estimate:
Lines spaced 60' $23,400.00O
Lines spaced 30' $45,000.00

Additional cost clearing brush (bulldozer) ?

Sump tank and pump $ 4,000.00


LER:mb





F-3



West Central Wisconsin Consortium

A] C| UW-Eau Claire UW-LaCrosse UW-River Falls UW-Stout
Secretary-Coordinator: Robert L. Burns, 1725 State Stret, La Crsse WI 54601

May 26, 1978


TO: Larry Rice
UW-La Crosse

FROM: Robert L. Burns
Secretary-Coordinator

RE: Information sources on bus service

The consortia listed here maintain variou us Pr shuttle services.
I have focused on those which have institutions within the same
city--or very close--since I assume they will haye experiences
more closely related to your needs.

1. Tri-College University
Weld Hall
Moorhead State University
Moorhead, Minnesota 56560
(218)236-2844

Mr. John McCune, Provost
Concordia College
Moorhead State University
North Dakota State University

Various joint academic programs which use a shuttle service
for students and library materials,

John McCune has mentioned that the shuttle is very expensive.

2. New Orleans Consortium
7314 St. Charles Avenue
New Orleans, Louisiana 70118
(504)866-4826

Mary Ellis, Executive Director
Loyola University
St. Mary's Dominican College
Xavier University of Louisiana


These campuses have extensive cross-registration activities
which require student travel from one to another location.
Loyola and St. Mary's are within a few blocks of one another
and are connected by the city's St, Charles Avenue streetcar





-2-


line. The consortium has been attempting to establish its own
shuttle, especially to Xavier, but the expense hps been too
great. I expect they have some data on the question.

They have had some discussion with the city bus company, but
no agreement that I know of.

3. Associated Colleges of the St. Lawrence Valley
State University of New York College at Pqtsdam
Potsdam, New York 13676
(315)265-2790

Fritz Grupe, Executive Director
Clarkson College of Technology
St. Lawrence University
State University of New York College at Potsdam
State University of New York A&T CQllege at Cqnton

Operates an inter-campus bus service.

4. Associated Colleges of the Twin Cities
1488 Englewood Avenue
St. Paul, Minnesota 55104
(612)644-5044 or 644-5155

Andrew Helmich, Executive Director
Augsburg College
College of St. Catherine
College of St. Thomas
Hamline University
Macalester College

Has inter-campus transportation system of about 9,Q00 rides
per week among campuses.

5. Nashville University Center
University Plaza, Suite 103
112 21st Avenue South
Nashville, Tennessee 37203
(615) 322-4953

Anne Brown, Executive Director
Fisk University
Meharry Medical College
George Peabody College
Scarritt College
Vanderbilt University

This consortium has purchased transportation service among
campuses from the Nashville Metropolitan Transit Authority.


F-3








6. Greensboro Regional Consortium
40 Greensboro College
Box 424
Greensboro, North Carolina 27420
(919) 275-4549 .

William Lanier, Executive Director

Cross registration program includes shuttl bus transportation.

7. Greater Hartford Consortium for Higher dvucation
201 Bloomfield Avenue
West Hartford, Connecticut 06117
(203)233-1553

Robert Vogel,. Executive Director
Hartford College for Women
Hartford Graduate Center
St. Joseph College
St. Thomas Seminary
Trinity College
University of Hartford

Cross registration program is supported by afree shuttle bus
and mail service.


RLB/rb





UNIVERSITY o0 WISCONSIN -LA CROSSE





June 5, 1978


TO: Bill Gresens

FROM: Larry E. Rice
Campus Planner

RE: EIS FOR NORTH CAMPUS DEVELOPMENT
UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN-LA CROSSE

I. We need to develop responses for the following requested
items:

A, Alternatives (sites F 8 G)

1. Provide data on feasibility of acquiring sites
(owners, sizes, buildings, etc.).

2. Determine attitude of cost/benefit operation of
shuttle bus type transportation for class locations
remote from the main campus using list of campuses
suggested by Dr. Burns,

B. Community Controvers

1, Contact adjacent landowners on Oakland Street
and on Lang Drive. (omit city and Oak Grove
Cemetery) regarding (1) attitude of potential
benefit of the use of the proposed facilities
and (2) preferences concerning recreational
versus present uses; (3) opinion on project
effects upon land and home val..es; (4) attitude
on effect of pedestrian bicycle and automotive
traffic and parking.

C. Property values

1. Contact City Assessor's office on any prospective
revaluation of land, residences or businesses due
to proposed development of facilities.


2. Solicite attitudes of a few area businesses
about the effects of the proposed facility upon
business volume. Include Taco Belle and Larry's
A&W Rootbeer, Pizza Villa, and gasoline service
stations at Lang and La Crosse Streets.























"", I
7--i-
t
-.--a
i ,
,5F-- .
I I
- I - - - -
. .- -f
I-+ -
I--
---- -I--- --
MO L
I 
M I

- -1
Lf L*9
I


NORTH


UNIVERSITY 0
WISCONSIN . L,
DOWNTOWN
BUSINESS DIS


_iii- MMAIN ROADS


a!9F~~~~~~~~~~ II`&I~~ IREGIO
ITSj II I



LA CROSSE
-fS ~ - 'ii ,4 . _ L _
I I














LA CROSSE
2 F ---- ""- "-" ''' M - | WISCoNSIN
f~~~~~~~~~Wscoxslx I
~~~~----- / !l CQ81Ll


P,71 tis w r ift FFBI

i di) RDLV--/:Ir.........~P~

,~ ,- ':... ..,.-~i'
~eQ~~ _gPROJBJECT
!v~ITL ICT'RNATE SITE
S I T E 53
OCA35
:6 ~j.~OC'T IONS






CITY OF

LACRSS

I LA

ILIW







'F~H CIYOF d







TRICT~~~~~~~~~
If~];"~Bs~~iP~~ 1~ ~' ~ '"~' 4
' i '::' ', ~ i't ~ '















"'I~ I II
I YI c~~l 11;~7T j P I ~~ I Oi Y~~$naul~\ IS~I~lptpnLi I



'~.~~d i F~--~'~~ ~t-i,',-- , '~_'-"~~-




i~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~' ' ....






,.,~" ~""'~~"~"~~~~"''~~ !"'~ . ~ _~ .;..
ACROSSE ,i
MRICTii


WISCONSIN


16





333

CROSSE COUNTY


REGIONAL MAP LACROSSE AREA


CAMPUS PLANNING
UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN-LA CROSSE
LA CROSSE WISCONSIN


~~---i--C--


YE_ i I


41I















































N
)
/


-n



F-5




UNIVERSITY Ow WISCONSIN - LA CROSSE






DATE: 7 Jlne 1978

TO: Larry Rice

FROM: Bill Gresens

olease find the items you asked to be researched






A. Altern.atives (Sites F &G)

1. Site F There are three senarate parcels of land in Area F
the coding system is that of the County Assessor's office.
Parcel 9-1 (CompDter # 9-1302-0) 8.0 Acres assessed at $500
owned by Harry Keppel of 9074 US Highway 16.
Parcel 14-1 (#9-1313-0) 39.13 Acres assessed at $29,900 with
buildings, owned by Martin Marquardt of 1937 Nakomis Ave.
Parcel 15-1 (9-1315-0) 17.56 Acres assessed at $18,325, owned
by L.M. Beck of 9032 US Highway 16.
TOTALS FOR SITE F 64.69 acres with assessed valuation of $48,725.

2. Site G There are four privately held parcels of land in this
area outside the city limits. Approximately 2/3 of the area is
within the city, and in conversation with the City Assessor's
office, I was told that, if the Corps of Engineers and DNR were
to allow development of the marsh area under question, the land
would be worth approximately $5,000-$10,000 per acre. If we are
speaking of a total area of approximately 30 acres in Area G, and
2/3 of that, or 20 acres is city owned with that $5-10,000 value,
the total value would then be between$100,000 and $200,000
Parcel 2-1 (#9-1356-0) 18.32 acres assessed at $300 owned by
Milson Corp. of 964 Milson Court.
parcel 2-2 (#9-1359-0) 1 acre assessed at $20,825 owned by
Arthur Litscheim of 1309k Mississippi St.
Parcel 2-6 (#9-1362-0) .33 acres assessed at $2,000 owned by Down


Under Ltd., of 787 N. Losey Blvd.
Parcel 2-5 (#9-1361-0) .47 acres assessed at $12,625, owned by
Ace Plumbing Co., of 215 Division Street.
TOTALS FOR SITE G 40.12 acres with value between $136,250 and
$236,250.




F-5




B. Community Controversy

There are six properties adjacent to the marsh area in question, all
located on N. Oakland Street. Only one, 708 N. Oakland, is owner-
occupied. Four of them, 714, 720, 726, 732 N. Oakland, are owned
by a company which hopes to build student housing on the property
in the near future. Students presently live in the individual
houses. All of the above are located on the east side of Oakland.
There is one rental property, 715 N. Oakland, which is owned by
Mr. Ted Knutson, who lives just south of the property, but whose
address is on LaCrosse Street. I interviewed Mr. Knutson, Mrs.
LaVaine Dugan who owns and occupies the home at 708 N. Oakland,
and Ms. Bonnie Kliez, who is one of the partners in Student Properties
of LaCrosse, which owns the block of four properties noted above.

I asked the questions in the order given on my instructions, i.e.,
Question #1 dealing with attitude of potential benefit of the use
of the proposed facilities; Question 2 dealing with preferences
concerning recreational versus present uses; and so on. Hence I
have numbered responses from one to four rather than repeating
questions repeatedly.

A. Mrs. Lavaine Dugan, owner/occupant of 708 N. Oakland.
1. "Good idea" to turn land into recreational area.
2. She believed recreation would be a preferred use of the
land.
3. She believed land values would decrease due to noise,
traffic, and generally having more students in the area.
4. She was "not too enthusiastic" about the prospect of
increased pedestrian, auto, bike traffic.

B. Mr. Ted Knutson, owner of 715 N. Oakland, lives in adjacent
home on LaCrosse Street.
1. "Good thing" for everyone to use that land for recreation
and PE.
2. Mr. Knutson hhcught that any change would be to the
good; presently its filled with dying elm trees and old
tires which breed mosquitoes, he said.
3. He believed property values would increase with the area
developed as a recreation/PE area.
4. Increased traffic of whatever kind would not bother him,
he said. LaCrosse Street, on which he lives, is a state
U.S. highway, and he has long been used to heavy traffic.
C. Ms. Bonnie Kliez is a partner in the company, Student Prop-
erties of LaCrosse.
1. She thought making the marsh area under question a recrea-
tional area was a "fantastic idea."
2. She believed recreation/PE was the best use that could be
made of the area in question.


3. She believed the proposed development would increase the
values of the adjacent properties.
4. She could see no real problem with increased traffic.



F-5





C. Property values

The City Assessor's office was contacted. I spoke to the Assistant
Assessor, who reported that the proposed development would not auto-
matically mean any revaluation of adjacent properties.

D. Nearby Businesses

1. Lisa Radtke, manager of the Citgo station at 530 West Ave. N,
believed the impact of such marsh development would be "good
for business,' not only because of increased gasoline sales,
but because of the station's sale of snacks, pop, food in
general.

2. Norm Nordstrom, manager of J&L Gas on the corner of LaCrosse
Street and Lang, Drive, thought the impact would be "positive."

3. Don Smith, Jr., who will soon become co-manager of Taco Bell,
felt the development would have little impact either way,
but if there would be any, it probably "would have a positive
effect."

4. Jerry Seymour, owner of Pizza Towne, believes the proposed
development would have relatively little impact on his busi-
ness unless there were games played there or large gath-
erings, in which case, it would help his business.

5. Dale Rudy, owner of Rudy's A&W Drive-In, LaCrosse Street,
could not be reached.




Follow-up Information 6/7/78


Mr. John McCune - Tri College University - Moorhead, Minnesota

80,000 riders per year
1,000 riders per day at peak times in winter

one hour per run

10 charge for students
$8000 income from student fees
cost runs about $14,000

balance of cost is subsidized through Mr. McCune's budget,
so the city is planning to take over the route as early as
next fall - or else raise the student fee to 20

4 miles is the longest run

city bus fare - .95 - $1.25 per ride



Mary Ellis - New Orleans Consortium - New Orleans, LA

their program is scheduled to begin September 1, 1978










Associated Colleges of the St. Lawrence Valley - Dr. Grupe


program just started last spring

430 - 450 riders per week

student charge: 50 one way ride
semester pass - $25
10 ride pass - $5

they have one bus - 2 drivers are funded through CETA

round trip - 30 miles

financing: $5000 from Dr. Grupe's budget
$250 from each campus
also have book delivery for which they charge a fee



Follow-up Information 6/7/78
F-6

Andrew Hemlich - Associated Colleges of the Twin Cities

9000 riders per week
4 vehicles

no student charge now - there will be next fall - 134 per ride

this charge will offset 49% of total cost

service has been paid for by the 5 colleges on the basis of
the time per day that it was available to them - each college
paid a different amount

each run is 7 - 13 minutes

farthest point - 6.2 miles
closest point - 1.2 miles

Major Problem: each college has different class lengths and
break schedules


Anne Brown - Nashville University Center

discontinued shuttle service - too expensive - total cost was
$35,000

Nashville Metropolitan Transit Authority has taken over bus
service and cost was cut to $12,000 per year.

She will be sending you copies of their agreements with the
bus service.



Dr. Robert Vogel - Greater Hartford Consortium for Higher Education

25,000 riders per year

no student charge - cost - $33,000 per year

round trip averages 10 miles

2 vehicles - 1 runs at a time - drivers are from the
buildings & grounds department


vehicles are 11 passenger vans - they run from 7:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.,

No major problems




F-7

YIt ^L'A .Cj_ ,$JOHN K. FLANAGAN
sys.**" .,.+&i AtTTO ECITY ATTORNEY
.^/^.*^^^^?^. \<P\^ IjN^ ' ^Q ~~~~CITY HALL
IN %V.i. N4 v < anadJ \-505 NORTH SIXTH STREET

E\\ I_- . .... G.: C,' EVERETT B. HALE
,::":--3'~ '"~^---Y---/ iw>^~\ /-.1 \ DEPUTY CITY ATTORNEY
,~jt \^5':^...; f , /\. y/\ \~,/", CITY HALL
~,.~-~ L-^^J~i~l^^^ ^ \V V-^^T ^505 NORTH SIXTH STREET
// C/14/1 jit v>^ fLA CROSSE, WI 54601

LEGAL DEPARTMENT ,,I,AX!- 14, 1978





REFERENCE ALTERNATE SITE H

Mr. Lawrence E. Rice
Architect, Campus Planner
University of Wisconsin - La Crosse
1725 State Street
La Crosse, Wisconsin 54601

In Re: Environmental Impact Statement for
North Campus Development
University of Wisconsin - La Crosse

Dear Mr. Rice:

You have written to me advising that you are to provide data on acquir-
ing and developing an alternate site of 30 to 50 acres of the City-owned
Country Club as a possible addition to the University Campus. You have
asked whether acquiring this site at the City-owned Country Club for
University purposes of developing physical education fields in the near
future is at all feasible from the City's point of view.

Please be advised that the landsin question are leased to the La Crosse
Country Club for the purpose of providing a golf course and related
and attendant facilities. This lease is a long-term lease.

The land in question was given to the City for public purposes and I have
heard no discussion among officials of the City that would indicate that
the City of La Crosse is in any way interested in releasing its interest
in this land to any other group or individual. Inasmuch as this area is
the only golf course in the area, it is my judgment, at least based on
current information, that if and when the Country Club lease expires the
City would probably operate the area as a public golf course for the
citizens of La Crosse.








Mr. Lawrence E. Rice
Page 2
June 14, 1978

Please understand that the opinions expressed herein are personal and do
not reflect any official position of the City of La Crosse, but this
information is based on discussions in which the undersigned has partici-
pated and has observed.

Very truly yours,



JohX. Flanagan
Qjjz Attorney

JKF/des




TRAFFIC GENERATED BY STUDENT UTILIZATION OF
PROPOSED NORTH CAMPUS DEVELOPMENT

SPRING


8 -10 a.m.


8 - 10:00 a.m.


Classes M - Th.

10:00 a.m.


90 Students


Classes M T W F
Classes M - F
Total


75
70
145 Students


Classes M -
Classes M-
Total


F
Th.


240
25
265 Students


11:00 a.m.


10 00 a.mn
_~Iy~~ll----


Classes M - Th.
Classes M & W
To tal


60
25


85 Students


Classes M -
Classes T -
Total


F
F


240
25


11:00 a.m.


265 Students


12:00 Noon


Classes M -
Classes M -
Total


Th.
Th.


90
30


120 Students


1:00 p.m.


Classes M - Th.
Classes M & W
Total


12:00 Noon

Classes M - Th.
Classes M & W
Total


60
50


110 Students


75
25
100 Students


Classes M - Th.
Classes T - F
Total


75
30


I O00 p.m.
1


105 Students


2:00 p.m.


Classes M -
Classes M 8
Tot -Lil


Th.
W


75
25
100 Students


Classes M &
Classes M -
Total


W
F


75
31


2:00 p.m.


106 Students


3:00 p.m.


Classes M T
Classes M &
Total


Th F 75
W 25


100 Students


Classes M 1
Classes M -
Total


W
F


4:00 - 6:00 p.m.

Classes M - Th.

4:00 - 7:00 p.m.


93
31


3: 00 p.m.
, _


124 Students


.lasses M T Th F
Classes M b W
Total


75
25
100 Students


250 Students


4:00 - 7:30 p.m.


Varsity
Freshmen
Total


180
55


235 Students


Intramurals M -
Classes M 1 W
Total


F 165
200
26_5 Students


11:00 a.m. - 12:30 p.m.
Classes Sat. 250 Students


F-8


FALL







APPENDIX G: RESPONSES TO PRELIMINARY ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT (PER)


APPENDIX DATE OF LETTER SIGNATURE/ORGANIZATION

G-1 12/07/77 Steven J. Taff, Community Development Agent
Mississippi River Regional Planning Commission

G-2 12/08/77 D. A. Stephenson and R. G. Hennings
University of Wisconsin-Extension, Water
Resources Section, Environmental Geology
Section

G-3 12/09/77 Ruth Rehfus for Wiliiam G. Gordon, Regional
Director, U.S. Department of Commerce,
National Marine Fisheries, National Oceanic
and Atmospheric Administration

G-4 12/15/77 Randall R. Pope, Acting Regional Director
U.S. Department of the Interior, National
Park Service

G-5 12/19/77 Jeff M. Dean, State Preservation Planner
State Historical Society of Wisconsin

G-6 12/22/77 James B. Cropper, District Conservationist
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil
Conservation Service

G-7 12/23/77 Marion E. Strong, Director
Midwest, TSC, U.S. Department of Agriculture,
Soil Conservation Service

G-8 01/05/78 Paul A. Harris
1609 South 28th Street, La Crosse, Wl 54601

G-9 01/06/78 C. Eggon, Acting Area Director
U.S. Department of Interior, Bureau of
Indian Affairs

G-10 01/06/78 Ronald L. Mustard, Director
Office, Federa.i Activities, U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency, Region V

G-11 01/09/78 Robert G. Ruesink, Acting Field Supervisor
U.S. Department of Interior, Fish and
Wildlife Service, Green Bay Field Office,
University of Wisconsin-Green Bay

G-12 01/09/78 J. C. Hytry, State Conservationist, Madison
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil
Conservation Service






APPENDIX DATE OF LETTER SIGNATURE/ORGANIZATiON

G-13 01/09/78 Helen Mayville
364 South 21st Street, La Crosse, Wl 54601

G-14 01/09/78 Dale 0. Vandenburg, Staff Director
Environmental Quality Evaluation
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service
Northeastern Area State & Private Property-
Upper Darby, PA

G-15 01/09/78 Michael and Patricia Strittmater
Rt. 1, Gill Coulee Road, West Salem, WI 54669

G-16 01/10/78 Erwin J. Albrecht, Vice President
The Oak Grove Cemetery Association

G-17 01/11/78 Kenneth G. Brown
802 South 20th Street, La Crosse, WI 54601

G-18 01/11/78 C. E. Johnson, Jr , Environmentalist
Protection Specialist by the Director of the
District Commander, Department of Transporta-
tion, Goast Guard, St. Louis, MO

G-19 01/11/78 Shelley Goldbloom (Rochelle)
1597 Medary Lane, Onalaska, WI 54650

G-20 01/12/78 Marguerite G. Brown
802 South 20th Street, La Crosse, WI 54601

G-21 01/12/78 Howard F. Young, Professor
University of Wisconsin-La Crosse, Biology
Department

G-22 01/12/78 Phil L. Esten
2546 Edgewood Place, La Crosse, Wi 54601

G-23 01/12/78 Sandra Fletcher
215 South 26th Street, La Crosse, Wl 54601

G-24 01/13/78 Dr. Richard A. Fletcher, Professor
University of Wisconsin-La Crosse, Biology
Department

G-25 01/13/78 T. J. Hart, WEPA Coordinator
Wisconsin Department of Transportation

G-26 01/13/78 W.A. Smith, Graduate Student
University of Wisconsin-La Crosse
Biology Department

G-27 01/14/78 David N. and Nancy D. Goode
2818 Quarry Place, La Crosse, WI 54601






APPENDIX DATE OF LETTER


SIGNATURE/ORGANI ZATION


Barbara A. Frank, President
Coalition for Regional Environmental Education
Development

Sarah W. Keimowitz
Box 76, Rt. 1, Coon Valley, WI 54623


Cameron B. Gundersen, M.D.
Route #1, Ebner Coulee, La Crosse, WI


54601


Howard Druckemiller, Acting Director
Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources,
Bureau of Environmental Impact


G-28


G-29

G-30


G-31


01/14/78


01/15/78

01/16/78


01/31/78



G-1


JOHN M. THOMAS, La Crosse, Wis.
Chairman


PIERCE
PEPIN
BUFFALO
TREMPEALEAU
LA CROSSE
VERNON
CRAWFORD
JACKSON
MONROE


December 7, 1977



Donald Gerhard
University of Wisconsin
Central Administration
Box 8010
Madison, WI 53708

Dear Mr. Gerhard:


MISSISSIPPI RIVER

REGIONAL PLANNING COMMISSION
1707 Main Street, La Crosse, Wisconsin 54601
Phone: (608) 785-9396


TONY POLZER, Durand, Wis.
Vice-Chairman

LAURENCE WEBER, Elmwood, Wis.
Secretary & Treasurer

WILLIAM J. KROLL, La Crosse, Wis.
Director


I - -

Chi~."-- 4 -7`
:' i). ; / t
\cJQ 1 \~~r V


This Commission's staff has reviewed the Preliminary Environmental Report
for the U.W,-La Crosse North Campus Development project. We offer the
following comments.


Overall, the project as now proposed seems an excellent blending of the
University's stated needs and of necessary environmental protection
considerations. However, this Commission does not have the technical
expertise to comment on two key elements of the report; to wit, the
need for the facilities in the first place and their effect on the
hydrologic regime of the marsh area.

We urge the University to work closely with the La Crosse City Planning,
Public Works, and Traffic Engineering DepartmentL;. The relation of the
proposed project to current traffic patterns, the possible link with the Lang
Drive construction project, and required improvements to Gorder Road all
demand close coordination with the City.

On page 33, the report discusses off-peak traffic noise levels, deeming them
compatible with proposed marsh uses. This discussion should be expanded to
cover peak-hour traffic noise levels as well.

We suggest the Socio-Economic Impact section be exparded to include a discussion
of the effects of increased pedestrian traffic in the Oakland neighborhood.
\^y This route will carry a great deal of foot traffic from the western part of
campus to the proposed facility.


z




3



'4
GD




Q


6


On the top of page 59, a shelter building is suggested as a possible use of
LAWCON/ORAP funds. Is this shelter building the same as the toilet building,
or is it a proposed structure not shown on the site map? __
I R H T E I 2E r -~~


Ai R S i I! TEI j r sn i





SAT.
F-'-~~~~~~~~~u1 f!_T~Lit


'- 'OJ. NO.
L-!


O - ----------- ---- --rr~slr








December 7, 1977
Page 2
Donald Gerhard


To assess the actual, as opposed to envisioned, environmental impacts of
this project, the University faculty might want to institute a modest
monitoring program. Such a program can prove a useful educational experience
for participating classes.

Thank you for the opportunity to review this preliminary environmental
report.

Sincerely,


Steven J.T
Steven J. Taf b//'
Area Community Development Agent

SJT:kaw

cc: Larry Rice, U.W.L. Campus Planner






Response to: Mississippi River Regional Planning Commission

P. 2. Additional information has been incorporated into the EIS with regard
to the need for facilities and their effect on the hydrologic regime of
the marsh area.

P. 3. Comment noted.

P. 4. Revisions have been made to incorporate additional information on
peak-hour traffic noise levels.

P. 5. Comment noted.

P. 6. The shelter building/toilet building are no longer part of the proposed
project and have been removed from the text.


P. 7. Comment noted.








-i^a^ ^^ UNSIVESITY Of WISC-eRSIN-EXTENSION

.-15 UN ERY E w 7 AVENUE 4ji ASON, ' WICO IN -: - .. i
il1. ' - ?.lx7 o31 .


Centra .Ad. wnio trntion

,MaiO.I Wos z tin- 80-1


p|eY€Cfr-4 8, j%77



RECEIVED. UW-LACROSSE
CAM PUS PLAt1NING
.- N I N G77


lJ~Y~E I
j ARCHG!TeCy
| AND ENWaNCtar

C , e


ITK>'" j" - - ; -,.,.J
MIc'..; DiSo ' i
S S X J It*'Pj - j
l ; S ! *- I.., ,
.I_-^ ,.__^ , . I r - -

^^0.~~~ .^^^cM-.
.=^, , a
i~w s -7 7 -

se~Y H e 3 ~ -e n


~.1g IC _. . De V . it, i. S A
leortvh Ca pus b>vMXlcynit
t8ve^>t' :tyt9 tt. of 4^. Adon ,^-l^ t'>>rocyg


be artint:r,4 .


.We :4s. to addne ,ro atatd ft ee m t.,atare Itn error 'C
^sulcet~3Thlo et^ CrC~flOtenta prtzs i25 -in tro tertr tatiC r t esde of tht aYrogeologl i
co4*i t trnsv dt ta hep p4f cvr otr.structtor s :ite+ Thoee interpret ations are given
- '.n pag<:': 3:: ~,: - 3 oe t.i e .6. - t '6 :.sh:iu.:I be e Ut i 6pt .irh, t "tf a. ccord ig t a
--t.-dt t7; g - i n p pse -^: n.A.. ezC - a r -v-:siitble to ttihe mthr f
L^ W .e t t r xigalrzt tAe recharge c-Abtil ttv a tIe projecb t Sit.et ie 1 tp# e thlt
:I.: .asnti tta.tive hydrogeaolo gi, e iat6a ' re asaiIable to +:the n.I ithnr&s nor are they-
+rc of - ou -w Swefter tc ;currn* a - ..o..-rt ta'Aracteri..tics.g t. or exa pile
r-o flc zrv t)o hPat i3; iqtatedI tnbdergrroa-nd stre-was n w-e1d not oc<CUt in an aluiai
a i. e 4InVi'lsvient In fact^ ^cdrg uni s t re atms Occur r tlv in atre" ad
tt-. o'.iv. ':: a feX r-c' t*p, M're o..y. g-rm ':ater oCcurP in' pre o pr c
,nso.i',o'ri wat




(.J paged thti i .tatLcd as fa;ct. :O , b:hat Ka~ Xt -I -B ftsrthe-r g ttea t ha the? ' -:h
rot naern for r... ention o t wat. .r pte-" .rcoits.tion (tdJ3rd) t'" to t-te g.roaundtw- watder
stfsrt- Ma-fny I tlAePi W- ? arce ^j of tro-jrWtdOL d icsharge not rc hargeq
Therefore. (w concen Wht bcttet be dire teI tcwar- r 'ot tia iv . tirte
io.ttfldAt)o0 todititons i t to u..ard grouni -wtter irattiBent-s, not a decretse B
fquv^i ofir drindkangc uater :avilahLu fr Ija C-t!O? &as is&CsicStW on -3)

:Ia n-?ie, o- the apparent nitsconcepti-on.- ard ps ste.se iiseinteret:'tioat.S with-
in tbls PERJ r-eliative t$+- hyd wrog.-olo c) r lz ttioniu ^^ r scoe d e fll;--t t tlOX n *toi

1. A fseid st4d vof actual gr-zuo-iaf-tter/Ct taCO -atr -relatisah ips be made
at ite 'project-. i.te, '..
G 2, b ,f -f AM8.'atonc inn ...-.itt.Sn.S . con.d ucted f the grtim2d-.wa.er gr$4ielt
I observed to Fbe utars- v tard tIr l.nxd sxrfattc thPiS is r aif' COfCid
dspite t? t n p S riattv to the I tAs1tJity o tonstructtionh
3,* The -uthA'or t. & of*g te: R Sh'ulhd FE Iden . fi *b


i.rjle---;v -----lp l







BD 1 na.Id Crba-rd/


0sam7vel *iAnor Corrbtio C.s cas 1e -d on 3P 2

I* Llin a d.n4 12,. Sparagrphi I -er te trot->atep
2. Link T praapz. dltaz ar F not<t 44 ta ts

E t ^our .isnfxbmat-on tJt th0eit o-pgi 0t cal Snaturl i-: - . Survey
tt t haF, itaJ;i qualifie d in i 1rogeologyt. lated4v js iaub T t -is to f
vm-.:7 i th's-s r.t.ff a.t.labti.ty t o t S_,e t at .e ent : .......g I .t h fauture,
>el~o~ejno or dcu = ot -^a e aT be t tpt
we 4.^ } do everv a thtg po-- a Wssible tr - hts l yp

Thaik you for the opportunity t c:-' 'i*ete' r thi dc&,;m:en i -s:7-.~ - t t .l ouf


.... . - a^-

D34A SI'- B+t.phen;o


.R i7. ... .....:- ---*:,

i roe :o g S-?tto tn










Response to: UWEX - University of Wisconsin-Extension geology & natural
history survey

P. 1. Corrections have been made in the EIS to reflect conditions based
upon available information.

P. 2. Corrections have been made in the EIS to reflect conditions based
upon available information.

P. 3. Comment noted. The authors of the PER are comprised of university
staff and faculty who have provided their time and insight into areas
in which they have expertise. Minor corrections have been made on
page 32.

P. 4. Corrections have been made.


P. 5. Your advisement is appreciated.


1S/77



G-3
UNIT TTED TATES DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE
Federal Building, 14 Elm Street
Gloucester, Massachusetts 01930


December 9, 1977


Mr. Donald Gerhard
Director
Environmental Affairs
P.O. Box 8010
Madison, Wisconsin 53709


REC.i_',,,,,F . ; _- V TE7M|
I-e'.- ..... . ' , D _ -


1 i

, ~

Subec: "a v t
I-Qiijii L jj.

Subject: North Campus Development


Dear Mr, Gerhard:


The proposed action described in the subject document should not
significantly affect resources for which the National Marine
Fisheries Service has a responsibility. .Therefore, we have no
comments.


Sincerely,


'-, William G. Gordon
Regional Director


Response to:


Department of Comrneice


P. 1. Comment noted.


0


o









United States Department of the Interior


IN REPLY REFER TO:


L7621 MWR PE


NATIONAL PARK SERVICE
MIDWEST REGION
1709 JACKSON STREET
OMAHA, NEBRASKA 68102

DE9C- 1 jf 7


Mr. Donald Gerhard
Director, Environmental Affairs
University of Wisconsin System
P.O. Box 8010
Madison, Wisconsin 53709


I P!t

:.. . ,.:. :--.. i...r.
:.':' , . 977



**; ! *' '* f i
. ; ' -: ....., .... , ..... .i-.2
^ i, .~: T


Dear Mr. Gerhard:

Thank you for forwarding the preliminary environmental
report for North Campus Development at the University
of Wisconsin-La Crosse for review by the National Park
Service.

No existing or proposed unit of the National Park System
or any National Landmark would be affected by the pro-
posed action.

We suggest that the University make a concerted effort
to assure that no areas of archeological potential would
be disturbed to obtain fill material for this project.

Sincerely yours,




Randall R. Pope
Acting Regional Director


Response to: Interior - National Park Service

P. 2. Comment noted.

P. 3. Comment noted.


ARCH ITECTURE Y
AND ! -5
F.NGi HFENG

t.-- -;: J.


i 3, .. ... -.,.; ,;..:









THE STATE HISTORICAL

SOCIETY OF WISCONSIN
816 STATE STREET / MADISON, WISCONSIN 53706


December 19, 1977



Mr. Donald Gerhard
Director, Environmental Affairs
University of Wisconsin System
P. 0. Box 8010
Madison, Wisconsin 53709


i * X-"' '' -




I _ I _.........'
,H , .. ..... ....-





SHSW 1006 77


Dear Mr, Gerhard:

We have reviewed the Preliminary Environmental Report for the
North Campus Development at the University of Wisconsin-La Crosse
pursuant to the provisions of Section 106 of the National Historic
Preservation Act and section 44.22 of the Wisconsin Statutes,

To our knowledge, the proposed filling of thirty acres of marsh for
the development of campus recreation and physical education
facilities will have no effect on properties listed on, or eligible for
inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places.

The only potential effect that this project could have on such
properties would be if Mississippi River dredge spoils are not
used for the fill. Extraction of fill from as yet unidentified
farrow areas could result in the destruction of archeological
or historical sites.

If we can be of any further assistance, please contact Mr. Richard
W. Dexter (608/262-2732) in the Historic Preservation Division.

Sincerely,

Richard A. Erney
State Historic Preservation Officer


RAE:dd


Response to: Historical Society of Wisconsin M

P. 2. Comment noted. ' -;J

P. 3. Comment noted.


G-5


7"3
'''
h
i: ''
1'
.- - .51Li:
;- ') ' Y""(
i 
1 '
; ::
Tr
i c
.''.'.C;"'ULC!'
/' i rf
i
4-il L - y-l:r

2' `





O


....... _g







UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE


Lawrence E. Rice, Architect
C ampu.s Planner
University of Wsisconsin - La CroSse
La Crosse, :,Tisconsinr 514601 '

Dear lIr. Rice:


RECEIVED: UW-SYQTF,
ARCHIT ,CT LF:;-
AND ENG',NERi. I -
])ecen. mber 2<., .1 L5 - - .......

ITA E, ? J......
iG G F -'I ~ f:.......................
E1 I : i Fy ' I
,'_...- . - - -.J _ l ~_.,' - ,.1.,., .




GGE IF I Ir : L.
L iEJQ
L ""_I"77


I llave spoken to one of our soil scienri..t;s, who is : :il
:survey party leader .n Sparta. It is his be:li t:lat uIPWrd
groxwn-w;ater gradients in this particular locac . ticr in the La CIrosse
Tiar:;h . is not an imnportant consideliat on, part:i cul..n frly for athletic
fields. If you were to place buildinfs in ::uch an arna, fiurther
foundation studies would be necessary. If tfhe :.;te had been closer
to the bluffs, he felt thtere would have been mor likeli.hood of up-
waryl groulndw-water gradients. There vril1 be, of course, the ebb
and flow of the water tabl.e as the river rises an-3 fmills i 'es3pon.)se
to seasonIal or cyclical moisture conditionso


I woul.d s'till stand firm that those areas wiere the mulck liayer
is relatively thin over sand would be able -to bear the loadli.r:n pI.aced
on them by the athletic fields. All you have to do is look at all the
buildinn-s that are placed on sand fills in formner marrshland east of
Geore .Stbreet and south of the railroad tracks to .et factmualO proof
that foundation conditions are riot too bad.

i nce r el y,

Janes B, Cropper
Di strict Conservatjionist


JC/dc


Response to:


S.C.S.


P. 1. Comment noted.


P. 2. Comment noted.


(




G-7


UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE
Midwest TSC, Federal Bldg.-U.S. Cour huseRm. 393, Lincoln, NE 68508
|e :ember 23, 1977

Donald Gerhard ---
Director of Environmental Affairs ! i
University of Wisconsin System
P. 0. Box 8010- - --
Madison, WI 53708

Dear Mr. Gerhard:
L:. ._. , .
Thank you for the opportunity to r-eviw-.the Preliminary Environmental Report
(PER) for the North Campus Development at the University of Wisconsin-LaCrosse,
LaCrosse, Wisconsin. Review of environmental impact statements of projects
located in states served by the Midwest Technical Service Center are usually
reviewed by the office of the State Conservationist in which the project is
located. We note (on page 2 of your PER) that Mr. Jerome C. Hytry, our State
Conservationist in Wisconsin, has been sent copies of this report. He will
respond for the Soil Conservation Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture.

It will not be necessary to provide the Midwest Technical Service Center with a
~2 copy of the final environmental impact statement.

Sincerely,



Marion E. Strong 14?
Director, Midwest TSC

cc:
Jerome C. Hytry, State Conservationist, SCS, Madison, WI



Response to: U.S. Department of Agriculture ' ' -

P. 1. Comment noted.
P. 2. Comment no
P. 2. Comment noted.


4





6-8 RECEIVED: UW-SYSTEM
ARCHITECTURE
AND ENGINEERING
TJAj, 11 I I
BTA | \ '"TES


Janu..ry 5, 1978

"Tr. nonnld. Gerhnrd


GC7F RT
EGH \RFWV
JJK YT
WTK -
-f-....


Ini.versi..ty of Wi -eronsin System EJQ I FILE |
Centr.l Ami.ni. str- t.non
19'.0 T.Monroe Street
P.O. Box 8010
Mdi son, i. .onsin r 3708

Dear M'r. Gerhnrd:

The Preliminary :Emnrronmnntal .ienort (tPK) t'or .Iorth '"amnus Develonment at the
TIJnversmi.ty o'f wis-onsi.n-La.Crosse ;s a biased r.nort tht fai Is to look at tbhe
eefect of the nro.ject or the alternatives objectively. The PE. is renlete with
mn seoncentions and inaclurnte data wh ch favors the destruction rof the marsh,

Tn commenting on the PEK, I would l. ke to 1. -t the "'ol owi n objections with the
renort. The commnnts are in numerical. order, pere number and pera rrrnh.

1. Peae 4, naraern.h 1- IT-ow cnn you have two bhseball le].ds, a treck
and fie field fcil;ty etc. and still have a natulral en.ironmrpnta.
obsemrvtion are,. You cen only observe h.uman ectiv ty.

2, PqF- I.I pprn.yrn'- 2- The last sentence is commnletely idiot;ic. The
present low level usa-e of the mnrsh by -the unrvers-ity and wil'idlife
bha.s notbh;nr t+o do ,n th the nroximity of the northern nert of the
marsh, The nrojeet s-te is a nnrt of a whole ecos.ystem and attr.cts
birds and anim.ls that 'he northern maroh would nlso attract. The
rooject site has a very d;vearse nopulation of flora and fauna that
should be oreserved instead of developed,

3. Psge 6, para:raph 1- Land protection advocates do not advocate the
destruction of marsh larnd but rather the preservation of them. The
only neonle interested i.n the development of the mersh are industrial
a.nd res4dential deve.loners.I want to see a list of the land protection
-dvocates and dev-loners who would 1-1. to see the marsh "develoned,"

Ph. P.-'e 7, anrarrarnh 1- The PR~I states th-t ' he ou:tdoor feciliti.es the
( lnun; vers ty i.s us;. nP- 1hs deteriorated and can not be used. T sui rest
(\_ that the university nurc rha se the stadium and. fel. ds, renair them and.
rent them to other commu.nity schools.

5. Page 7, neraranh 2, '/2- T believe that the numerou.s accidents cre .
not due to p-or field conditions but rather to noor sunervi si on and
0^ ~scheduling. There were no facts listed. i.n the PEH directly linkine
poor fac ilities ,- tht i.njuries. There were only biased opinions.


C)






G-8


-2

( 6. Pa-.e 10, t6- Althou.Th the university :nrollment has increased,
the nroj'cted future enroll.mpnt for the 19PO's show that thrre
will be deceasing enrollment. The PER should show future trends \
and base need on the future. Tt' nrojections show decresed en-
rollment, t.hen the nresent fc4;lity is ad.eouate with no need for
the develonment of a. delicate habitat.

7. Pare 15, nrarranh 2- The nnrraah states "Tt was qareed by all
nprticirnts (rity oft*t ;als, administrators, state officials) etc.
^'here were the ~i oloi sts, hvdrolo; I-ts ond ecnlor sts? You have
includ.ed businessmen, develoners and lavyren to determine the f+uture
of the mnrsh. This is not an o-;jective annroach to development of
the nroject site -nd its nlternA.tives.

8. Pare 17, narnrrarh 1- Tn the last sentence 'prorvidin: ne tin. h'bitats
. .for wl;dlife" is ridi ulous. How can you fill 'n thirty acres of
marshland, nl.nt a few trnes a.nd shrubs, ;ncrease human activity
and have a nesting area? The best habitat for nestinn, would be the
marsh not a basebaJl f'ield.

9. Pa'e 17, nar-.rarnh 2- The developemnt of 30 acres of marsh for rec-
reationdl t'acilitties, nlDnt;np of trees and shrubs are not 7oing to
nrorride the env- ronmental recauirem-nts for birds ancd wildlife that
would eY; st were there no develonment. The pararnna h surgests that
there will be little or no si_;n;ifcant change . LP Y. All water-
fowl and marshland avi famna need seclusion and as little interfer-
ence from man as nossible. Increased hunman activr;ty wtill lead to
increased nredation ;' nTy netin, occurred ,wh,,*'c0 would be unl.-kely.

( iT10. p'e 24, nnarrrnh 1 - where are the fio-ures that sl"bst-mnti te the
__ statement that the nroject site is rarely uFsed by indivi..duals? ITf
most ohsprvrntons of the nro ject site are from :order Road and the
su-rounrdin hi .lls, doesn't that consttitute ui 'e. Poor reason tor
the destruction of a marshland hblitat.

11. Page ?2., nararraph 3- The marsh has not always been tho'ht t of as a
hinderance to develonment. Tf thnat were the case, develonment would
have occurred rvenrs ?.o. Pevelorment has not occurred because of the
onpos; ti'on to it by the neonle of LaCrosse,

12. Pre ?5, mnq.rnranh 2- Tncorrect, The m.:rsh acre-ee i; leess than 2,000
acres, The ','L should have stated the actual,. creane. There was no
mention o -"ny t temnt to t'nd out the total acreare. Also, wter
seenape is nos-bhl.e in th'e project areaand not jus.t the culverts
bcinq the sole water Oource. The actual mars.' land left is less than
1.000 cres.

13. Pap.e 33, p aripranh 3, Totally ulnsulbstantiated and misleadi;n. There has
never been anyT door:mented nroof that any water left in the marsh would (
create a hazard for wildlife due to coli.form counts etc. This demon-
strates the ineptness of the report.


1l. Page lh, para:ranh 6- There was high water dilrinn the snring of 197T
and in nmy thesis, I mentioned that a nesting study conducted in the
nrorosed project area was comnletelv wined out do tto hiph water. In





G-8

-3

the spring of 1975, the marsh flooded a-ain and the vegetation
was not adversely affected since the nlants of the marsh are
tynical of an ao.uat;c environment. The study o' the nn;ml pop-
ul tions of the mrrsb made by Ch .rles 'r=.i were not made in
the oronosed nroject area but the snecies he Pound are also
omrmon 4nhabhtJ.nts of' te -area, In a.ddition to the speeies of
:n4.;mls found ^ the mrrrsh, the opossu (DidLelphis virgi.rniana)
was omitted, This soe '.es was ca.tured h7 mrself' w th-n the
nrojc.t area. A so there nre na reat deal o' more rabbits nresent
then vnlor PT-: states. The area. ;sn t as deso.Lte as rou would
make one be l. ieve.

@ J P.- P.e )l6, oar-rnrasph p- The census routes u.sed for mnr sturly and
demni eted o'0 n.-,e 117 ware r.ajor routes, rri sscrosssin of the ent- re
area was mnde byr mrself d!ir'n -':he study. The majority of bhrdls
t.r ut11 e; e the nrea of. tr.es nlcno the borrder .' t,h the marsh,
It 's -n eFrlo n.l ftaet that the ed:es of' trTO . " '+'ae"nt lnnt
comr-ll'n t'ies wi_ I have r"orpe d6vr s-ity nnd. ninbnbers t+,-.^n the nla nt
ronmun:ty itself, The sentence in -!,he P'-;t sl'zg.sts t,h+ t the mr,'h
it;elt' "s useless 'Ut jusst the onpositpe s true. The marsh is a
source of nrotetion, food and nest;nS , abitat.o

@ 1 . '>re h16, pararipbh 2- The sentence "The stludy states it must be
..... di sanpeari.ng" has no relevance to the ,aragr'ph or the PER. 7)
Tt aan.in shows a comnlete lack of professi.on-.li sm in the orenrar-
t on of the P-H,.

17. P-ce - 6, -.op parongraoh- "(Only seven of the twenty-tfour birds that
nest" sounds like the ma-sh was a barren niece of land. Obviously,
the a. H, Kobin, i'Tee Swa.low etc. are not oon n to nest n the
rrmrsh but will ut;il;ze the marsh for ne-ti.n- meterial and food,
The third sentence is a.m.n i.rrrelevant to the subject. f' anv-
t,hinr it surmorts nreservn t-on of the Ymarsh sinee enou.h water was
rresent to r.uin nestin. study, I y ould. also like to correct the
last sentence of the mnarnranh- The divers-;ty and nbundrance of
bird sne-Ces founod w:thi.ri the three study areas shov th-t area 2
(the pro iect site) ranked lest. This r'rnkinc was not do to a poor
rn.ece of land but rather to condniti ons rela'-.ed to wenther. Area 2
is as cood as the other study areas. The PHi;1i sucests ,that T feel
the nroject nrea is worthless which is c;omp.leately false,

.j l 1Q. Pge 59, n-rrranrh 1- The pleasant, aestahet;cally anpealing resi-
dential ^rea aro-nd the universi.ty .... is really a slJm area. The
univers-ity would he be ter off in nurrc3h-no, the res eential homes (
and! bhuild-ncf the frccil-;ties there instead of f;llinT in. the mrrsh,
T can't th;nk of nine businesses tht would be ruined, where is a
Pl Ft of' them?


19. Page 59 & 63- The hPT sugrests that the marsrh Tl 11 only flood during
the flood levels_ of the Rississi.nri River which is false. water enters
the mar-h from the J-.rrosse R.iver wi.rthout flooding, HWi h water is all
that is needed !'or the marsh to t'ill up. Puring normal precipitation
and weather, the marsh will fill up every year. Dur ;ng the past
four years t'-e morsh has dried un do to the dry weather conditions,
Once norm-l weather pa.ttcrns return m-he mcrsh w.ill also resnond.






G-8

-4

Tn conclusion, T would like to state that the PEh, was ill conceived, biased
rdd unprofessionalIy nrenared, The development of the 30 acres will be a
stennpi.ng stone towrrd full developn.ment of the marsh and the site itself. On
nage 28, a statement says to the effect that if the marsh had wat r, the v lue
of' it would increase. The marsh needs water management not commercial de-
velonment. Statinr that th'e ,l.onn of the marsh occurred only occasionally
based on f.loodr stsres of th- :';isssissini. Kiver is mislead;nc and n naccurate.
The ironic nart of 'the P.KH anp be found on n.are 65 in the last sentence of the
second Dnrara.rph. Tt states a i-mited number of stuc ntTs iol ld be us;ng the
fP 1..- ty at anr one t me"'. T Ht sentence alone tells vrou 'tht the fa.e -lty
- sn't ne eded t t, ' 1.-t bw be use;d b '; l ed stiudents, T t, t sn't w orth destroying
thb r'-rrh. Tf.' +,e l2rn; veors t- ; i -t ntercsted In en pncin the trnynnrers 1llars,
then let t,-em buv the e; x Fti n: f-ne'l;ty or nurchase the surroundin, bho.uses si.nce
they -rea rat trenS s r-tl-r thn a 'tbeni.t-i.ful -nd aset, et cally aopealing res-
de ntl - rea.t'Th.is Inrca hnS a1rad; 'y' b' destroved h-y man, I recormnend the
marsh be riPeserved i:?an,-se -?'i have not just'; -.ed t he develonrment of tlhe marsh
f .or Ul 1.> T ,-jy :.,'h , '' ? hm'. y .-' , l - ecl 'n;n enrollme nti ' t..e Tuture. The ..t.
shoul!_d b" nomnin..td for the best joke book of 1977.


'; ne- ,

Paul , . 'Tar9 ,is


PAF :rh





G-8

Response to: Paul Harris

P. 1. Comment noted. See EIS Preface and VI., Alternatives to
Proposed Action.

P. 2. Comment noted.

P. 3. Comment noted. Revisions incorporated where necessary. None of the
flora and fauna species known to occur in the project area are con-
sidered threatened or endangered.

P. 4. Comment noted. To our knowledge no such list exists. So noted.
Many disciplines are involved in land protection, management, and
utilization.

P. 5. Comment noted. The campus master plan proposes purchase of the
stadium, city lands, and housing. However, it also shows that partial
development of the north campus or an alternate site would still be
necessary.

P. 6. Comment noted. See section on "Academic Needs" in narrative for
additional information.

P. 7. Comment noted. Further information on the University's needs has
been incorporated in the EIS under "Academic Needs".

P. 8. Comment noted. New information from specialists in the natural
sciences has been incorporated in the EIS. See appendices A, B, C,
and D.

P. 9. The project will have treelines and plantings which previously would
not occur in the marsh in its present condition. Many nesting sites can
be found in tree lines. See development plan.

P. 10. The needs of the human environment are also an important
consideration.

P. 11. The proposed project will encourage additional usage by recreation-
alists and will not significantly affect other portions of the marsh
which are frequently used by naturalists.

P. 12. Cost factors may have been the main reason for slow development.

P. 13. Comment noted. The two thousand acre size stated in reference to
the marsh is an approximate figure. However, the La Crosse marsh
has been measured and its limits have been defined. Additional
acreage could be included upstream.

P. 14. Comment noted. Information has been deleted from EIS.

P. 15. Comment noted. Information provided in EIS attempts to be factual
and objective.


P. 16. Comment noted.





G-8

P. 17. Comment noted. Such information shows the constant changes going
on in the marsh because of weather, etc.

P. 18. Comment noted. Those conditions related to weather were evident in
other portions of the marsh and not just in the project site.

P. 19. Personal Opinion.

P. 20. We would like to have normal weather patterns as a basis for study
purposes; however, there is really no such condition as normal
weather patterns. One pattern will favor certain wildlife that another
pattern won't.

P. 21. Personal Opinion.







G-9


IN REPLY REFER TO:
Land Operations
102-01.a(1)
EVP 5
(ER 77/1111)


RECEIVED: UW-SYSTEM
ARCHITECTURE
AND ENGINEERING

United States Department of the Interior JAN 9 ':0
BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS BTA ES
MINNEAPOLIS AREA OFFICE GGF RT
831 SECOND AVENUE SOUTH W
MINNEAPOLIS, MINNESOTA 55402 EG-7- _ _ 'W
JJK
\WTK I sD *",


JAN 0 6


Lr. Donald Gerhard
University of Wisconsin System
P. 0. Box 8010
Madison, Wisconsin 53708


Re: Preliminary environmental report (DES) for proposed
North Campus Development, University of Wisconsin,
LaCrosse County, LaCrosse, Wisconsin (ER 77/111)

Dear Mr. Gerhard:

We have reviewed the referenced preliminary environmental report
and find that the proposed action will not affect Indian trust
property or Indian interests.

If we can be of further assistance, please advise.


/'

rectr/
rector


Sincerely,

Ac7tn/'-e.
/ A /

Acting Area


Response to:


Bureau of Indian Affairs


P. 1. Comment noted.


A RN , H( t Q! t J F r r i - :i 1L


".:l E
v - ~ I


Ct.


0







K~^ ....~.r~ ~UNITED STATES
f^ i^ ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
^* ,^ |no ~REGION V
^^1^^iQ~~ ^230 SOUTH DEARBORN ST.
K CHICAGO. ILLINOIS 60604
At pRo1O


Ji

Mr. Donald Gerhard
University of Wisconsin System
Central Administration
1930 Monroe Street
P. 0. Box 8010
Madison, Wisconsin 53708

Dear Mr. Gerhard:


G-10

RECEIVED: UW-SYSTEM
ARCHITECTURE
AND ENGINEERING


JAN D9 i'3
!


BTA -j-
"C ..I-

_ '. - -'I'. I

WTK -
EJQ _


I.


-i- ES'


i" I" YIi v

IFIE I 0,0.


We appreciate the opportunity to review the Preliminary Environmental
Report (PER) for North Campus Development at the University of Wisconsin-
La Crosse, La Crosse, Wisconsin. Your letter of December 1, 1977,
requested our views and comments on this project. Based upon the infor-
mation provided in the PER, we cannot support the development in Myrick
Marsh at this time.

The position the university is in is not an enviable one. The needs
of the students and residents of La Crosse need to be resolved in a
timely manner. However, we do not believe Myrick Marsh is the most suit-
able place for athletic and recreational field development.

While it is true the 30 acre development will only affect a small portion
of the marsh, the impacts upon the marsh will be adverse. The North
Campus Development will adversely affect the water purification and
sediment retention capacities of the marsh. Additional development may
also be stimulated by the action of the university. Our Agency has gone
on record as early as July 17, 1973, in expressing the opinion that the
Myrick Marsh should remain in its natural state. The PER has not offered
any information which has caused us to change our position.

The PER said on page 10 that the Wisconsin State Building Commission
would not permit any expansion of the University southeast of Campbell
Road. We request that the State Building Commission be asked if this
limit could be lifted in order to facilitate the consideration of other
alternatives. Several areas which could possibly serve the needs of both
the university and the community are Miller Coulee, Edner Coulee or Rammel
Creek, all to the east or southeast of the present campus. Other alter-
natives north of the La Crosse River should also be investigated, as should
construction on the bluff east of the city, and there is the possibility
of the development being dispersed at several locations throughout the


ARCHITECTURE
AND
ENGINEERING'


I~* _________________ fI


0






C 1O
-2-


community. A dispersed type of complex may also serve the local community
better. A shuttle bus system may be necessary to facilitate access by
the student body but this is done by several other universities already.

^, Our understanding of the environmental impact analysis process in Wisconsin
and at the Federal level calls for the statements to be unbiased and to
avoid any prejudgement. The tone and the manner in which information is
presented indicate that this PER is prejudiced in favor of the campus
development. In order to eliminate any veil of prejudice, a third party
completely removed from direct involvement should be selected to evaluate
and prepare the Final Environmental Report.

The biased nature of the PER can be seen in the discussion on page 57 of
the mosquito and public health. The PER implies that the entire population
of La Crosse would be benefited by the fill of this portion of Myrick
Marsh, since mosquito breeding habitat would be eliminated. However, the
PER fails to recognize the mosquito will still have a large area to re-
produce. Furthermore, the risk to the population of La Crosse and the
student body will increase since the athletic fields will be within the
marsh. The location of the fields will make each individual more likely
to be exposed. The PER also failed to discuss the particulars of the Aedes
triseriatus mosquito breeding habits. Our experience with St. Louis
encephalitis is that the mosquito which carries that strain normally breeds
in shallow stagnant water. The most likely places of standing water for
breeding are gutters, discarded tires, garbage can lids, etc. All of these
sources are just as easily found in a residential backyard as in a marsh.

We are aware of your work with the Army Corps of Engineers in regard to
a Section 404 permit and a determination should be sought from them in
regard to the requirements of a Federal Environmental Impact Statement.
Recent Executive Orders may require the Corps of Engineers to place more
stringent limits on your proposal or to require you to seek an upland site.

When the Final Environmental Report is made available for review, please
forward three copies to us. If you have any questions in regard to our
comments, please contact Mr. William D. Franz at 312/353-2307.

Sincerely,


Ronald L. Mustard
Director
Office of Federal Activities


Sent via telecopier 1-9-78 to
Larry Rice, UW-La Crosse, 4:15 p.m.




G-10

Response to: EPA

P. 3. The sediment retention capacity of the marsh is dependent to a large
extent on how long the flood waters stay in the marsh before receding.
During 1976 and 1977 no flood waters entered the marsh south of
Gorder Road. This area of the marsh receives no storm sewer runoff
and usually less flooding than any other portion of the marsh. Its use
for water purification and sediment retention is less frequent than
other portions of the marsh.

P. 4. All of these alternative sites are too far from the campus to be energy
efficient, economical, and meet class scheduling requirements.

P. 5. Comment noted.

P. 6. Comment noted. Revisions have been incorporated into the EIS.
See appendix D-2.

P. 7. Comment noted.


P. 8. Copies will be forwarded.







United States Department of the Interior
IN REPLY REDWER TO'


(^&, , p FISH ANI) WILDLIFE SERVICE ....:. ,,..
GREEN BAY FIELD OFFICE (ES) r6 -:F :-T
Univ. of Wisconsin-Green Bay AND r '":' CE " '"'
Green Bay, Wisconsin 54301 Jl7 l .i

January 9, 1 t t...'-....
IGGF ..... ...--.j
Mr. Donald Gerhard1 ,-:-' ', i -7
Director. Environmental Affairs -
University cf Wisconsin System i .. .
P. 0. Box 8010 WTt .
Madison, Wisconsin 53708 -IEI FILE
, Ipy-- i)_,__.- .._1.-
Dear Mr. Gerhard:

This r2sponds to your letter of December 1, 1977, requesting U.S. Fish and
Wildlife Service review of the Preliminary Environmental Report (PER) for
proocsed North Campus development at the University of Wisconsin-LaCrosse,
LaCrosse County, Wisconsin.

GENERAL COMMENTS

The tone of the PER and a number of inaccuracies in it make it more of a
U selling document than it needs to be or should be. On balance, the project
is negative for fish and wildlife and this should be more forthrightly and
accurately discussed in the final ER.

Much of the PER appears to present the project site as an isolated entity.
It is inaccurate to treat it this way and the final ER should show its
functional physical and functional biological relationship and contribution
to the total marsh of which it is a part.

Another misleading approach taken by the Pr:R is the implication that the
wetland of the project area is of lesser value than other areas of the marsh,
and thus appropriate for development. All wetlands are typically of high
value to fish and/or wildlife. If the logic of condoning the filling of
the least important part (depending on the species selected) of a marsh had
credence, it would be a formula for filling all marshes beginning with the
"least important" parts and filling piecemeal up to the "best" on the basis
that the "least important" parts, regardless (f absolute value, are suitable
for development. We also note that the PER has not demonstrated that the
particular +30 acres proposed for fill is the '-east valuable" for fish and
wildlife of the 2000 acres indicated for the LaCrosse Marsh, only that "better"
marsh habitat will not be filled. The final document would be improved if it
did not imply that development here is appropriate because better areas exist
nearby.

-.~ One inaccuracy is of particular note to this Service. There are three references.-.
(4 ) in the PER (pages 11, 15, and 70) to a meeting between the DNR, UWLC, and FWS
'-' and there is a strong implication that the three agencies agreed to a modified
plan of reduced fill. A December 9, 1976 letter from UWLC Chancellor Kenneth
Lindner to Richard A. Hoppe, Field Supervisor of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife





G-11

2

Service's Green Bay Field Office, correctly described the January 26, 1976
meeting as follows:

"(1) the Fish and Wildlife Service indicated they would not recommend
approval of a project which included a lake in the area under dis-
cussion; (2) that the Fish and Wildlife Service would not recommend
approval for filling the entire area; (3) that the Fish and Wildlife
Service would be receptive to considering [emphasis added] a plan
that utilized part of the marsh area for University purposes but held
a significant part of this as improved wetlands; (4) that we would
return to meet with the Fish and Wildlife Service after we had come
to an agreed upon plan with the Wisconsin DNR."

O To date, UWLC has not provided for our consideration a plan that has been
agreed to by DNR, nor has there been a meeting, as per Item 4 of Chancellor
Lindner's letter, between UWLC and this Service to discuss a plan that DNR
has agreed to. On May 19, 1977, you sent Charles Kjos, of our Green Bay
Field Office, a letter confirming UWLC's commitment to preserve the wetlands
beyond the proposed 30-acre fill. While the letter removes the question of
future development, it does not constitute Service concurrence with the proposal.

Please correct the implication of prior Service approval in the final ER.
We will consider with UWLC any plans that have DNR concurrence. The Service
position on this project will be developed after study of the final ER and
after the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Public Notice, which has already been
issued, has been fully studied.

SPECIFIC COMMENTS

(>3 Page 4, Section 2, Description of the Proposed Environment, and Page 25,
Relationship to the Total Marsh. We suggest adding to sentence 3 that during
periods of high water, water seeps into the area in response to raised water
table. This point was made at the January, 1976, meeting by a representative
of UWLC. Thus, the marsh is not dependent solely on flood water entering via
culverts nor on run-off from the immediate surrounding area. We also recommend
that the final ER indicate that in addition to the culverts mentioned that the
"wetland status" of the project area is also maintained by the high water table
of the LaCrosse marsh generally. This is amply indicated by the U.S. Soil
Conservation Service report, Pages 34 through 42 of the PER. We further suggest
that the term "isolated" not be used to describe the marsh.

;The final sentence of the Description of the Proposed Environment section (i
indicating that the area has low use by wildlife and that it is due to the 9
proximity of better habitat nearby is misleading and somewhat inaccurate.
Nation-wide, and state-wide, wetlands and their associated wildlife are being
lost and national and state conservation agencies have placed a very high
priority on wetland preservation. Wetlands are at a premium for fish and
wildlife.









3


The statement that the "better" marsh to the north and west attracts more
wildlife is only valid for certain species at certain times of the year.
The more complete picture is that the amount of wetland limits amount of
wetland-dependent wildlife, and at critical times, depending on species,
the +30 acres of project wetland is vital to them. It will be used by
individual organisms who can not go to the "better" areas because the "better"
areas are already taken -- only so much crowding is possible. The statement
also fails to indicate that for some species the project area is the "better"
habitat and that densities of organisms preferring Type 2 habitat will prob-
ably be lower elsewhere. We suggest that the final ER drop the implication
that the "magnetism" of the "better" areas draws aw-ay wildlife and leaves
the project area with "vacancies" and hence little wildlife use. Informa-
tion provided by Paul Harris and Charles Craig, former student researchers
on the marsh, does not indicate that there is low wildlife use for the habitat
type that comprises the project area. In fact, use of the project area by
wildlife is probably increased because of the proximity of other different
wetland habitats.

Page 11, Campus Plans. The final sentence of this Section implies U.S. Fish
and Wildlife Service's participation in an agreement to a plan that would be
approved. Our position was and is that as originally proposed the project
would almost certainly not receive Service concurrence and it could receive
favorable consideration only if significant reduction in the scope of the
project were effected and if sufficient additional compensating measures
could be developed to offset the damage of the reduced marsh fill. The Service
has not entered into a commitment to support the present project and that
implication must be removed from the final document.

Page 15, 16 Fields. The last sentence should indicate that UWLC decided to
preserve the 22 acres. The ER should not imply that the U.S. Fish and Wildlife
Service committed itself to the plan. See our General Comments and comments
regarding page 11 of the PER.

@-~ Page 33, Marsh Water Quality. The statement that polluted flood water from
Qe)the LaCrosse and Mississippi Rivers probably creates a hazard for wildlife
should be further supported or dropped in the final ER.

() Pages 46-47, Birds Observed in the LaCrosse River Marsh and Birds Observed
__ in the Proposed Site, and Pages 54-56, Wildlife Species Observed at LaCrosse
Marsh Jul, 1974 through May 1975. These Sections appear to present excerpts
from information gathered by Mr. Harris that were selected to imply low
wildlife value of the project site. Our information and conversations with
Mr. Harris indicate a richer, more active and diverse wildlife picture at the
project site than indicated in the PER. The final ER would be improved if it
presented more of Mr. Harris' information and how the marsh and wildlife
interact at the project site.




G-11

4

___ Page 57, Mosquitoes Pose a Health Problem. Perhaps the purpose of including
() this section was to imply that the marsh produces Aedes triseriatus mosquitoes
which carry encephalitis, so the proposed filling of +30 acres is in that
sense good. If this is the purpose, we suggest that it be dropped from the
final ER, for A. triseriatus is not a marsh breeder, but breeds in water
trapped in containers like tin cans, discarded tires, tree and stump cavities.

Page 63, Negative Aspects, Item 1. This is an example of the unnecessary
and undesirable attempt to playdown the value of the +30 acres of marsh to
be filled. It would be preferable in the final ER to include the first
sentence only.

Page 66, Animal Life and Birds. Both of these sections state incorrectly
that birds and other animals displaced from the project area will successfully
relocate. Except in the highly unlikely circumstance that "vacancies" exist
in similar habitat nearby, the loss of habitat and displacement of a number
of organisms means the loss of that many organisms. The final ER should
correctly indicate the result of the loss of habitat.

The Birds section also fails to mention the other various uses that birds
make of the marsh than nesting such as resting, feeding, courting, and for
cover and brood-rearing. The idea of removing trees during the non-breeding
season has merit. Should this project be executed, we hope to work further
with the University in this area to schedule work around critical times for
fish and wildlife.

Page 69, No Action. This section incorrectly implies that private development
( could occur in the project area should the No Action alternative be selected
and the area subsequently sold. This is not true, for private, non-water-
dependent fill proposals in this wetland would almost certainly result in
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service recommendation for denial of Federal permits.
The final ER should not indicate that residential, commercial, or other non-
public agency filling of the marsh would occur should the No Action alternative
be selected.

Page 70, Develop Fewer Fields, paragraph 2. See our General Comments and
@e* comments regarding pages 11 and 15 of the PER. The final ER must not imply
Service acceptance of the present proposal, for to date the proposal has not
been accepted.

Thank you for this opportunity to review and comment on the PER.
Sincerely yours,


Robert G. Ruesink
Acting Field Supervisor





G-11


Response to: United States Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife
Services

P. 1. Any inaccuracies found in the PER have been corrected in the EIS
Information with regard to Fish and Wildlife has been added. (See
appendix D,)

P. 2. The word "isolated" has been changed to "separated" and additional
text has been added with regard to functional relationships within the
marsh.

P. 3. The marshland proposed for filling is not contiguous with the marsh-
land to the west and north. This area of the marsh is bordered by
hillside, Lang Drive, Gorder Road, and a fill area which supports the
University's Maintenance and Stores facility. The roads act as
separating overland dikes which have culverts for structural reasons
to relieve hydraulic water pressure from wetland areas of the north
and west. The culverts can restrict and trap fish in the project area.
Seldom has flood water passed over the road. This limits to some
extent the value of the university marshland as a fish propagating
area, especially for fish requiring an egg-and-hatching period to
develop. The local DNR office has located some northern pike
spawning beds in adjacent marshland, but northern pike spawning
beds have not been found on the university marshland. The
alternative of removing Gorder Road demonstrated that restoration and
improvement are possible and that the "lesser value" of the university
land is not misleading. The wetland status of the project site is
questionable.

P. 4. Changes have been made in the copy to reflect this present interpre-
tation by the Fish and Wildlife Service. The development plans were
modified by concerns reflected in meetings with DNR and FWS. 1) The
proposed dredged lake was moved south (See appendix F-1.) 2) The
lake was then omitted and substituted with undistrubed open space
except to include the natural fitness trail and its access . 3) The
plan was compressed to allow the undisturbed area to extend along the
west boundry of the university property and permit continued flooding
from the culvert under Lang Drive. 4) The amount of undisturbed
area was increased from none to + 18 acres thus also reducing the
amount of area filled. 5) A more natural, irregularly sloped and
curvalinear line of transition was developed between the field area and
the undisturbed area rather than a straight line border. 6)
Environmental interpretive facilities were developed with proposed
plantings including a proposed bird watching station which developed
some objection. The planting would be from the list of vascular spe-
cies given. 7) Preservation of trees within the proposed fill area was
added. 8) DNR proposed that the City of La Crosse establish a
bulkhead line around the project fill area but the City opposed the
suggestion.

P. 5 The planning stages of the proposed project offers needed services to
& 6. the university program and the rest of the community. A viable plan
should consider the needs of fish and wildlife as well as the needs of
humans. Your comments are well taken and the EIS reflects your
clarification.




G-11

P. 7. Changes have been made which reflect the conditions of water seepage
and describe the relationship of the marsh area south of Gorder Road
to the other marsh areas north of Gorder Road and west of Lang
Drive.

P. 8. The undisturbed open space will maintain a wildlife habitat. The
& 9. undisturbed open space will also provide improved access for the
appreciation, observation, and study of wildlife. This area is in close
proximity to Cowley Hall which houses the natural science disciplines.
It is possible that this area would provide new opportunities for
observation and study by students, professors, and other environ-
mentalists because of the accessibility offered by the natural trail.

P. 10. The scope of the present project represents improvements over the
original proposal. The present plans call for twenty-nine acres of fill
with an informal edge that blends into the marsh. New treelines will
be established as well as other plantings which will welcome wildlife
into the area. The remaining undistrubed open space will be even-
tually surrounded by trees on three sides.

P. 11. The University of Wisconsin-La Crosse is nationally known. Its
reputation as an outstanding school of physical education is
well-founded and its mission is well established in the university
system. This university, in combination with the City's other schools
of higher education, contributes to an active and progressive
community. The proposed project offers a solution which:

(1) provides needed facilities close to the University.
(2) provides needed facilities centrally located within the community.
(3) provides facilities which will not lead to the destruction of
residential areas.
(4) provides easier access to an undisturbed open space marshland
for observation and study.

P. 12 Comment noted. Changes have been made in the EIS.

P. 13. The information provided on the avifauna of the entire marsh and the
marsh south of Gorder Road is taken from conversations with Mr. Paul
Harris and others who are familiar with the habits of birds in this
marsh. The information provided is objective, truthful, and represen-
tative of extensive studies in the marsh. Without Mr. Harris' efforts
and the help of others, this information would not be available to
document activites as they exist in the marsh. Their willingness to
discuss and clarify information is appreciated. The establishment of
other treelines will encourage additional species to inhabit the project
site. Some trees which presently exist in the project area will not be
destroyed by the proposed fill.

P. 14. This portion was in error and not corrected before printing of the
PER. The EIS has been revised








P. 15. Comment noted. The EIS has been revised as suggested.

Information which helps to determine the characteristics of the marsh
area south of Gorder Road should not be considered "unnecessary and
undesirable".

P. 16. The total amount of bio-mass that would be produced in the developed
project area should help offset the amount of bio-mass lost from initial
filling. Also the developed project area will provide some additional
habitat that will welcome other species. There is no evidence that the
wildlife on the developed fill area will adversely affect the wildlife
remaining in the undisturbed open space or vice versa.

P. 17. Comment noted. Should the project be implemented we would
encourage and welcome suggestions which would compliment the
existing environment of wildlife domestic habitation.

P. 18. Comment noted. (See section VI., A.)

P. 19 Comment noted. Changes have been made in the EIS. No assumption
is made that the proposal is approved or accepted.





G-12


UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE
I~~~ * _, _-


4601 Hammersley Road, Madison, Wisconsin


53711


Jant

D6naid Gerhard
UW. tisonf
Cen :'-" I Adn i ;:s tYr1't'i on
1930 Monroe Street
P.O. Box 8010
Madison, Wisconsin 53708


Dear Mr. Gerhard:

We have reviewed the preliminary environmental report foi
Development at the University of Wisconsin-LaCrosse. Oui
this report are as follows:

Differential settlement can be expected when fill is
soils. This will result in uneven surfaces and poor
It is feasible, however, to remove the organic soils
with suitable fill material to avoid this problem.
considered in the final design.


]ary 9, 1978
RFECEIVED: UW-SYSTEM
AR C'-iTECTU RE
AND ENGINEERNG

-_ - I---. i F _
'JI

ft d~t V11_



comments on

placed on organic
surface drainage.
and replace them
This should be


2.) We suggest provisions be made to lower runoff water from the surface
of the athletic fields to the marsh level, both during construction
and as permanent measures.

Because of the proximity of the marshlands, erosion control measures
during construction are essential and need to be incorporated into the
plan. Such items as temporary seeding, diversions, settling basins,
and pipe-drop structures should be considered.

D Soil blowing of the sand and gravel fill material may be a problem
unless definite actions are taken to hold this soil in place. In
addition, the fill will be droughty making it difficult to establish
and maintain vegetation on the athletic fields. We suggest consulting
an agronomist to recommend fill materials and topsoil which are better
adapted to establishing and maintaining vegetation.

We appreciate the opportunity to review and comment on this preliminary
environmental report. r cITr:T I
{ A ^,fW !T F C,TE' Lir


Sincerely,

-rf Hv v


N AND
ENG INEERING
I V1W-


v '. v.. * J a,. j C
State Conservationist I^<*
- R J. NO.
cc: Acting Dir., SCS, Environmental Services, Washington,-,TU.2, f


(


(

(


(


QD


' ' I f-) J
I .
I.








to: USDA-Soil Conservation Service

Comment noted.

Comment noted. Sub-surface drain tile may be required.

Comment noted.

Comment noted. UW-L physical plant personnel are experienced
in turf maintenance. The designi would be controlled by the
State Bureau of Facilities Management,


Response

P. 1.

P. 2.

P. 3.

P. 4.









3gL 6# , bA "R /

L->J 9, i 2?' RECEIVED: UW-SYSTEM
a J " ARCHITECTL.RE
AND ENGINEERING

@,--- ~jhj*~g~.d~Q~e~r~ BTA TES "
GGF RT
EGH RFW
470 <X O390 a-- =-.I~3 BJJKYT'
WTK I I6 "I
/EJQ I FILE





0 .g..,',_.(.,c." (..,. __~ /Zc,- t
o> aZl dW
\^U-' - dd ->c-- _ '^a^ .- ^Ce- -::L, p^^c J.L.......
@\w. BL- ~i( -^a<-t PUB -ot<



-tct -C",.a,L 'Act - ' ~--Trv^ "
> ,_^ ^; ^^^X6 "L~.tj



"<^ e_.., <7..~..~A. J, ,-.f-._I_C-r

^ . V
CtOL ^JL u-e --r (3)

in^^s t^ Uan2 ;, eCU-
O .
^"7\c^^d^7 A
f~l) , /)/a vyj e
-+- ^^^Sc Zc^^^-<<^^su^ ^ u @
7^^id^^^^^ ^





G-13

Response to: Helen Mayville

P. 2. The difference between the use of the proposed area now and later (if
developed) would be enormous. A person could drive by the proposed
thirty acre site every day for the entire summer and see very few, if
any, people on the proposed site. Whereas, if developed, the area
would contain many lpeople every day during the summer. The
twenty-nine acres proposed for development are not heavily used by
environmentalists since there are many other areas in the marsh with
more diversity of wildlife, easier access, and greater appeal to obser-
vers.

P. 3. The number of rental areas to the west would require extensive build-
ing elsewhere to house this large population of students. It remains
to be determined where these rental properties would be built and how
far the students would have to commute.

P. 4. Comment noted. There was no mention or intention of paving the
twenty-nine acres after developing the University's proposed
educational and recreational project.






G-14
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
FOREST SERVICE
FE RECEIVED: UVW-SYSTEM
NORTHEASTERN AREA, STATE AND PRIVATE F'ORESTRY ApHiE. E T. wSTE
6816 MARKET STREET, UPPER DARBY, PA. 19092 AND ENGS 3FRING
(215) 596-1671 .-__
8440 JA 12 li
January l,7-S,-g




Mr. Donald Gerhard r
University of Wisconsin System '.7 | -
Central Administration
1930 Monroe Street
P.O. Box 8010
Madison, Wisconsin 53708

Refer to: Preliminary
Environmental Report, North
Campus Development, La Crosse

Dear Mr. Gerhard:

We find that the environmental effects, including impacts
on trees, and other vegetation are adequately described.
The benefits of the proposed recreation areas and
environmental interpretive facilities seem to outweigh
the losses of 30 acres of wetlands. The remainder of
the 2000 acre marsh should be inspected periodically to
ensure its continued suitability as wildlife habitat.

Thank you for the opportunity to review this Report.

Sincerely, /


DALE 0. V UR
Staff Dirctor
Environraental Quality Evaluation







Response to: Forrest Service iT' re ', i, I


P. 1. Comment noted.


i;N GIN Fr qEERNG U^L b UL@'LL tI S l
















73 6 G 1.A~: o/-7V

'7 ~~~ ~ ~~~~JJKt1
WTK
EJQ FILE 'P

:E t / 7
4~~S-
~~~- __ 4r;n~; L mru.r-----
l~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ _ __ -- /~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~ ~ ~ ~ '~~~~-z-e~~~t


a2r i
~~~~~~~~~~~~~:~:~i)[:*~LLq~ j)I j

~~~~~~A.~~~~~~~~~' ~'';t,


Response to: Michael and Pattricia Strilttmater

P. 1. Comment noted.


6
/




9-16'
CThe Oak Grove Cemetery 6 ssociation
1407 La Crosse Street
La Crosse, Wisconsin 54601
Dial 782-6956

January 10, 1978

Mr, Donald Gerhard
University of Wisconsin System
Central Administration
1930 Monroe Street
P. O0 Box 8010
Madison, Wis. $3708

Re: North Campus Development
University of Wisconsin - La Crosse

Dear Mr, Gerhard:

m The Trustees of Oak Grove Cemetery Association support the proposed
marsh fill and have no objection to the development of an outdoor physical (j
education facility. The Cemetery Association owns much of the wooded hill
area south of the university land being proposed for development.

(e 'The proposed educational and community use of the marshland abutting
Oak Grove Cemetery land will not conflict with our function or the cemetery
grounds,

The only condition the Oak Grove does not want is that any part of the
cemetery be used as a means of entrance or exit in connection with your
facil ities.

Very truly yours,
.....

T' .... (.-..... ,
Erwin JJ. Al recht
Vice P esidnt

EJA:as
cc: Larry Rice, UW-L Campus Planner





Response to: Oak Grove Cemetery

P. 1. Comment noted.


P. 2. Comment noted.


P. 3. Comment noted.




G-17
ARCHITECTURE 82-S 2tth
AND ENGINEERING La Crosse, Wis, 54601
|j' - -- - . 1. 1an , n1978
JAN 13 9
Mr. Donald Gerhard BTAT Q
University of Wisconsin Sys I . 7
Central Administration .
1930 Monroe St., Box 8011 iEGH. _ |.
Madison, Wis, 53700 JJK T

Dear Mr. Gerhard:

Enclosed are comments on the "Preliminary Report for North Campus

Development at the University of Wisconsin La Crosse."

I refer to P. 11, Paragraph "Statutory Oblig.ations, " to wit:

"The Legislature finds it in the public interest to rrovide a
syste>m of higher education which fosters diversity of educational
opportunity; promotes service to the public: which makes effective
and efficient use of human and physical resources, It is efficient
to have various Universities throughout the state emphasize different
academic disciplines . *

lAs a resident of La Crosse for more than 16 years, and a property .

owner for the past 11 years, I am amazed at the short sirhtedness of

this statement.

7\i La Crosse has had a shortage of ladd since I have lived here,

and I daresay it is a condition that has existed many years before

I came.

/\ ~ For that reason, it seems foolhardy t hat a state university system.

would designate a city so poor in land resources as a physical education

institution when such large acreages of land are needed as described in

this report,

,\ ~It may be tiTe for the Wisconsin Uni-r-sity Systenm to re-examine Q

the specialized approach to education that each amrpus has, and make

,each one more diverse rathern than encroaching on 'the La Crosse River

Marsh which is an integral part of the river system at La Crosse.

It would seem there was a degree of awarene,js that such a land


shortage existed at the inception of the University of WisconsinQLa

Crosse's phy s ical education program as I note on P. l1, "Shared
(I' ore )




G-17
Page 2

Use of City Owned Fields,"

"Since its existence, the physical education -nrogram at the
University of Wisconsin-La Crosse has orperaled undrer the handicap of
never owning any outdoor teaching space, Over the years, it has had to
rely on the use of fairground and city-owned recreation land in the
conduct of its progra-;s. Approximately 5.5 acres are presently
available. .. (for physital education instruction use, however, the
school district has first priority for scheduling. This area is
vaintained by the University for use of the city facilities during the
school year). ."

.~ A fair question seems to he: Why did the Wisconsin University

System place such an ambitious physical education program on a campus

that lacked so in space?

Reference is made to "Historical Impotact, contained in the repo rt,

to wit:

"The 2,000 acre La Crosse L'iver Marsh has had a negative inpact
upon the social political atv-osphere of La Orosse throughout its
history. This is not to say its existence or function is negative.
Its presence in what is now the center of the city, has alwars been
thought of as a hinderance to develornment, a barrier dividing the
city, a probler; r for transportation of goods, services and peopnl,'
etc.

___] It is .liffictlt to understand why this statement is included in (
the report. dhat does it have to do with the oroposed 30-acre

development of UW-L athletic facilities?

( IIs the University suggesting that. its proposed development will

serve as a catalyst for development of the entire marsh? Or is the

University serving as a vanguard for interect-s wis ing to develop

the marsh?

t@ On the same page (11) a state!ennin zonoig. appears to indicate

the University is indulging in wishful thinking. It implies that

"Residential" indicates that "the past viewpoint that this low-

land should be filled and developed for city exransion thereby in-


creasing the tax base for the city,"
(more)







Page 3


In the paragraph immediately preceding the statement on zoning, it

is clearly stated, "State-owned lands are not subject to property taxes,"
Complete reading of the statement on zoning discloses:

tAn awareness of the. value of lowlands for Bilood control and wildlife
habitat has impacted on the historic approach to some degrees and will
make residential development of the marsh more difficult, Many people in
the public and private sectors are of the onion ta the best use of this
area is for urbanization; particularly due to its convenient location,"

It appears the University is substitlut;i:-n a I. Tnrge dose of

generalized opinion for objective examnination, of the impact that filling

the lowland would have on the La Crosse Riveyr Marsh.a Such statements

raise questions to me of the Universityts integrity as an institultion

of higher education,

Reference is made to the statement on. 'Looding - P" 32 to wit:

"It (the 1965 flood) resulted from a later than usual thaw of a
heavy accumulation of snow to the north, When warm weather finally
arrived in the month of ay, warm nights combined with sunny days to
cause continuous melting of snow and a large discharge of water into the
Mississippi over a short period of time.t

I believe weather records will show that the 1965 flood crested

at La Crosse on April 20, Where was runo-f f-rom melting snow coming

from in May? Northern Wisconsin and, Minnesota are generally free of

snow by May, and La Crosse has very little snow in Vay.

Reference is made to the statement on 'lFIooding'v P. 64,
"The conclusion arrived at that the North Campus Development will
have no affects (sic)-upon flood el.evations because of the volume of
water displaced by 150,000 cubic yards of fill is insignificant when com-
pared to the volume which is held by the nearby 2 000 acre La Crosse River
Marsh flood plaint?

This statement is general and contains no evidence to support the ,

conclusion.


(more)




G-17


Page 4

. Attached is a list of quesiiois I submitted to the University of

Wisconsin-La Crosse officials' i.:Nayr 19.75 I can only conclude that

in more than 2 1/2 years they are. with. the exception of the amount

of fill,(see question 5) deal1ing int generalities,

O@ The University seems to ;re'ses raeognition that filling a flood '

plain to the degree it propo'ae, to :.d so may' well affect other

properties downstream.

O(/'" Final reference is made to the statetment, "Mosquitoes Pose a

Health Problem." ltWhat does it mean? (Pae 57)

@jl It seems to say mosquitoes are beneficial a5food for marsh raccoon

but also a nuisance to animals and humans, On 'the other hand, wildlif

is seriously affected when wetland drainage rwas implemented for mosquito

control. Was this due to reduction in mosquitoes, or because the

habitat was altered by drainage? The statement is unclear on this.

3 l'Finally it notes Mlirick Marsh has Ancls triseriatus known to be

capable of transmitting encephalitis,

How is the proposed UW-L North Oarpus development goingr-tt

be affected? Will moving larger numbers of students into closer prox-

imity with the mosquitoes increase chances of sstludents contracting

encephalitis? Is."a mosquito control progra;- pl).anxned by UW'-L to offset

this possibility? What is UW.-Ls responsi.biity for students conr acti7ng

encephalitis while using University faci it. ie s?

Time does not permit me to comment further on this preliminary '

report, but I have serious doubts of its adequ.racy, 1 feel the University

has much explaining to do in its haste to achieve a doubtful goal.

Yours very truly


j ~ ~ y4

/ (en-ethO Gr Brol
K( i TXBr w








Response to: Kenneth G. Brown

P. 3. Personal Opinion. The University of Wisconsin-La Crosse and the City
of La Crosse have a common interest in making a better La Crosse.
One of the reasons La Crosse was selected the Number One Small City
is because of its fine institutions of higher learning.

P. 4. Because of the shortage of land, the University and the City of
La Crosse prefer that the proposed north campus development be
located in an area which will not reduce large residential areas.

P. 5. The reputation of the physical education program developed through
the years and therefore warranted the historical designation. The
University of Wisconsin-La Crosse is not unique in its land utilization
needs. Many of the State's universities operate on larger land areas
and still need to expand their PE/park/recreation areas. (See section
I., C., 2.)

P. 6. If the designated portion of the La Crosse River Marsh is ever
developed, it seems logical that a parklike recreation area would least
detract from the surrounding environment and yet provide a much
needed facility for both the University and the community.

P. 9. Other state universities have P.E. programs; however, UW-La Crosse's
established national reputation draws student enrollments whose need
for facilities has never been met.

P. 11. This is part of the socio-economic history of the marsh which is re-
quired in order to determine the impact of the proposed development
on all systems.

P. 12. This text is objective in that it represents two views of the marsh.
The University realizes this area of the marsh is unique in that it is
not contiguous with the rest of the La Crosse River Marsh.

P. 13. The EIS has been reworded. The previous wording "past viewpoint"
now reads "one viewpoint".

P. 16. This portion of the EIS has been revised so that viewpoints are more
objective.

P. 18. This portion of the EIS has been reworJed. The reference to the
month of May has been removed.

P. 19. This portion of the EIS has been reworded. The words "have no
affects" have been changed to read "have little effect".

P. 20. The displacement of 150,000 cubic yards would have no practical or
discernable effect on the crest of the river at times of flooding.

P. 21. All issues raised in your letter of May 13, 1975, have been responded
to in the EIS.

P. 22. The only way flood waters initially enter UW-L property is through
two five-foot culverts, one under Lang Drive and the other under
Gorder Road. When the complete floodplain




G-17

is considered, 150,000 yards of fill would be insignificant in affecting
other properties downstream when you consider the magnitude of the
volume of water moving downstream from the entire water shed areas.

P. 23. This subtitle has been removed. See letter by Dr. Parry in appendix
A-16 concerning mosquitos.

P. 24. This portion of the EIS has been reworked to eliminate misconceptions.

P. 25. This statement has been removed in the final EIS.

P. 26 See Dr. Parry's letter in appendix A-16.

P. 27. Comment noted.








'r*rnAolTIr A T hF: TRANqPlITATION


L1r\ U-rnn| wl.. .,.- g *MAILING ADDRf-Ser
,,,,.. 4EICOMMANDER PpI/eIs)
,UNITED1 STAT~Ec _ SECOND COAST GUARD DISTRICT
^ : r'' RECEIVED. UW 1--I3-~0 13o OLIVE STREET
ARnC('HeTECyltU1.-ir " i ST. LOUIS, MO 63103
AND ENGC','Ei:: G
.. * 16475
<~_i 1 Ser 097
J ^ 1A t i 11 January 1978

Mr. Donald Gerhard -Vr L i -
Director, Environmental Affairs _{. - -
P.O. Box 8010I IK..
Madison, WI 53709 T -; r

Gentlemen: EJQ_ '--

O We have reviewed the Preliminary Environmental Report for North Campus
Development University of Wisconsin - LaCrosse.

Thank you for the opportunity to review this preliminary environmental report.

Sincerely,


C. E. . NSON, JR.
Environmental Protection Specialist
By direction of the District Commander

Copy to:
COMDT (G-WEP-7)
DOT SECREP Region V
DOT (tes), Office of Environmental Affairs









Response to: U.S. Coast Guard


P. 1. Comment noted.







Donald Gerhard,
1930. Monroe,
P.O. Box 8010 Madison, WI,53708

Dear .r. Gerhardl,


:1 -iLtfc;::'VL-.~O: Um'-.?: ';-:, i 'VI
ARCH., EC,. RF
1597 Med'ary Lane, PN n EfNGINER'NG
Omalaska, WI, 5 465.- , 16 iA
January 11, 1 9| ' S

i"GH I -RFW

WTK i 6 ,YT

EJQ FILE


This letter is to register my opposition to the .proposed filling
of approximately 30 acres of marshland by the University of "'isconsin-
La Crosse for its proposed athletic a facilities.

gOd After reading the Rvxr~z^ Preliminary Environmental "eport , Iam
not altogether convinced the university is taking a $rtep which will
ultimately be the best one for the citizenry or the university itself.
iy letter is written from the standpoint of one who frequently hikes in
the marsh for nature study, and finds this spot of nature in the midst
of a -bustlinp traffic axssx area (Lang Drive), with its joyous birdsong
resounding in the spring, its abundance of interesting plants, its visual
beauty and solitude something not to be relinquished lightly. La Crosse
is essentially an ugly and depressing city (architecturally) and the
thing which makes it nevertheless a desirable place to live, for me, has
been the beautifult and readily accessible natural areas. Does the
university have a better priority to teach baseball, golf, etc. to
students---iany of whom aren't even Wisconsin citizens--than the citizen
who finds the quality of life in a permanant home (not just 4 years of
college) jeopardized by this expansion? o
The PER poses some serious questions to my mind: what wil'l be
the impact ultimately of loss of fn-storage of groundwater in flood-
times? The state, through the D.N.1R. is charged with protection and
stewardship of all wildlife, as I iurderstand, not just rare spediest,
yet the P,'' speaks of burying small animals unavoidably as a relsult of
the fill. Is this ethical? As wildlife which is not smothered moves else-
where, will not the pressure on the newly overpopulated areas lead to
lower survival rate?
X kAs a taxpayer I would like to see the campus at LT7-L put its
'"efforts into developing academic programs which will benefit the entire
state; La Crosse ' campus has a unique opportunity to become famous for
river study/ecology studies--why destror a wetland area which has more
potential value academically than a hundred interchangeable baseball fields
--the marsh is a unique asset UI-L should build upon (academically) and
not obliterate. Sincerel elly Goloom
not~ ~ ~ ~ wk A) wW'y veW-fe







Response to: Shelly Goldbloom

P. 2. Personal opinion.

P. 3. Floods, fires, and other events of nature have probably destroyed
more wildlife than the proposed filling will destroy. The twenty-nine
acres represent 1.5% of the total La Crosse River floodplain area.
Also, other wildlife will inhabit the proposed site. The project should
be pleasing and not be an unattractive eyesore.

P. 4. The University does have a commitment to all its programs. This
project should not have any significant adverse effects on the Univer-
sity's river studies program. it is felt that this particular area of the
marshlands may benefit public interest more as an educational facility
for the University and the entire community than by leaving it in its
present state.







802-S. 2-0th
La Crosse, W'i
Jan. 12, 1978


Mr. Donald Gerhard
Tniversity of Wisconsin System
Central Admin iistration
1930 ''onroe St. Box 8011
Taadison, Vis, 57700

Dear L :r. 'ezhilard:


RECEIVED: UW-SYSTEM G -20
ARCHITECTI.: R .
AND ENGINEERING
JAIN 13 i:.


BTA_ - - :"S I
GGF T I
EGH - :-,t, I
JJK _" _
WTK - _ .
EJQ F!L.E I
....... . ....~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~


I n;- colinstai-lly arazed at ',the University ignoring t':le voice of
Q) its Biology Dep.n;ent in inhe e.atter of filling in the marsh at (
La Crosse. The,.e are trained, experienced people who have spent a
great deal ol ti-ie, rroney, energy studyring and livin in this area.


I a-r- not a biologist, but living has taught rme that rran cannot
ta~mpner with nol ch)anre natlre and succeed. Filling the marsh is
destrovin, a :r wonderful source oE biological study for schools in
addition to rroviding nature with the opmortunityr of keeping the land
in a iveable condition. When an excess of water comes, it will not
respect rian directing it,

There is a stater ent on dleveloping the mrarsh. According to the
definition of a marsh, it certainly cannot be develoned by filling is
with soil.

/.\ Th;e implication I have received from my perusal of the "Pree
lirninarv Xeport for North Campus Development at the University of
Wisconsin ,- La Crosse" is that it ..rnas prepared with the idea no
thinking individual would read it. In numerous$ paragras hs there
are contridictory stateinents.

Fcr sore ti -:e there has been an atter-pt to brain wash all
persons who dri-e or ride across Lang Drive. The large sign which
indicates a site of future University building is not cuite true
The final decision for building has not yet been mJade. The University
is hoping it will be per.-itted to build at that site.

Ano+ther itee- wich concerns me is that ry tax rn:one. is eonstantly
beinz used in ways to which I object. One way I do not want it used
is for fillin.g a marsh for the University to bu.. ild on.

I ha v-e used the Unive-rsity of W'isconsin facilities, but I am (
losing rospect: for the nudgrlent of its administrators when they have
little resect for life. I feel the filling of the marsh indicates
this lack of respect.

Yours sincerelyT, ,
/. " & 6 v-r-'--
,argiierite G. Bronm
/.


1.





;-20

Response to: Marguerite G. Brown

P. 1. Only two biology professors wrote response letters disapproving of the
proposed project. It should also be noted that many informal
discussions have been held with various members of the biology
department. The biology department is by no means unanimous in its
approval or disapproval of the proposed project,

P. 2. Comment noted. Personal viewpoint.

P. 3. Comment noted. Personal viewpoint.

P. 4. The EIS has been revised to include relevant data,

P. 6. The purpose of the EIS is to consider the best interests of all con-
cerned parties.

P. 7. Comment noted. Personal viewpoint.








The UNIVERS


;ITY of WISCONSIN- LACROSSE


Mr. Donald Gel
Central Admini
University of
P.O. Box 8010
Madison, WI .

Dear Mr. GerhE


LA CROSSE, WISCONSIN 54601 (608) 784-6
RECEIVED: UW-SYSTEM-
ARCHITECTURE
AND ENGINEERING January 12, 1978
JA;4 13 4 i
BTA ---'ES
rhard
GGF RIT i
istration Syse-m- .C ..
Wisconsin System EGH LLr _i
JJK YT5 3
53708 WTK

ard: EJQ FILE ,l "


I have in hand a PER for the North Campus Development at IU.W. - La Crosse,
released approximately 30 November 1977, and note that comments are to
be addressed to you.

Overall this appears to be a straightforward presentation of the proposed
activities, with reasonable consideration of the environmental effects.

There are several parts, however, that I think should be clarified in
the final EIS:


Page 4, No. 2. The statement is
manently standing water on nor
read "at the present time...."
the recent drought; there are
Marsh has standing water till
oenultimate sentence.


made that there is no per-
near the site. This should
The dry condition reflects
frequent years when Myrick
freeze-up. See page 34, esp,


No. 3. The term "limited floodwater storage capacity"
loads the dice against wetland oreservation. Any individual
wetland is insignificant when considered as a percent of
the total, but constant use of this logic will result in
the wetlands being "nibbled to death."
The steady loss of wetlands through the nation
and state should also be considered when evaluating this
proposed nroject. In Wisconsin, these have shrunk from
_ 10 million acres at settlement time to approximately 2.5
million acres at present (Wetland Use in Wisconsin, WI DNR
1976), andthese are subject to constant pressures for
development.

No. 3. Negative impacts should include the loss of
water-table recharging. The disclaimerson page 32 are
based on generalities, and do not jibe with the soil pro-
files on page 37, which show a permeable sand base. The
clay in the upper areas of profiles 1 and 6 may represent
transported materials from the fill for Gorder Road and
Lang Drive (see page 36).


AN EQUAL OPPORTUNITY EMPLOYER --- 100a RECYCLED PAPER


G-21


050


0


I - - - I - - .




Page 2
Mr. Gerhard
January 12, 1978

No. 3. Negative impacts should also include the loss
of other wetland functions (SO4 reduction, C02 fixation,
O release, water purification, etc). In Science for Sept. 2,
1977, Westman (p. 961) cites studies showing that the cost
of duplicating wetlands functions (SO4 reduction, C02 fixation,
02 release, water purification and storage, etc.) may run as
high as $750 per acre/per annum. Filling this 30 acre site
would then represent about $22,500 cost per annum in lost
functions. In the American Scientist (1977, Vol. 65 (s),
Woodwell (p. 556 ff) demonstrates the importance of marshes
in removing various wastes from water.

Page F7. The implication should not be drawn that filling
the proposed area would alleviate local problems in reference
to Aedes triseriatus. This is essentially a tree-breeding
mosquito of the bluff side forests.

Pane 63. Cost/ Benefit Analysis
No. 4 The words conveniently located should have
(0) quotation marks. There are 10 minutes between classes here.
A student in class on an upper floor in the. Fine Arts Bldg.,
North Hall, etc., would have to reach Mitchell Hall, change
clothing and then traverse about 12 blocks to reach the
facility. The same problem would be faced in reverse at
the end of the Physical Education activity.

__ Paae 65. The pollutants which are discussed will be 0
placed in the air no matter where the site is located.

Page 69. In reference to the "No Action" alternative,
it is unrealistic to imply that the state would sell this
land for residential development. Tr view of the wetland
use restrictions, and the general unoesirablility of the
location as a residential area, no responsible purchaser
would be available. It is worth noting that U.W. - La Crosse
obtained the land from a local realtor. According to the
PER he had the ontion of developing it for residences (in
a city suffering a shortage of housing sites), but chose
instead to donate it to the university.

Page 77 A cost estimate would be desirable in refer-
@(/) ence to the suggestion that water storage could be reestablished
by removing the land fill at a later date.
^offs^ ' It should also be noted that if the university
e04) develops this section it will establish a nrecedent of
reference to Myrick Marsh. The university recognizes the
value of the large marsh area lying north of Gorder Road,
but would hardly be in a position to speak against fill
activity there.




G-21


Page 3
Mr, Gerhard
Januarv 12, 1978

The nroblems faced by the PE department here are real and serious, and
should be alleviated as promptly and efficiently as possible. It is
possible, however, that they may now be past or at their peak, since
the most rapid enrollment increase occurred during 1964-1967 without
the university being able to make substantial expansion of field facili-
ties. At the present time the university is making plans to cope with
a projected decrease in enrollment of perhaps 25 percent by 1982.

The following typographical and grammatical errors should be eliminated
from the final EIS:


Page 10, No. 8

Page 15, 1 42

Page 17, 1 2


... requests for constant resoddinq are

This plan was scrapped ...

...of the fill will be curvilinear ...


1 11 done in a curvilinear ,..


DECIDUOUS TREES


Paqe 32, 1 2

1 7


... water as it percolates ..

... no specific data are ...


1 12 Water from percolating ...


Page 46, 1 1


1 5


Meadow Vole


Sylvilagus floridanus


1 38 land were made .o.

1 49 ... of birds siqhtet a...


Page 56, 1 28

Page 59, 1 8


No specific data are ...

...of the north campus wl1l eliminate ..


/-/'


I ,~ ' v "'-' ,
Howard F.
Professor,


HFY/kmh

cc: Rice
file


Page 22


I/
U








Response to: Howard F. Young


P. 4. Comments noted. Revision in text. (See Summary &tatement).
& P.5

P. 7. Revisions have been made in the EIS.

P, 8. The concerns expressed in the Science article dealt with areas being
commercially developed, existing biomass, ground cover vegetation,
and plantings. The proposed project would not be a commercially
developed area, but rather an environmental interpretive area. The
proposed project calls for additional plantings and preservation of some
present plantings. The types of vegetation will change, but this will
not adversely affect the environment.

P. 9. Comment noted. Revisions in text.

P. 10. This is exactly why alternate sites even farther away from the main
campus are out of the question. The slight inconvenience is out-
weighed when considering the cost, inconvenience to residents, and
time it would take to locate the facilities in closer proximity to the
campus.

P, 11. Comment noted.

P. 12. Comment noted. Revisions in text.

P, 13. The site would be sand fill and as such would be of value because of
its location within La Crosse. The resale value would depend upon the
date.

P. 14. The best interest of the public should be taken into account.

P. 15. The University is interested in providing facilities which will give
students actual experience in their fields of study. The importance of
facilities has become increasingly apparent in all disciplines of instruc-
tion. Enrollment decreases have been taken into account in the EIS.


P. 16. Comment noted. Corrections have been made in the EIS.





G-22

AN ES S; ^: ;^ -
JANM L-; .
January -

Mr. Donald Gerhard Gt t ,n, ...
University of Wisconsin System
Central Administration 1 --
1930 Monroe Street, Box 8011 .-'..- ...,.
Madison, Wisconsin /iFt_ f' _f

Dear Mr. Gerhard:

This is a response to the Preliminary Environmental Report
for North Campus Development at the University of Wisconsin
at La Crosse.

The 30 acres in question is approcimately only 6% of the
2,000 acres of swampland referred to as Myrick Marsh.
The proposed facilities seemed to be designed for much
needed healthy recreational opportunities for hundreds
of people. It is obvious that these facilities will be
used by La Crosse area residents as well as university
students.

UW- La Crosse, like all other state universities, certainly
will share the use of these facilities with the community.
UW-La Crosse is the only Wisconsin State University without
an outdoor track and field facility, and all of the other
universities have a modern all-weather facility. It seems
necessary for the university to take some action NOW for
athletic facilities after spending at least 15 years in
trying to work something out with the city on Memorial Field.
Without an adequate athletic facility, the more than 1,300
physical education students and nearly 1,000 varsity athletes
are being cheated of a safe and functional area in which
to participate.

For example, the track and field proposal would finally
enable 1,300 students and 150 varsity (men and women)
athletes a safe and functional place to learn and practice
the various events of this sport. It is reasonable to
project the use of this facility for age group track meets
during the summer and various competitive functions for
adults such as the "Predicted MILE" and Master Track Ml1eets.

The north campus development proposal is not a private busi-
ness adventure but a unique proposal for human beings of all
ages to exercise and learn many of the skills of sport.






2



With the emphasis and popularity of adult fitness on the
upswing throughout our country I feel this development
will be a major contribution for the citizens interested
in adult fitness of the La Crosse area.
Finally, it seems strange that the University of Wiscon-
sin - La Crosse maintenance facility would be allowed
to be constructed on university property but not athletic
facilities on adjacent university owned property. The
maintenance area included a large building with lots of
big equipment. The athletic failities proposed does not
include buildings and noisy equipment.


This letter of proponent for the north
report speaks for hundreds who will be
acceptance, Thank you for your time.


campus development
affected by its


Sincerely,
/.... ,
I,.-' ? ,


(^ L /


Phil L. Esten
2546 Edgewood Place
La Crosse, Wis. 54601


Response to: Phil L. Esten
P. 2. Comment noted.
P. 3. Comment noted.
P. 4. Comment noted.
P. 5. Comment noted.
P. 6. Comment noted. Personal Viewpoint

P. 7. Personal Viewpoint noted.


P. 8. Comment noted.


G-22


0
0


0





RECEIVED: UW-SYSTEM
ARCHITECTURE u-23
AND ENGINEERING


BTA _~


GGF K


-TES
RT
_I _ i


215 South 26th Street
La Crosse, Wise 54601
January 12, 1978


Donald Gerhard EGH RFW
University of Wisconsin JT
arcion, ( Wisconsin W53706 JJK _ L Iil3
WTK'
Dear Don, EJ-Q FILE

mThif-' is in reanonse to the Prelir:i.nr-r Einvironmental Reort
for iU'orth iCn!nlu: IjevemoTment a.t the Inivernri-b of Wiisoonsin-La Cro.sPe.

i. a' concerned that throuholt tlhe re-ort tlh-re are inter-
L pret :tions ,one v-.lue judc:.ments made a out statemients thaEt are intended
to be ttrai:.ht factual informnation. For eyan::le, references to "im-
provin7 thle -;arsh:l" .land "a better marsht" T:R,'h.d 'be rore acCuratel.y
nlhrea-ed ':ch. an -inr the rmarslh" and "a oifferent .jt te ' of i.ars.h,"

FYonWhere in the reort are therre d ata sup-lport:tin-f the need for
thle facilitie,. WJhat i. the current enrollment'? WThc.t is the nrojected
enrollment? Is, not enrollmrent expected to fall dramticc lly in the
1980's? How many students are involved in outdoor rphrysic-al eduction
cla ss.es reruirin,-: use of Fields? i What is ' The )neal: iti.iation of field
nece? iflow does utilization of the fields var'- throuv.hout the year?

(?The sat .e e'ent on p. 11 that the fil lin.r' of t.he E :rsJ did not
t.ake place cdue to lr:r of fu-in; is inorre t; tlhe fill in- c id not
takle nlace because the DI'R ascertained t-ha.,t a.l tIheir recuire-nents had
not bleen met and ordered. a cork stoppare.

riecauspe of norma-l snov^1 cover from Vn overnher throju'h I-la rch and
r-rin' flooc'in - ever-7 othcr -vear, for Io.. narn]- vceehs ;f Lwhe c-hool vear
il.l the fc-ilitr be usable for for.mal cl.s use? (- . lj)

'he problems asociated v'iti. -t1-e facili -t .- loc. tion 0.' mile
fron:' the, e univeTer it-' have not been al ee1l: . . r ,reF-ed ( :. 16). ow
much class time will be lo t b 'the -tut C : -:Ct in- .c' and forth to
thle fi 16? WIhat traffic improvemnents will be retiuir :- on La. Crosse
Street to accomoc.ate the increased pedestri:n crosin,.? 'ill a. side-
vwjalk.. 'hb rico-,,ired alonTr .:ast Avenuee With t'te increased traffic on
~order .Foad, will the ci-t' be renuired to u.p.rade it--including curb
anc 'utter and sideal. . ..
am4 , C.1...t e r.(3s i 0,T...I

: ,:he statement on. -'ot ( 7 17) doe rn-t rdercribe the oost of
( 7) the project; it merel-v states the amount of mone- apnrorriated for
tlis .biennium. What is the nrojected cost of the needed fill? of the
prenara-tion of the track and fields? of the landscp.in' of the park-
in.: -lot? Of the t :ilet facilitvr? of the fitne. , trail and other
( evelonments? .mht-h will 1 e the adced ma-intoner ' cos p-h?



Q



JAII 16 t 19cc




G-23


Tlhe Hi}istorical Impact statement (p. 4) is wanting in several \
respecti;. First, anr Army Corps of Engineers lhearinrg thr.t has dealt
with ch l;ng-es proposed for Il-rick Marsh has b.rou,ht out many neonle who
h ave snok!en of the values of the marsh as it is. There have been
fishermern, children, n atural.ists, hilers, home ou:encers joncerned when
fl'o-;oC')lains a.re to be filled.

Secord, on three separate occasiRns ihen I La Cro, se voters
hacd 'the onportunity to rpprove major develonments in the rwrs h, the
referendta e re rejected. (eee ,avic 1. Juneau, ".A m;lrver of La Crosse
River 1 iarrh: ITrmprovement Pronosals, 1938-196.' Geoh.ra-lr Couse Require-
ire nt for Orolert in',-.ate, UW-I. fay 6, 1969.)

'uFinall.y, thae time has come to reco.- ir.e tha't de:truction of
our in: .tlral resources is not the result of a sin:le massive ro ject.
Rthh-ler, it is the result of the accumulation of r ,,: nr small, eerrin;rlv I
in:ocuousE projects. whose sum total adds up to destruction. Yrrick
- r,..h iha.- been s-ubjeoted to much abuse over thle rera. This culrrent
.rrnoosed ro jct will take 1., of the remtin i.n : mrarsh. s ut how r any
acr.er1 hf:.ve been lo!st previously? Siuch 1T rojects C s '.order Road, L, ang
T:rive, the Canusewa- and adjacent fill, the uti]it. subst, tion, the
well roads, and nark fill have all contritbuted to the loss of wetland.
rthe timre has; come to cease thinking of an individual project as only
a nial.l portion of the total loss, but rather to assume responsibility
for protectirnr what is remainning in libht of the brutal loss that has
ocurrccu rPrevviousl-. Protection of a valued res,-urce is not ..on byr
'l.oamin lonl] 1. 5" of the tota.l. Protection is .achieved only bvy saring
'l;.lit si.nce we have alrecr" lost hlf of o ur resource, we must ensure
th:-it: no more is lost.

.:Te purrpose of the Fire Protection section is unclea--r.
] iow x:ill th(e pronosed project affect the incidence or severity of
-:'ir',:?' One irn.pli cation W:miclht be that t -)e facilities to be construc-
t+ed Jill be lo c-aed in a fire hazard zone,

nTbe i -ulied definition of Aesthletics (n. Z5) is incorrect.
c-Aesthetics is "of or perta.iinin to the beautiful, as distin.- isbhed
from tI.e nrora.ml and especially, the useful." Aesth.etics can Te trented
Te:ara-i.el from one'" prefere nce for the use of the area, and this
ri:'orous d: efinition nmust be anrlied to the marsl.

''The ae -.,e otics of Lan,, - Imrive ain Gorder Road hKoave nio rmle-
e .ea-use L-e -nr)iect will riot affect the roads, except r.erhps to .
T.:r-,:- r tecir 'deteri or ti:ion.

2 ;ome aspects of the Cost/-enefit Analysis sectio:n (. 63)
4'n(cd -revi:ion. (1) and (3) under "Positive -enefits" are identical. (
(. .) i? a ne-ative aspect because the studcents hacve a lon:er distance 7
to tr-vel. (5) and (7) are identical. ()) is a negative aspect:
fl].oo:d war-ters will be affected. The de :.ree of effect is a. va!lue jud-


X t. ;


f-~

G-23

^ 'l' The second sentence of (1) in "Negative Impacts" should be
\^k eliminated as it is a qualifyring statement. Other negative aspects
are (3) long distance and inconvenience of travel; (4) effect on
flood waters; ( ) city obligations for street improvements; and (6)
costs associated with construction and maintenance.

Air quality (p. ,5) would bhe adversel> affected by the pro-
eject because stucents and teachers, who would walk to a field on. the
ca,-:pus proper, would now be driving to the new fields.

Encephalitis mosQuitoes (p. ,7 an.d 62) are cavity breeders
lOj .which use either tree openin:s or old tires. Fillingr the marsh would
chave no effect on them.

ecase Twvo ad ditional alter.natives ( p. 6)) should be considered..
9 eccuse ou.tcdoor phvsical education fielcs and off-street parking have
been identified as the two outstancing needs of the university, wlhyr
not combine the two in a sinrle facility? Other universities have
done -'o hby onstrructing fields as a second story above a ground-
level parking lot. Such a, facilityr at UW-L would not only nrovide
f-ields in a much more convenient location, but also would improve
t,1he aesthetics of the- parklin, lot and wouldf eliminate the need for
s::(o '- rer-'ovral on. the lot.

imi A seconC alternative is to investi.:,a.te with the La Crose
Pub].ic :chools thbe pos sibility. of jointl. constructini a stadium on
Ithe new Lo.a.n lli.h T:ohool dite now being, planned. T.lhis would mrake
fe..si:.le the ontion of the cit-y seflinr^ Nermoril Stadium and adjacent
fielc-[: to the universityr for deVelopment totall-r as phrsiical education
fields. '

Sincerelve ,


;-Jandra Fletcher



G-23

Response to: Sandra Fletcher

P. 2. Comment noted. Revisions have been made in the EIS for objectivity.

P. 3. Additional information has been added to the EIS. (See I.,C, 2, and
appendix F-8).

P. 4. Comment noted.

P. 5. Flooding conditions will vary from year to year. In 1976 and 1977 no
flood waters entered the project site. (See appendix C.)

P. 6. Time lost by students will be minimal compared to the location of the
facilities elsewhere. The University is working in close cooperation
with the City and its various departments. If the project is approved,
further steps will be taken to insure pedestrian safety and make
improvements in roadways where needed.

P. 7. The cost of the project will be under $250,000. Maintenance costs are
not part of the construction budget but they would be normal for turf
maintenance. Costs of fill vary from $1.50 to $5.50 per cubic yard.
The toilet facility is not part of this project.

P. 8. People using the marsh for various activities primarily use those
portions of the marsh other than the one proposed by the University
for development. Additional historical information is included in the
EIS.

P. 9. The City is aware of the need for such facilities. Most of the
property was purchased from the City of La Crosse for the proposed
purpose.

P. 10. The University would welcome a decision which establishes which areas
of the marsh cannot be disturbed. The area proposed for the project
site should provide the ultimate best use in the interest of the public.

P. 11. The hazards of fires and floods are real and cannot be avoided. Such
hazards also exist elsewhere and are not uniquely associated with only
this particular area. Gorder Road acts as a natural barrier for fires
from the north.

P. 12. If this project as proposed is developed, and treelines and other plant-
ings are established, some people may find it more to their liking than
the marsh vegetation which now exists.

P. 13. Comment noted.

P. 14. Revisions have been made in the EIS.

P. 15. Comment noted.


P. 16. Many of the students and staff using the facilities would walk or jog
between it and the main campus. Comment noted.



G-23

P. 17. Comment noted. (See section I, D, 2.)

P. 18. Prohibitive costs, lack of space, etc., do not permit this as a feasible
alternative. Those few campuses which have tried this expensive
solution have not had satisfactory field conditions.

P. 19. This comment suggests another project alternative for one element of
the master plan, which would be only a partial solution to the space
needs.



G-24


Mr. Donald Gerhard
University of Wisconsin
IMadison, Wisconsin 53706

Dear lMr. Gerhard


RECEIVED: UW-SYS-I IM
ARCHITECTU!RE
AND ENGINE-R'NG
JAMI 16 t

GGF - R--T
EG
JJK T !"
WTK
EJQ FILE ,


3021 CovTrley Hall
University of T'isconsin-La
Crosee, La Crosse, ,isc.
January 13, 1978


This letter is in response to the Preliminary Environmental Report
for North Campus Development at the University of Trisconsin-La Crosse.
The comments listed belowr are restricted to biological issues as this is my
miain area of training.


Page 4 #2 - The last sentence of this section does not constitute a descript-
O ion of the proposed environment but rather a value staterient.
The Tarsh to the north and west of Gorder Road is larger and (
does have more diversity than the marsh under consideration,
Howyever, larger size and greater diversity by themselves do not
denote superiority in any fashion. To the flora and fauna living
in the area, the marsh obviously meets their needs.


Page 24 -






Page 33 -

'


Academic Use - The TUWL marsh has been affected by the construction
of Gorder Road and other modifications. Nevertheless, a change
does not necessarily denote a deterioration. The change in veet t.
ion may actually result in a unique area different from that
marsh directly accessible to the La Crosse River. Although some/
staff members of the Biology Department may have made the statement
recorded in the EIS, this opinion certainly does not reflect the
feelings of the Biology Department as a wthole.

La Crosse River Water Quality - The analysis of the La Crosse
River in 169 measured only fecal coliforms and could not
differentiate between h.uman contamination and contamination by
other animals. Since that time analysis of the river vrater has
indicated that the coliforms are not of human origin but from
other animal sources. The National W:ater quality criteria says
that wThile this water is not fit for recreational use, such rwater
if treated can be utilized for many human uses,


Marsh TWater 2uality - City monitoring of the Mississippi River ,
during the summer months has shown only sporadic periods where
there are high coliform counts. In general the river is quite
clean. Flood vrwater would tend to dilute any pollutants and these
waters wrould have extremely low, if any, pollutants. As it has
been demonstrated that the fecal coliforms in the La Crosse River
are 7enerated by the animals living there, it is questionable.
that they would constitute a hazard to these animals.

Pa:e 46 - Animals observed in the marsh - the availability of standing water
will vary from year to rear according to the prevailing weathers
Pconditions. The Wisconsin State Department of Transportation
statements are of little value unless the date on wrhich the
observations were made is stated,

Page 46 - Birds observed in the proposed site - it is implied that since
n the majority of the birds sighted were in the trees and the trees
are not going to be disturbed that there will be little effect
on these birds. Sighting birds in a tree does not mean that all







the birds essential activities are carried out in that tree.
Food gathering, loafing areas, etc. may occur in areas away from
the trees.

Page 55 - Birds observed in marsh area ,42 - At the bottom of this page there
O s- is t '-ol -brs breeding ~n area 1L2. The statement made with
the list of breeding birds implies that the birds breed in the
marsh but do not nest in the "actualt marsh. A birds habitat
may include many types of microhabitats, some for feeding, breeding
nesting, ect. Saying that the birds do not nest in the marsh does
not mean that the marsh does not play an Essential role in the
birds habitat.

Page 65 - t ater uality - During the period i- mediately following deposition
f the fill there would be a period of potential erosion leading (
7 )to sedimentation of the surrounding marsh. No steps are mentionedaJ^
that .Twould seek to alleviate this-problem ( i.e. soddin, planting
of shrubbery, etc.). HQw will it be determined wrhether the fill
materials are free of pollutants3

Page 66 - Biological - The fact that animals are mobile and can move does
Unknot mean they .will be not seriousl affected by the filling of the
(/O)rarsh. If the habitats it the marsh? -the north and west of the~
UIL marsh are already populated^ thJ.immigriting animals ill )
have no w:.here to go. How many otf.te displated animals can be
accepted by the remaining habiit t.sa, noue-tion that can not be
answered ..rith the available da ,. : ^ ' .,4

Page 68 - Insects and invertebrates ~ /iotiCc ':potential of an animal
,has nothinp: to d'o .:ith ecoloqi l l .reality. If the marsh habitat J
)is reduced by 60V, the habiiatYt avajila-b1 to the remaining
invertebrates would be redcced .by 60P;'..Tf all factors remained the
same it .oou.ld be logical to umne .hat the invertebrate po>:ulation,
reg rrdless of reproductive potential ,'woild be reduced by 60.
This ,.o.uld mean a 60 reduction in tobd for birds and other
,,Ti ldlife.

Respectfully, /


Dr. ichard A- Fletcher
Professor of Biology
University of 'Tisconsin-La Crosse
La Crosse, 'Tisconsin








Response to: Richard A. Fletcher


P. 2. Comment noted.

P. 3. Comment noted.

P. 4. Information from water quality studies by the local fish laboratory
indicate municipal wastes may contribute to the fecal coliforms present.

P. 5. Fecal coliform counts may also be the result of some municipal wastes
entering the river upstream between Fort McCoy and the La Crosse
River marsh.

P. 6. The Wisconsin Department of Transportation has been conducting
studies from 1973 through 1977. Their observations have indicated a
reduction in muskrat activity.

P. 7. Loafing areas and food gathering areas will exist on the project site.
Even in residential areas in the city birds can be found loafing and
gathering food (in some cases from feeders).

P. 8. The proposed project site would in itself provide a microhabitat for
birds. It should be noted that seventeen of the twenty-four species
are birds which can be found living in other areas besides marshlands.

P. 9. The University would work closely with the City, conservation spec-
ialists, and university faculty and staff when the project is approved
in order to keep erosion at a minimum. Fill shall be of a quality which
is not considered to be polluted. One function of the marshland is
water purification and some small quantities of pollutants are removed
from flood waters by the marshland. Obtaining a fill completely free
of pollutants would be difficult from the standpoint of defining what a
pollutant is and of establishing criteria.

P. 10. Comment noted. Studies seem to indicate that the loss of wildlife on
thirty acres will not endanger the existence of any species. These
studies (Harris, Craig, Smith, DNR, DOT, FWS, & UW-L faculty)
indicate that the wildlife is continually at the mercy of the elements
and will be continually changing due to fires, drought, floods, etc.
The filling should help to provide a more consistent microhabitat for
certain types of wildlife.

P. 11. Grass, plantings, and treelines would provide habitat for insects and
invertebrates. Therefore a 60% reduction in food for birds and other
wildlife is only temporary. New biomass will not prohibit an inverte-
brate popoulation.






6-25

tate of Wisconsin \ DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION


DIVISION OF HIGHWAYS
4802 Sheboygan Ave.
January 13, 1978 P.O. Box 1487
Madison, WI 53701

RECEiVED: U,',-'-A- i:
ARC TE
AND ENGi'.:. :'-;
Mr. Donald Gerhard, Director
Environmental Affairs JAIM i- .j .
University of Wisconsin System B
Central Administration
1930 Monroe Street G(C "
P.O. Box 8010' F' '
Madison, Wisconsin 53708 . i -

, lr-i -'*i I
Dear Mr. Gerhard: EJQ1

Re: Preliminary Environmental Report for
North Campus Development
University of Wisconsin - La Crosse

We have reviewed the above-noted document and offer the following comments:

More data should be provided in the EIS indicating the amount of
traffic that will be generated by the new facilities and any
expected peak hour volumes exiting from the facilities which
could create problems at the intersection of Lang Drive and
Gorder Road.

O Page 69 - The EIS should note that the alternatives of Site Restora-
tion to original state could require the removal of Lang Drive from (
the city's transportation system or the reconstruction of Lang Drive
on a structure. The impacts resulting from the Site Restoration
alternative, causing the removal of Lang Drive from the transportation
system, would be completely unacceptable because there are not suffi-
cient facilities available now to carry the total north-south traffic
volumes. The placing of Lang Drive on structure across the entire
flood plain would not be economically prudent nor feasible.

O We would like to express our appreciation to the University for their (
close cooperation with our La Crosse District Office throughout the
development of this proposal.

We thank you for the opportunity to comment on this Preliminary Environ-
mental Report.


Sin er- y, - /.


T. J H WEPA Coordinator
T. J. HFt, WEPA Coordinator a\_- __ _ -- --
tI I , I






G-25
Response to: Department of Transportation

P. 1. Comment noted. (See additional information added in II., A., 6., and
appendices E and F-8).

P. 2. Comment noted.

P. 3. The cooperation of the Department of Transportation with this project
has been beneficial.





G-26


re<CJr Ja 1 )cI pI
r-ca /Yras oS as


~jVCA_ JQ v r\


a CO r^) f n '


%ro


DtCUevep r a/ i 7 7A


RECEIVED: UW-SYSTEM
ARCHITECTURE
AND ENGINEERING
JAN 16 t'
BTA ES
GGF LAT
EGH RRF\AI
JJK YT
WTK
EJQ FILE


b aerza.Me0-
-- )>-ic^ 1

^J i a6> 0r - v-r

1) 6j - C /
DL-ySS /6 s -


(rcL.S


CAMF'43 pdLNNGE(
-l'uO$ r


L' K 1Csz /


Ji jL/6 oI


ifcr n-)- C r /O/-


Z 7


)02: 3 r S '1 o (- kcnno ('4


~~~i~~~CO ~~~~~~i~






G-26


CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE HERBARIUM. XX

The Vascular Flora of Myrick Marsh
La Crosse, Wisconsin














W. A. Smith
Department of Biology
University of WJisconsin-La Crosse
La Crosse, Wisconsin 54601














Reproduced at the University of
Wisconsin-La Crosse 4 January 1978






G-26
The Vascular Flora of Myrick Marsh, La Crosse, Wisconsin

W. A. Smith
Biology Department
University of Wisconsin, La Crosse, WI 54601

A preliminary vascular flora of Myrick Marsh, La Crosse, Wisconsin, was
compiled from voucher specimens at the JUW-La Crosse by Sohmer (1973). Since
then an additional 106 taxa have been found in Myrick Marsh, primarily by
Deon Nontelle and the author. This report integrates the report by Sohmer
(1973) and the subsequent collections presenting a:rsTtikvely complete vas-
cular flora of the Myrick Marsh area. Voucher specimens are deposited at
the Herbarium, Department of Biology, UW-La Crosse, La Crosse (UWL).
Proposed uses or alterations of the Myrick Marsh area, such as the UW-
La Crosse North Campus Developement (UW-La Crosse, 1977), the Bicentenial
Expressway project, expansion of Lang Drive, and the use of snowmobiles, all
make compilation of this floristic list a timely addition to the knowledge
of our unique, intracity wetland.

Species Lists

The flora is presented in three forms: a systematic list of scientific
names; an alphabetical list also including common names; and a special list
relating to the North Campus Developement site.

Systematic List. Plant families in the systematic list follow the arrangement
of Cronquist (1968). Within each family the genera are listed alphabetically,
as are the species in each genus. Species preceded by an asterisk (*) are not
native to Wisconsin. Species preceded by an exclamation mark (!) are those not
associated with wetland habitats as defined by Curtis (1959). In some instances
the nativeness of the marsh population is questionable. Species in this cata-
gory are preceded by an asterisk and a question mark (*?).
The systematic list is of use to taxonomists for local and regional floras
and to ecologists for evaluating the relationships of plants and animals found
in the marsh.




Smith - 2


G-26
Alphabetical List. The alphabetical list (List 2) provides an index of
scientific and common names. After each common name a reference is made to
the appropriate scientific name. Family names are included in parentheses
after each scientific name. Common names follow Swink (1974).
The alphabetical list is useful for teaching nature study. Its format
makes it of great value to the general public.

Species Threatened in Mvrick Marsh. The author's contributions to the Myrick
Marsh (snuth of Gorder Road and east of Lang Drive) for the La Crosse Campus
Planning Office (University of Wisconsin-La Crosse, 1977). The plants unique
to the 55 acre section described above warrant special mention as over half
the area is scheduled to be filled for developement of athletic facilities
(IBW-La Crosse, 1977). These threatened species are presented in the sequence
of Cronquist (1968) in list 3.

Summary of Flora

A vascular flora of 233 species plus one hybrid taxon are listed for the
Myrick Harsh area (List 1.) The floristic and community affinities of the
flora (Figure 1.) includes: ninety-five native wetland species (41%), sixty-
nine (30%) species not native to Wisconsin, and one hundred twenty-four (53%)
species not considered wetland plants. Nativeness could not be determined with
certainty for fifteen species. Specimens of three genera (Malva, Juncus, and
Allium) could not be determined to species and were not catagorized for native-
ness or habitat. They were included in the flora total as the genera are not
represented by other species in the marsh. None of the vascular plant species
considered threatened or endangered in Wisconsin (Read, 1976) are known to occur
in Myrick Marsh. Of the forty-seven species found in the fifty-five acre plot
south of Gorder Road and east of Lang Drive (UW.-La Crosse, 1977), sixteen are
not found elsewhere in the Myrick MIarsh area (see List 3).




Smith - 3

G-26
Acknowledgement s

Thanks are expressed to Dr. S. H. Sohmer for assistance by generously
providing his research file on the Myrick Marsh Flora. Deon Nontelle gra-
ciously updated the card file with her recent collection records. Steve
Swanson was very helpful in keying certain taxa and in locating collections
not previously cited. James Peck is thanked for reviewing the manuscript.
Finally the author wishes to thank Julie Christianson for typing the final
draft.




Smith - 4


G-26
LITERATURE CITED

Cronquist, A. 1968. The Evolution and Classification of Flowering Plants.
Thomas Nelson and Sons Ltd. 396 pp.
Curtis, J. T. 1959. The Vegetation of Wisconsin/An Ordination of Plant
Communities. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison. 657 pp.
Read, R. H. 1976. Endangered and Threatened Vascular Plants in Wisconsin.
Technical Bulletin No. 92. Scientific Areas Preservation Council,
Department of Natural Resources, Madison, Wisconsin. 58 pp.
Sohmer, S. H. 1973. Contributions from the Herbarium. V. Preliminary
View of the Vascular Flora of the Myrick Park Marsh, La Crosse, Wisconsin.
Photo-offset at University of Wisconsin-La Crosse. 16 pp.
University of Wisconsin-La Crosse, 1977. Preliminary Enviromental Report
for North Campus Developement at the University of Wisconsin-La Crosse.
Mim',eo. 78 pp. & App. A-J.




Smi4h - 5


G-26
Figure 1. Floristic and Community Affinities of Flora of Myrick Marsh.


29 , Non Wetland Species


24 % Non Nt. ive
Non Wetland Species


41 % Native Wetland Species




Smith - 6


G-26

List 1

Vascular Plants of Myrick Marsh
(Angiosperm Families in the Sequence
of Cronquist, 1968)

Division Equisetophyta
Class Equisetae
Equisetaceae
Equisetum arvense L.
! E. laevigatum A. Br.

Division Magnoliophyta
Class Magnoliate
Subclass Magnoliidae
Ranunculaceae
Clematis virainiana L.
Ranunculus abortivus L.
R. pensylvanicus L. f.
R. sceleratus L.
R. septentrionalis Poir.
T^a lictrum dasycarpum Fisch. & Ave'-Lall.
! T. d ioicum L.

Berbc. ceae
! (. phyllum thalictroides (L.) Michx.

Meni sp, rma cea e
Menispenmum canadense L.

Subclass Hamaelidae
Ulmaceae
Celtis occidentalis L.
Ulmus americana L.
*! U. pumila L.
! U. rubra Muhl.

Moraceae
*! Morus alba L.
M. rubra L.

Cannabinaceae
Humulus lpulus L.





Smith 7 G -6


Urticaceae
Laportea canadensis (L.) Wedd.
Pilea pumila (L.) Gray
* Urtica dioica L.

Juglandaceae

! Juglans nigra L.

Fagaceae
! Quercus macrocarpa Michx.
!Q( rubra L.
! Q; velutina Lam.

Betulaceae
! Corylus americana Walt.

Subclass Carophyllidae
Nyctaginaceae
*?! Mirabilis nyctaginea (Michx.) MacM.

Aizoaceae
(Molluginaceae)

*! Mollugo verticillata L.

Carophyllaceae

*! Lychnis alba Mill.
*! Saponaria officinalis L.
-! Silene armreria L.
S. nivea (Nutt.) Otth.
* Stellaria aquatica (L.) Scop.

Chenopodiaceae
*! Chenonodium album L.
! C. hybridum L.
! Corispermum nitidum Kit.
! Cycloloma atriplicifolium (Spreng.) Coult.
*! Kochia scoparia (L.) Roth
*! Salsola kali L. var. tenuifol.a

An!aranthaceae
*! Amaranthus albus L.
*! A. cruentuis L.
! A. hvbridus L.
*? Froclichia floridana (Nutt.) Moq.

Polygonaceae


*! Polyonmim avicllare L.
P. coccineum Mtuilll.
*? P. tlcydropipcr L.
_. _





Smith - 8

G-26

*? P. lapathifolium L.
P. pensylvanicum L.
*! P. persicaria L.
P. punctatum Ell.
P. scandcns L.
P. virginianum L.
*! Rumex acetosella L.
*! R. crispus L.
R. verticillatus L.

Subclass Dilleniidae
Tiliaceae
! Tilia americana L.

Malvaceae
*! Abutilon theophrasti Medic.
Malva sp.

Violaceae
Viola missouriensis Greene

Cucurbitaceae
Echinocystis lobata (Michx.) T. & G.
Sicvos angulatus L.

Salicaceae
Populus deltoides Marsh.
*! Salix alba L.
S. amycgdaloides Anderss
S. discolor Muhil.
* S. fragilis L.
S. interior Rowlee
S. nigra Marsh.
S. rigida M Iuhl.

Capparidaceae
Polanisia dodecandra (L.) DC.

Brassicaceae

Arabis lyrata L.
*! Berteroa incana (L.) DC.
*?! Lepidium densiflorum Schradcr
*! Rorip austriaca (Crantz) Besser
R. islandica (Oeder) Borbas
*! Sisymllbrilum altLissinLum L.
*! S. officinale (L.) Scop.


Primulaceae
Lysimachia cil iata L.





Smith - 9
G-26

Subclass Rosidae
Crassulaceae
*1 Sedum sarmentosum Bunge

Saxifragaceae
*! Ribes sativum

Rosaceae
Fragaria virginiana Duchesne
*! Potentilla argentea L.
*! P. norvegica L.
! Prunus pumila L.
Rosa acicularia Lindl.
! R. blanda Ait.
Rubus occidentalis L.

Fabaceae

Amorpha fruticosa L.
Amphicarpa bracteata (L.) Fern.
Gleditsia triacanthos L.
Lathyrus palustris L.
L. venosus Muhl.
*! Medicago sativa L.
*! Melilotus alba Desr.
*! M. officinalis (L.) Lam.
*! Robinia pseiudo-acacia L.
*! Trifoliu:n orocutIbcvn s L.
*! T. repens L.
*! Vicia villosa Roth

Onagraceae
! Oenothera biennis L.

Cornaceae
! Cornus obliqua Raf.
C. stolonifera Michx.

Euphorbiaceac
! Euphorbia agraria Bieb.
*! E. cypaissias L.
i E. dentata Michx.

Rhamnaceae


* Rhamnus cathartica L.





Smith -10
G-26

Vitaceae
I Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch.
P P. vitacea (Knerr) Hitch.
Vitis riparia Michx.

Aceraceae
Acer negundo L.
A. saccharinum L.

Anacardiaceae
Rhus glabra L.
Toxicodendron rybergii (Small ex. Rydb.) Greene
(Rhus radicans L. in part)

Oxalidaceae
! Oxalis stricta L.

Geraniaceae
! Geranium maculatutm L.

Balsaminaceae
Impatiens biflora Walt.
I. pallida Nutt.

Apiaceae
Cryptotaenia canadensis (L.) DC.
Sium suave Walt.
Subclass Asteridae
Apocynaceae
Apocynum androsaemifolium L.
! A. cannabinum L.
A. sibiricuni Jacq.

Asclepiadaceae
Asclepias incarnata L.
A. sy riica L.

Solanaceae
* Lycopersicum esculenta Mill.
! Physalis heterophylla Nees.
*? Solanum dulcamnara L.
*? S. nigru L. (S. americanum)

Convolvulaceae


*?! Convolvus sopium L.
* ! Ipomoera purplre (L.) Roth



Smith- 11

G-26

Hydrophyllaceac
Ellisia nyctelea L.

Verbenaceae
*! Verbena bracteata Lag. & Rodr.
V. hastata L.

Lamiaceae
*! Glechoma hederacea L.
! Leonurus cardiaca L.
Lycopus americanus Muhl.
Mentha arvensis L.
! Monarda fistulosa L.
M. punctata L.
*! Nepeta cataria L.
Scutellaria lateriflora L.
Stachys hispida Pursh.
Teucrium canadense L.

Plantaginaceae
*! Plantago major L.
! P purshii R. & S.
*?! P. rugelii Dcne.

Oleaceae
Fraxinus pennsvlvanica Marsh. var. subinteaerrima
(Vahl) Fern.

Scrophulariaceae
*! Verbascum thapsus L.

Bignoniaceae
Catalpa speciosa Warder

Rubiaceae
Cephalanthus occidentalis L.

Caprifoliaceae
*! Lonicera x bella
*! L. tatarica L.
Sambucus canadensis L.
S. pubens Michx.

Asteraceae


! Achillea millefolium L.
*! Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.
A. trifida L.
*! Arctium min us Schk.




Smith - 12

G-26

Artimisia caudata Michx.
i Aster azureus Lindl.
A. novae-angliae L.
A. ontarionis Wieg.
A. simplex Willd.
Bidens cernua L.
B. frondosa L.
*! Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Tenore
*! Crepis tectorum L.
Erechtites hieracifolia (L.) Raf.
! Erigeron canadensis L.
E. strigosus Muhl.
Eupatorium altissimum L.
E. rugosu var. tomentellum (Robinson) Blake
*! Galinsoca ciliata (Raf.) Blake
Helianthus tuberosus L.
! Hieracium scabrumrn Hichx.
*! Lactuca serriola L.
*! iatricaria matricariodes (Less.) Porter
Silphium perfoliatum L.
Solidago canadensis L.
S. gigantea Ait.
! S. missouriensis var. fasciculata Holz.
-^! Taraxacum officinale Weber.
?! Tragopogon dubius Scop.
Vernonia fasciculata M ichx.
*?! Xanthium strumarium L.

Class Liliatae
Subclass Alismatidae
Alistmataceae
Alisma subcordatum Raf.
Sagittaria latifolia Willd.

Subclass Commelinidae
Comme linaceae
*! Commelina communis L.

Juncaceae
Juncus sp.

Cyperaceae
Carex emorvi Dew.
Cyperu-s esculenLus L.
I C. scllweinitzii Torr.


C. strigosus L.
Scirpus cyperinus (L.) Kunth
S. fluviatilis (Torr.) Gray





Smith - 13

G-26

Poaceae

*! Agropyron repens (L.) Beauv.
*? Agrostis stolonifera L.
! Andropoon gerardi Vitm.
! Bromus inermis Leyss.
*! B. tectorum L.
*?! Cenchrus longispinus (lack.) Fern.
*! Digitaria ischaemumn (Schreb.) Muhl.
*! D. sanguinalis (L.) Scop.
Echinochloa muricata (Michx.) Fern.
*! Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn.
Elymus canadensis L.
E. virginicus L.
*! Eragrostis cilianensis (All.) Lut.
E. pectinacea (iichx.) Nees.
Miliurn effusum L.
Muhlenlberoia ne:-.icana (L.) Trin.
! Panicur. canillare L.
P. oligosantltes (L\ash) Schultes
*?! Paspalum ciiiatifoliuii
*? Phalaris arundinacea L.
Phragmites communis Trin.
* Poa pratensis L.
*! Setaria lutescens (Weigel) F. T. Hubb,
*! S. viricis (L.) Beauv.
Spartina pectinata Link.
*! Triticum aestivum L.

Sparganiaceae
Sparganium eurycarpum Englem.

Typhaceae
Typha latifolia L.

Subclass Arecidae
Araceae
Acorus calamus L.

Lemnaceae
Lemna minor L.
L. trisulca L.
Spirodela polvrhiza Schleiden

Subclass Liliidae
Lil iaceae
Allium sp.


* Asparagus officinalis L.
*! Hlemerocallis fulva L.





Smith 14

G-26
Polygonatiim cane li culattum (Muhl.) Pursl
! Smilacina stel] lata L.
! Uvularia grandi flora Sm.

Iridaccae
Iris virginica I.




Smith - 15


List 2 3 -26

Alphabetic Index of Scientific Names and Common Names of the Myrick Marsh Flora


Abutilon theophrasti Medic. (Malvaceae)

Acer negundo L. (Aceraceae)

Acer saccharinum L. (Aceraceae)

Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae)
Acorus calamus L. (Araceae)

Agropyron repens (L.) Beauv. (Poaceae)
Agrostis stolonifera L. (Poaceae)

Alfalfa See Medicago sativa

Alisma subcordatum Raf. (Alismataceae)

Allium sp. (Liliaceae)

Alyssum, Hoary See Berteroa incana

Amaranth, Green See Amaranthus hybridus

Amaranth, Purple See Amaranthus
cruentus

Amararthus albus L. (Amaranthaceae)

Amaranthus cruentus L. (Amaranthaceae)
Amaranthus hvbridus L. (Amaranthaceae)

Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. (Asteraceae)

Ambrosia trifida L. (Asteraceae)

Amorpa fruticosa I.. (Fabaceae)

Amphicarpa bractata (L.) Fern.
(Fabaceae)

Andropogon gerardi Vitm. (Poaceae)
Apocynum androsaemifolium L.
(Apocynaceae)

Apocvnum cannabinum L. (Apocynaceae)

Apocynum sibiricum Jacq. (Apocynaceae)

Arabis lyrata L. (Brassicaceae)

Arctium minus Schk. (Asteraceae)

Arrowhead, Common See Sagittaria
latifolia

Artichoke, Jerusalem See Helianthus
tuberosus

Arti.misia caudata Michx. (Asteraceae)

Asclepias incarnata L. (Asclepiadaceae)
Asclepias syriaca L. (Asclepiadaceae)
Ash, Green See Fraxinus pennsylvanica
var. stilil ntrriig ima
.. ,


Asparagps officinalis L. (Liliaceae)
Aster, New England See Aster
novae-angliae
Aster, Ontario See Aster ontar-
ionis

Aster, Panicled See Aster simplex

Aster, Sky-Blue See Aster azureus

Aster azureus Lindl. (Asteraceae)

Aster novae-angliae L. (Asteraceae)

Aster ontarionis Wieg. (Asteraceae)

Aster simplex Willd. (Asteraceae)

Aunt Lucy See Ellisia nyctelea
Basswood See Tilia americana

Beggar's Ticks, Common See Bidens
frondosa

Bergamot, Wild See Monarda
fistulosa

Berteroa incana (L.) DC (Brassicaceae)
Bidens cernua L. (Asteraceae)

Bidcns frondosa L. (Astc^"ccae)

Bindweed, Hedge See Convolvulus
sepium

Bittersweet See Solanum dulcanMara

Blackberry See Rubus sp.

Blue Grass, Kentucky See Poa
pratensis

Boneset, Tall See Eupatorium
altissimulm

Brome, Downy See Bromus tectorum

Brome, Hungarian See Bromus
inermi s

Bromus incrmis Leyss. (Poaceae)

Bromus tectorum L. (Poaceae)

Buckthorn, Common See Rhamnus
cathartica

Buckwheat, Climbing False See
Polygonum scandens

Bugseed, Small See Corispermum
ni t idu m

Bulrush, River See Scirpus


Asparagus See Aspa rarts offici.'nalis


f Iv~tivi tiI




nluun - 1t


6 Bur Marigold, Nodding See Bidens cernua
G-26
Bur Reed, Common See Sparganium
eurycarpur
Burdock, Common See Arctium minus
Bush, Burning See Kochia scoparia
Bush, Indigo See Amorpha fruticosa

Buttercup, Bristley See Ranunculus
pensylvanicus

Buttercup, Cursed See Ranunculus
sceleratus

Buttercup, Small Flowered See Ranunculus
abortivus

Buttercup, Swamp See Ranunculus
septentrionalis

}'!uttonbush See Ccphalantthus occidentalis
pion, Snowy See Silene nivea

.^ion, VWhite See Lychnis alba

- emoryi Dew. (Cyperaceae)

:.petweed See Mollugo verticillata

. .t-tail See Typha latifolia
Catalpa, Northern See Catalpa sneciosa

Cata lpa seciosa Warder (Bignoniaceae)

Catclfly, S7.eet William See Silene
armeri a

Catnip See Nepeta cataria
Caulophyllum tlhalictroides (L.) Nichx.
(Berberidaccae)

Celtis occidentalis L. (Ulmaceae)
Cenchrus lonnispinus (Hack.) Fern.
(Poaceae)

Cephalanthus occidentalis L. (Rubiaceae)

Chenopodium album L. (Chenopodiaceae)

Chenopodium hvybridum L. (Chenopodiaceae)
Cherry, Clammy Ground See Physalis
heterophvlla

Cherry, Sand See Prunus pumila

Chickweed See Stellaria aquatica
Chufa See Cyperus esculentus

Cinquefoil, Rotugh See Potentilla


Cinquefoil, Silvery See Potent-
illa argentea

Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Tenore
(Asteraceac').
Cocklebur See Xanthium
strumarium

Clearweed See Pilea pumila
Clematis virginiana L. (Ranuncu-
laceae)

Climbing Buckwheat, False See
Polygonum scandens

Clover, Low Hop See Trifolium
procumbens
Clover, White See Trifolium
repens

Clover, lVhnite Sweet See
Me lilotus alba

Clover, Yellow Sweet See
lMelilotus officinalis

Cohosh, Blue See Caulohvll um
thalictroides

Commelina co.rmunis L. (Commnel-
inaceae)

Convolvus sepium L. (Convolvul-
aceae)

Corspermum nitidum Kit. (Cheno-
podiaceae)

Cornus oblinua Raf. (Cornaceae)
Cornus stolonifera Michx.
(Cornaceae)

Corylus americana Walt. (Betu-
laceae)


Cottonweed, Large See Froe-
lanchia floridana

Cottonwood See PoDulus
deltoides

Crab Grass, Hoary See Dioitar:
sanguinalis

Crab Grass, Smooth See Digital
ischaemum

Creeper, Thicket See Parthen-
oci.ssus vitacca


ia


ria


norvegi ca




Smith - 17


Creeper, Virginia See Parthenocissus
r,\ i.nq: c fo i a

Crepis tectorum L. (Asteraceae)

Cress, Austrian See Rorippa austriaca

Cress, M-arsh See Rorippa islandica

Cress, Sand See Arabhis lyrata

Crypt0otaia canadensis (L.) DC.
(Apia ceae)

Cucumber, Bur See Sicyos angulatus

Cucumber, Wild See Echinocvstis lobata

Currant, Red See Ribes sativum

Cyclolomem atriplicifolium (Spreng.) Coult.
(Chacnopodiaceac)

Caypert .s cscltlcntul. L. (Cyperaceae)

(Cyprust sch'I inLitzii Torr. (Cyperaceae)

(rT'crIs csItrS '")q.l l,, (Cyperaceac)
Daisy v, Prcivian See Galinso r ciliata

.) a n dl ion, Co-n on Sc e Taraxactm
off i ci.nal c

Day Flower, Common See Commelina
c.ommun is

Dav Lily, Orange See Ic.merocml is fulva

Digitr-aria iSchac,'Tiln (Schreb.) NIuhl.
(Poaceae)

Dig i tar-ia sanguinalis (L.) Scop.
(Poaceae)

Dock, Curly See Rumex crispus

Dock, Swamp See Rumex verticillatus

Dogbane See Arncy nm sibiricum

Dogbane, Spreading See Apocyntum
androsaemifolium

Dogwood, Pale See Cornus obliqla

Dogwood, Red-Osier See Cornus stoloni-
fera

Duckweed, Forked See Lemna trisulca

Duckweed, Great See Spirodela polyrhiza

Duckweed, Small See Lemna minor

Echinochloa muricacta (Michx.) Fern.
(Poaceae)


Echinocystis lohata (Michx.) T. G-26
& G. (Cucurbitaceae)

Elder, Box See Acer negundo

Elder, Red-Berried See
Sambucus pubens

Elderberry See Sambucus
canadensis

Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn.

Ellisia nvctelea L. (Hydrophy-
llaceae)

Elm, American See Ulmus americana

Elm, Siberian See Ulmus pumila

Elymus canadccnsis L. (Poaceae)

Eli rus virgin icus L. (Poaceac)

Equi.setum ar'Jense L. (Equisetaceae)

Equi setum laevi.taum A . Br.
(Equi se tac a e )
Erarrostis cilianensis (All.)
Lut. (Poaceae)

Eragrostis pectinaceae (Michx.)
Nees. (Poaceae)

Erechtites hieracifolia (L.) Raf.
(Asteraceae)

Ericeron canadensis L. Asteraceae)

Erigeron strigosus Muhl. (Aster-
aceae)

Eupatorium altissimum L. (Aster-
aceae)

Eupatorium rugosulr var. toment-
ellum (Robinson) Blake
(Asteraceae)

Euphorbia agraria Bieb. (Euphor-
biaceae)

Euphorbia cyparissias L. (Euphor-
biaceae)

Euphorbia dentata Michx. (Euphor-
biaceae)

Evening Primrose, Common See
Oenothera bi.ennis

Fireweed See Erecht.ites hier-
acifolia






G-26
Flag, Blue See Iris virginica

Flag, Sweet Sec Acorus calamus

Fleabane, Daisy See Erigcron strigosiis

Four O'Clock, Wild See Mirabilis nyct-
aginra

Foxtail, Green See Setaria viridis

Foxtail, Yellow See Setaria lutescens

Fragaria virginiana Duchesne (Rosaccae)

Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh. var. subin-
tegerrima (Vahl.) Fern.

Froelichia floridana (Nutt.) Moq. (Amar-
anthaceae)

Gaiinooga ciliata (Raf.) Blake (Asteraceae)

Geranium, Wrild See Geranim : maiculat im

Ge ra n i lim ,ic u. rj. LL , L (( , ra ni air cae )

Ge.nnandcr Sc: Teucrimin cana,a.delns
i';l.oci-, c i.na hc-.raco L. (Lamiaceae)

Gleditsia triacanthos L. (Fabaceae)

Goat's Beard, Sand See Tragopogon cr(,Ibius

Golden-rod, Late See Solida:go giganLea

Goldenrod, I'Missuri See Solidago
missouriensis var. rasciculara

Goldenrod, Tall See So7lidago altissin-a
Goosefoot. Maple-leaved See Chenopodium
hybridclm

Grape, Riverbank See Vitis riparia

Grass, Barnyard See Echinochloa muricata

Grass, Big Bluestem See Andropogon gerardi

Grass, Crcwfoot See E1ei.sine india a

Grass, Few Flowered Panic See Panicum
oligosanthes

Grass, Hairy Lens See Paspalum ciliati-
folium

Grass, Hoary Crab See Digitaria sang-
uinalis

Grass, Kentucky Blue See Poa pratensis

Grass, Leafy Satin See MLlh]lenbergia
mexicana

Grass, Old Withh See Panicurn capillare


Smith - 18


Grass, Quack See Agropyron repens

Grass, Reed Canary See Phalaris
arundinaceae

Grass, Slough See Spartina
pectinata

Grass, Small Love See Eragrostis
pec tinacea

Grass, Smooth Crab See Digitaria
ischaemum

Grass, Stink See Eragrostis
cilianensis

Grass,'wool See Scirpus cyperi-
nus

Hackberry See Celtis occidentalis

Hawksbeard See Crepis tectorum

Haw1kceed, Rcuarh See Hieracium
scabrum

Hazelnut, Aerrican See Corylus
ameri- c i I

Heartsease See Polygonum lapath-
ifolium
Heartsea.e , ~Water See Pol.ygonum
coc cine urn

Hedge Nectle, Rough See Stachys
hispida

Helianthus tuberosus L. (Asteraceae)

Hemerocallis fulva L. (Liliaceae)

Hemp, Indian See Apocynum canna-
binum

Hieracium scabrum Michx. (Aster-
a.ceae)


Honewort c
densis


)ee Cryptotaenia cana-


Honeysuckle See Lonicera x bella

Honeysuckle, Tartarian See
Lonicera tatarica

Hop, Common See Humulus lupulus
Horehound, Common Water See
Lycopus americanus

Horsetail See Equisetum arvense

Horseweed See Erigeron canadensis

lumulus lupulus L. (Cannabinaceae)






Impaties )bif lora Walt. (Balsaminaceae)

ITmpatiens pallida N! tt. (Balsaminaceac)

Ipomooa purptura (L.) Roth (Convolvulaceae)

Iris virginica L. (Iridaccac)
Ironweed, Common See Vernonia fasciculata

Ivy, Ground See GC]chonil hbedracea
Jewelweed, See Impatiens biflora

Jewelweed, Yellow See Impatiens pallida

Juglans nigra L. (Juglancaceae)

Juncl's p. (Juncaceac)

Knotwecd, Common See Polygonum aviculare

Knotweed, Pcnnsy1vani.a .cc P ?olygnnim
p: n sv lvani cum

Koclia. scopcria (L.) Roth (Chenopcdiaccac)

Jac tlica sarrolia i,. (Asteraceac)

Ildy's Thlmb See Poclvgon!m p1e-sicaria
l,,b " . Quarters Sec i::ncpc;'.1 1 a] 1 buc,
,o.a caaens s cdl (Urticaccae)

IaLo :llyrl is jn nad t r i r t i c a c a e)
Ln~tiyrti:s vyenoo;u,: Miul': 'abaceac)

lcr. v fz.-^;^ Ti.. (ITlj: ... :- )

1,emna trisulca L. (I. -.aceae)

Leonurus cardiaca I.. (Lamiaccae)

Lepidium densiflorum Schrader (Brassicaceae)

Lettuce, Prickly See Lactuca serriola

Locust, Black See Robinia pseudo-acacia

Locust, Honey See Gleditsia triacanthos

Loniccra x bella (Caprifoliaceae)

Lonicera tatarica L. (Caprifoliaceae)

Loosestrife, Fringed See Lysimachia
ci iata

Love Grass, Small See Eragrostis
pectinacea

Lyclnis alba Mill. (Caryophyllaceae)

Lycopersi ctm esctl. enta Mill. (Solanaceae)

Lyopts amoocricanis Muhll. (Lamiaccae)

I.ysimacl c i 1. i.nta L. (Primul.aceae)


G-26
Marigold, Nodding Bur See Bidens
cernua

Matricaria matricariodes (Less.)
Porter (Asteraceae)

Meadow Rue, Early See Thalictrum
dioicum

Meadow Rue, Purple See
Thalictrum dasycarpum

Medicago sativa L. (Fabaceae)

Melilotus alba Dcsr. (Fabaceae)

Mclilotis officinalis (L.) Lam.
(Fabaceae)

Menispermum canadense L. (Meni-
sperm cceac)

Mentha arvcnsis L. (Lamiaceae)
Mlilium effusum L. (Poaceac)

Mill:wc'-cl, , Common See Asclenias
syriaca

Milk:ccd , ScCa;p See AscleTias
inca rna ta

Millet See Millum effusum

Mint, HoriCse Sec: Nonarda d punctata

Mint, !il d See lMontha arvansis

irab i is nvc taginea (M ichx.)
MacIM. (Nyctaginaceae)

Mollugo verticillata L. (Aizoaceae)

Monarda fistulosa L. (Lamiaceae)

Monarda punctata L. (Lamiaceae)

Moonseed See Menispermum
canadense

Morning Glory, Conrnon See
Ipomoea purpurea

Morus alba L. (Moraceae)

Morus rubra L. (Moraceae)

Mothcrwort See Leonurus cardiaca

Muhlenbergia mexicana (L.) Trin.
includes M. frondosa (Poaceae)

Mulberry, Red See Morus rubra

Mulberry, White See NMoruls alba

Mullein, Common See Vcrbascum


thapsus


MalIv-a _,p-_ (:IMalvaceae)


&A.t L*a L L /



Smith - 20


Must rI Hedge See Sisymbrium
officinale

Mustard, Tumble See Sismnbrium
altiss imum

Nepeta cataria L. (Lamiaceae)
Nettle, Rough Hedge See Stachys hispida
Nettle, Stinging See Urtica dioica

Nettle, Wood See Laportea canadensis
Nightshade, Black See Solanum nigrum

Oak, Black See Quercus velutina

Oak, Bur See Quercus macrocarpa
Oak, Red See Ouercus rubra
Oenothera biennis L. (Onagraceae)
Onion, Wild See Allium sp.
Oxalis stricta L. (Oxalidaceae)

Panic Grzass, Few Flowered See Panicum
oliogosanthes

Panicum caDillare L. (Poaceae)
Panicum oligosanthes (Nash) Schultes
(Poaccac)
Parsnip, Water See Sium suave
Pprthenocissi s nuinqulefol 4 J (I..) Planch.
(Vitaceae)

Pa rthe no i ssus vitacea (Knerr) Hitchc.
(Vitaceae)

Paspalum ciliatifolium (Poaceae)

Pea, Veiny See Lathyrus venosus
Peanut, Hog See Amphicarpa bracteata
Pepper, Water See Polygcnum hydropiner
Peppergrass, Small See Lepidium
dens iflorum

Phalaris arundinaceae L. (Poaceae)

Phra^gmites communis Trin. (Poaceae)
Physalis heterophylla Nees. (Solanaceae)

Pigweed, Winged See Cycloloma atri-
plicifolium

Pilea pumila (L.) Gray (Urticaceae)
Pineapple weed See Matricaria matri-
cariodes


Plant, cup See Silphlium per-
foliatum

Plantago major L. (Plantaginaceae)
Plantago purshii R. & S. (Plant-
aginaceae)
Plantago rugelii Dcne. (Plantag-
inaceae)

Plantain, Common See Plantago
major

Plantain, Common Water See Alisma
subcordatum

Plantain, Red-stalked See
Plantago rugelii

Plantain, Woolly See Plantago
purshii

Poa pratensis L. (Poaceae)
Polanisia dodecandcra (L.) DC.
(Capparidaceac)
Polygonatum canaliculaturn (Muhl.)
Pursh (Liliaceae)
Polygonum aviculare L. (Polygon-
aceae)
Polygonum coccineum MEuhl.
(Polygonaceae)

Polygonum hydropi. er L. (Polygon-
aceae)

Polygonum lanathifolium L. (Poly-
gonaceae)

Polygonum penslyvanicum L. (Poly-
gonaceae)

Polygonum persicaria L. (Polygon-
aceae)
Polygonum punctatum Ell. (Polygon-
aceae)